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were recorded by Lloyd's Register as 4,680 retreat, impeding the march of the column in number and of the aggregate of 3,027,834 wherever practicable, but Longstreet's corps suctons. Of the whole number 1,058 were British; ceeded in reaching Rice's Station, on the Lynch3,554_Russian; 1,149 American; 190 German; burg road, where he awaited the corps of R. H. 963 Turkish; 397 Italian; 223 Swedish; 371 Anderson, Ewell and John B. Gordon, the lastFrench; 136 Norwegian; 200 Danish; 18 Greek; named commanding the rear-guard. The Sec50 Brazilian; 43 Argentinian and 64 Dutch. By ond corps was checked at Flat Creek by the far the largest number are of wood.
destruction of the bridge, but, soon repairing it, - In 1914 (the year before the war) only overtook Gordon and kept up a running fight 35 sailing vessels, 9,195 tons in all, were with him for 14 miles, carrying several lightly launched in British shipyards. In the United intrenched positions, and capturing prisoners, States 21 were launched, 4 of steel; totaling colors, and wagons. The pursuit continued to 3,262 tons; and 17 of wood, totaling 14,934 Parkinson's Mill, on Sailor's Creek, where Gortons. The entire output of sailing vessels for don made a stand, but was soon driven across the world in 1914 was 225 craft, aggregating the creek, losing three guns, 13 colors, several 67,368 tons.
hundred prisoners, and a large part of the trains See also MERCHANT MARINE OF THE UNITED of Lee's army. He attempted another stand beStates; NAVAL ARCHITECTURE; SHIPBUILDING; yond the creek, but fell back as Humphreys SHIP SUBSIDIES; SHIPPING OF THE WORLD. crossed, and marched for High Bridge. Pursuit
Bibliography.-Abbot, W. J., American ended at night. During the day the Second Merchant Ships and Sailers! (New York corps had captured 1,700 prisoners, four guns, 1902); Bates, W. W., (American Marine (Bos- 13 colors, and several hundred wagons and ton 1892); Chatterton, E. K., Sailing Ships ambulances. While the Second corps was en(London 1909), and Fore and Aft: The Story gaging Gordon, the Sixth corps, with the cavalry of the Fore and Aft Rig' (Philadelphia 1912); commands of Merritt and Crook, had come up Clark, A. H., The Clipper Ship Era' (New some three miles to the left and overthrown York 1912); Holmes, Sir G. C. V., Ancient the corps of R. H. Anderson and Ewell. Cusand Modern Ships (London 1900): Kirkaldy, ter's division had interposed between Ewell and A. W., British Shipping (London 1914); Gordon, destroying 400 wagons and taking Marvin, W. L., The American Merchant Ma- prisoners and 16 guns; and Crook, moving rine (New York 1902); Spears, J. R., The rapidly to the left, found R. H. Anderson's Story of the American Merchant Marine) command posted on high ground behind breast(New York 1910).
works running across the Rice's Station road,
J. H. MORRISON, and sent a dismounted brigade to take possesAuthor of History of American Steam Navi
sion of and form across the road, thus cutting gation.
Anderson off from Longstreet.
proposed to Anderson that they make their way SAILOR'S CHOICE, the name of several
through the woods, around Sheridan's left, and excellent food fishes taken on the eastern and get to Longstreet; but before anything could southeastern coasts of the United States, which be done both were attacked. The Sixth corps are of small size and belong to the family of
had opened its artillery upon Ewell's 3,600 men, grunters. The best known, probably, is Or
to which there was no reply, as Ewell was withthopristis chrysopterus, also called pigfish, and
out artillery; and about 5 P.M. two divisions especially common in the Gulf of Mexico. It
advanced, crossed Sailor's Creek, and attacked is regarded as the best pan-fish of the region.
Ewell, who made a most determined resistance SAILOR'S CREEK, Battle of, the last and, massing his troops, broke the centre of great battle of the Civil War in the East.
the Union line, but was checked by the artillerySheridan says that it was one of the severest
fire from beyond the creek. The two divisions conflicts of the war
so overshadowed by of the Sixth corps - Seymour's and Wheaton's the stirring events of the surrender, three days - wheeled to the left and right respectively, later, that the battle has never been accorded enveloping Ewell's Aanks; Stagg's cavalry the prominence it deserves.” When General brigade charged his right; and at the same time Lee abandoned Richmond and Petersburg on Merritt's and Crook's cavalry charged and the night of 2 April 1865, he ordered the con
routed R. H. Anderson's 6,300 men, killing centration of his army at Amelia Court House,
wounding and capturing about 2,600. Ewell, about 30 miles west of Petersburg, and it had now completely cut off and surrounded, surcollected at that point by noon of the 5th. On
rendered his entire command. About 250 men the night of the 5th Sheridan's cavalry and the
of Kershaw's division, serving with him, esSecond, Fifth and Sixth corps of the army of caped. Seven general officers were included in the Potomac were at or near Jetersville, under
the surrender. The total loss of Lee's army orders to march early next morning on Amelia was not less than 8,000 men. The Union loss Court House. General Meade began the ad- did not exceed 900. Longstreet, who had revance at 8.30 A.M., and when four miles out of mained at Rice's Station during the day, waitJetersville, Humphreys' Second corps, on the ing for Anderson. Ewell and Gordon to unite left, discovered that Lee was moving westward, with him, marched as soon as night set in, passing by the flank of the Union army. The with Fields'. Heth's and Wilcox's divisions, advance on Amelia Court House was suspended, for Farmville. (See FARMVILLE AND High and the army faced about; the Second corps BRIDGE). Consult (Official Records) (Vol. was ordered to move on Deatonsville; the Fifth XLVI); Humphreys, The Virginia Campaign through Painesville, on the right of the Second; of 1864-659; Walker, History of the Second and the Sixth through Jetersville to the left of Army Corps'; Grant, Personal Memoirs) the Second. Sheridan's cavalry moved on the (Vol. II); Sheridan, Personal Memoirs) extreme left parallel to the Confederate line of (Vol. II).
E. A. CARMAN.
SAILORS' SNUG HARBOR - SAINT ALBANS
SAILORS' SNUG HARBOR, a home for angels in heaven rejoice when a sinner repents aged sailors on Staten Island, N. Y., established of his sin (Luke xv, 7). It were superfluous by Captain Richard Randall in 1800. The home to cite the usage of the Catholic Church reis under government supervision and is in garding invocation of saints: it began with the charge of a naval commander.
beginning of Christianity itself. SAINFOIN, sān' foin, or ESPARSETTE, SAINT, The (Der Heilige'). The Saint,? a leguminous plant (Onobrychis sativa), orig- by Conrad F. Meyer (1879), is a short novel, inating in the Mediterranean countries and about the length of Silas Marner, centred cultivated for centuries. The stem is about around the great quarrel between Henry II two feet high, with pinnate leaves composed and his Chancellor and Primate of England, of small leaflets. The pea-like flowers are Thomas Becket. In a broad sense based on rather large and of a showy pink color, and history, its psychology is fancifully developed are disposed in short spikes, on long axillary from a mediæval legend found by Meyer in peduncles. It is nutritious fodder, well liked 1853 in Thierry's Conquest of England' by livestock, especially sheep. It makes good '(Book IX), according to which Becket was hay, and will grow on light, warm, chalky soils, the son of an Englishman and of the sister of where other pasturage does not thrive; the
the Kalif of Cordova. The story of Henry's ruots are long-lived and are useful for bind- amours with beautiful Rosamond Clifford in ing light soils, while the foliage not only shades
the hidden bower suggested the secret palace the pastures, but makes a good crop for plow- in which Meyer's Becket rears his daughter ing under. It is also recommended as a honey- Grace to save her from royal lechery. The producing plant for bee pastures.
accidental slaying of Grace after her seduction SAINT, a person eminent for piety and
by the king inspires in Becket a deep-laid plot other virtues. In the books of Scripture, both
for revenge under the veil of pretended loyalty the Old and the New Testament, the whole
and later of saintly devotion when he becomes body of the faithful people are called saints
Primate on Henry's nomination, whereby he
drives the king to alternate fits of despair and (2 Chron. vi. 41; Ps. xxxi, 3; Hebr. xiii, 14, "Salute all the saints); Eph. i, 1, "the saints at
fury over the loss of political advantages and Ephesus.)
of the love of his queen and sons. The tragic It is customary to give the title
ending is historical. saint to all the apostles, evangelists and other
The story is put in the mouth of a Swiss holy persons, men and women, named in the New Testament, to most of the Fathers of the
bowman, who is supposed to have come on his Church, to all the martyrs. In the Church of
wanderings to London, where he entered the
service of the king and was a minor actor in all Rome the title of saint is formally and authoritatively bestowed on servants of God who
the events he relates. The style is vivid, swift
and powerful, and the diction of wonderful in their lifetime were eminent for their Chris
force and color, suggestive of a Gobelin tapestry, tian virtues and graces, and whose sanctity has
or as Keller said, "brocade.” It is Meyer's been proved by miracles after their death (see CANONIZATION; BEATIFICATION); but thousands
most finished production, possibly his best.
The English reader will find it curious to comof saints are honored by that church, who
pare it with Tennyson's Becket. Consult Der lived in early times before the process of
Heilige _(66th ed., Leipzig 1913); American canonization was thought of. Intercession by
School Edition (ed. Eggert, New York 1907, the saints in heaven and invocation of the
with critical introduction); Frey, Adolf, Consaints are articles of belief in the Catholic
rad Ferdinand Meyer) (Stuttgart 1900); CredChurch, Eastern and Western, as also in the
ner, Karl, C. F. Meyer, Der Heilige) (Berlin schismatical Eastern churches: but that doctrine
1899); Langmesser, K. F. Meyer) (Berlin is repudiated by all the Protestant churches.
1905). The teaching of the Church of Rome, as pro
Carl E. EGGERT. claimed by the Council of Trent, is that the saints reigning with Christ "offer to God their
SAINT ACHEUL, France, archæological prayers on behalf of men”; that it is good and site near Amiens which has given the name useful “to call upon them with supplication,
acheulian to the paleolithic deposits discovered and, in order to obtain benefits from God
there, containing flint implements evidencing through Jesus Christ, to have recourse to their
human industry at a time corresponding to the prayers, help and aid." Here the Church's doc
second glacial period in France. trine regarding both intercession and invocation SAINT ALBANS, âl’bạnz, England, in of saints is defined. Catholic divines find full Hertfordshire, 20 miles northwest of London, warrant for this belief in the Christian sacred an ancient borough and market-town, standing books; for the doctrine of intercession, in 1 on a height above the river Ver. Its abbey is Cor. xii, 12, where the unity of the Christian one of the most remarkable Christian temples society is enforced; in James v, 16, where the in England. Only a gateway remains of the prayer of the righteous is lauded; in Eph. vi, original abbey, built in 793 in honor of Saint 18, and 1 Tim. ii, 1, where Saint Paul sets such Alban, the first British Christian martyr. The store on the prayers of his fellow Christians; present abbey has been so often extended and and it is asked: Can it be that the souls which altered that it represents in its architecture have gone to God no longer exercise this kind many styles and various epochs of history, from of charity for their brethren on earth? If the time of the Romans to that of Henry VII. Scripture were silent on this question, the It has the form of a Latin cross, with a length practice of the Church in all ages would suffice of 547 feet and breadth of 206 feet. Its tower to remove all doubt as to the Apostolic origin has an elevation of 146 feet, crowned with of the belief in the intercession of saints. For battlements, Other churches
Saint the doctrine of the invocation of saints, theolo- Michael's, 10th century; Saint Stephen's, with gians quote the word of Jesus Christ, that the some good Norman features, and Saint Peter's,
whose nave is of the Early Perpendicular, H. Young, with about 25 Confederates, nearly There is an Edward VI grammar school, and all of them escaped prisoners, armed with reof modern buildings those deserving notice are volvers and carrying chemical preparations with the corn exchange, courthouse, prison, baths which to set fire to town and farm-houses, and public library, besides benevolent institu- crossed the Canada line into the town intendtions, including hospitals and almshouses. The ing to burn it and rob the banks. Several chief industries are silk manufacture, straw- citizens killed or wounded, and three plaiting, and there are breweries and iron banks robbed of more than $200,000. An atfoundries. Two battles were fought between tempt to burn the town failed because of the the houses of York and Lancaster near Saint defective character of the chemical preparaAlbans; in that of 1455 Richard, Duke of tions. Young and his party remained in town York, defeated Henry VI, and in 1461 Marga- less than an hour, when they rode back to Canret of Anjou defeated the army of York, com- ada on horses they had seized. Pursuit was manded by Warwick. Southwest of the present made by United States troops, who captured city stood the ancient Verulamium, one of the some of the men on Canadian soil and turned oldest towns in Britain, on Watling street. In them over to the authorities, by whom they the abbey the printing press was set up on were released on the technical ground of want which the first English translation of the Bible of jurisdiction. was printed. Nicholas Breakspear, the only
SAINT ANDREWS, ån'drooz, Scotland, English Pope, was born near Saint Albans. Pop. about 17,000.
an ancient city, of Fifeshire, on the North Sea,
11 miles southeast of Dundee and 31 miles SAINT ALBANS, Vt., city, county-seat of northeast of Edinburgh. It was created a Franklin County, on the Central Vermont Rail- royal burgh by David I in 1124, and after hayroad, in the northwestern part of the State, ing been an episcopal see became an archiepisabout 45 miles north-northwest of Montpelier, copal see in 1472; it was long the ecclesiastical the State capital, and three miles from Lake capital of Scotland. The ruined cathedral was Champlain. It was settled in 1763 and char
begun in 1160 and took 157 years to finish. tered as a city in 1897. In 1864 the town was The old castle, also in ruins, was founded raided by a band of Confederates. who entered about 1200 and rebuilt in the 14th century; in the United States from Canada. In 1866 a
it James III was born, Cardinal Beaton assasnumber of Fenians, who were planning an in- sinated, and in front of it George Wishart was vasion of Canada, made Saint Albans their
burned. Saint Andrews was a celebrated eduheadquarters. The city is on a plain about 390
cational centre as early as 1120; its university, feet above sea-level and 373 feet above lake
the first in Scotland, dates from 1411; it conlevel. The scenery is most pleasing; to the
sists of the united colleges of Saint Salvator east are the Green Mountains, and on the west and Saint Leonard and the college of Saint may be seen the Adirondacks. The city is in
Mary, both at Saint Andrews, and embraces an agricultural region in which considerable
also University College, Dundee, founded in attention is given to dairying. The chief man
1880. The united college of Saint Salvator and ufacturing establishments are creameries, rail
Saint Leonard has a principal (also principal road shops, machine shops and flour and grist
of the university) and 11 professors, and the mills. There are large shipments of farm and college of Saint Mary has a principal and three dairy products. Saint Albans contains the
professors. Degrees, open to women as well Warner Hospital, the Warner Home, Villa Bar
as men, are conferred in arts, divinity, science, low Convent, an academy; Saint Mary's Acad- medicine and law, much as in the other Scottish emy, public and parish elementary schools and
universities; and the university also confers the a public library. Pop. (1920) 7,588.
diploma and title of L.L.A. (Lady Literate in SAINT ALBANS, W. Va., city situated at Arts). The number of students is about 250. the confluence of the Coal and Kanawha rivers, In connection with the university is a library 12 miles from Charleston, Kanawha County, containing about 100,000 printed volumes and on the Chesapeake and Ohio, the Coal River 150 manuscripts. The university unites with and the Kanawha and Michigan railroads. It
that of Edinburgh in sending a member to Paris situated in a great natural gas field. The liament. Madras College or Academy, founded city has lumber factories, a large chemical plant,
by Dr. Bell of Madras, the principal secondary electrical supply factory, powder plant and pro
school of the place, provides accommodation jectile and armor plants. The two local banks for upward of 1,500 scholars. Saint Andrews have combined capital of $55,000 and a com
is a popular watering place and summer resort bined surplus of $30,000. The value of taxable and the headquarters of Scottish golf, its links property is about $2,500,000. The chief public being famous. The manufacture of golf clubs buildings are the city hall, Presbyterian, North- and balls is a thriving industry. ern Methodist, Southern Methodist, Baptist and SAINT ANDREW'S CROSS. See Cross. Episcopal churches. There are graded schools
SAINT ANGELO CASTLE, Rome, Italy, and a high school, also churches and schools for
a famous fortress situated on the right bank of negroes. Under the revised charter of 1917
the Tiber in the northwestern part of the city, the government is vested in a mayor and six opposite the bridge of Saint Angelo and a councilmen. The annual receipts are about
short distance from the main buildings of the $155,000. Saint Albans is the oldest town in
Vatican. It was built by the Emperor Hadrian the Kanawha Valley, numbering Daniel Boone as a tomb for himself and his family. Origiamong its first residents. War industries in 1917-18 increased the population temporarily
nally it was a round stone tower covered with
marble and surmounted by a number of statues, about 50 per cent. Pop. 3,000.
which, together with the marble covering, have SAINT ALBANS, Confederate Raid on, disappeared, leaving the bare stone structure. a foray made 19 Oct. 1864, when Lieut. Bennett When the Goths besieged Rome it was used SAINT-ARNAUD - SAINT AUGUSTINE
as a fortress, and has served this purpose ever since, being held and garrisoned by the party in power in the city. Since the time of Innocent III it has belonged to the Popes, who strengthened the fortifications with outworks and connected the castle with the Vatican by an underground passage.
SAINT-ARNAUD, săn-tär-nô, Jacques Leroy de, French soldier: b. Bordeaux, France, 20 Aug. 1796; d. at sea, 29 Sept. 1854. He entered the French army in 1813, but in 1822– 31 was engaged with the Greeks in their struggle for independence. He returned to the French army in 1831, and in 1837 he went to Algeria, where he rose to the rank of maréchalde-camp in 1847, and general of division in 1851, in recognition of his successful warfare against the Kabyle tribes. He was appointed Minister of War 26 Oct. 1851, was active in promoting the coup d'état of 2 December, and was made a marshal of France in that month. He was placed in command of the French forces in the Crimean War and co-operated with Lord Raglan at the battle of Alma, 20 Sept. 1854. Consult Duperrel Sainte-Marie, M. le Général Leroy de Saint-Arnaud (1852).
SAINT ASAPH, ăz'af, Wales, an episcopal city in the county of Flint, six miles southeast of Rhyl, occupies an eminence in the Vale of Clwyd, near the confluence of the Clwyd and Elwy. It is built irregularly and has a venerable appearance. The encampment, Bron-yWylva, on the brow of the hill, is supposed to have been occupied by Roman forces. The cathedral, a small plain structure, dating from 1284, has been restored several times. Its library contains some rare and valuable books. The bishop's palace is modern. The town has a grammar school, founded 1600, county offices, a union workhouse and almshouses. Pop. about 7,000.
SAINT AUBAIN, săn-to-băn, Andreas Nicolai de, Danish author, known largely by his pseudonym, "KARL BERNHARD): b. Copenhagen, 18 Nov. 1798; d. there, 25 Nov. 1865. He first appeared in literature as a contributor to the Flyvende Post, and finally obtained a large measure of success by his works of fiction, of which several dealt with higher Danish circles in modern times, while others were drawn from events of Danish history. Among the titles are Lykkens Yndling? (Fortune's Favorite'); Kröniker fra Christian den Andens Tid' ('Chronicles from the Time of Christian II, 1847), and Kröniker fra Erik of Pomerens Tid (Chronicles from the Time of Erik of Pomerania, 1850). A collection of his writings appeared at Copenhagen in 1856-66 (2d ed., 1869-71).
SAINT AUBYN, Ö'bin, Alan, pseudonym of FRANCES MARSHALL Bridges, English novelist: b. Surrey. She was the daughter of G. B. Bridges, a dramatist, and was married to Matthew Marshall of Saint Aubyns, Tiverton, Devonshire. Among her very numerous novels may be named The Master of St. Benedicts); Broken Lights); A Prick of Conscience); (The Junior Dean. She has also written many juvenile tales such as Joseph and His Little Coat); The Dean's Little Daughter); Wapping Old Stairs.)
SAINT AUGUSTINE, â'gủs-tēn or â-gủs', lēn, Fla., city, port of entry, county-seat of
Saint Johns County, on the Atlantic Coast, about 38 miles south of the mouth of the Saint Johns River. The city is in lat. 29° 48' 30" N., and long. 81° 35' W., on a peninsula formed by the Saint Sebastian River on the south and west and the Matanzas River on the east. It is on the Florida East Coast Railroad and the East Coast Canal. It is the oldest city in the United States, although not with a continuous existence, the latter honor belonging to Albany, N. Y. The city has many evidences of its ancient fortifications. The residence of the old Spanish governors is now a custom-house and post oftice. The principal streets extend north and south. The main thoroughfare, Saint George Street, only 17 feet wide, extends through the centre of the city to the city gateway; but beyond this point it is called San Marco avenue. Treasury street, which crosses Saint George, is only seven feet wide at the east end. Of the modern buildings, the hotels are the most beautiful. The Ponce de Leon is of the style of the Spanish Renaissance; the buildings and furnishings cost about $3,000,000. A pictorial history of Spanish adventure in the New World, especially relating to the history of Florida, is given in the mural decorations of the dining-room and loggia.
Saint Augustine was settled 8 Sept. 1565 by Spaniards under Pedro Menendez de Aviles; but the place had been visited as early as 1512 by Ponce de Leon. For two centuries it remained under Spanish rule, although in 1586 it was plundered by Drake. The population in 1763 was 3,000, besides the garrison of 2,500. It became a British possession in 1763 which it remained until 1783. During the Revolution it was an important military depot. It became again a Spanish possession in 1783 and in 1821 it was ceded to the United States. (See Florida). It was twice taken by the Federals during the Civil War. A disastrous fire in 1914 destroyed many of the city's famous landmarks. Some of the old buildings of the first Spanish régime are still in existence. The houses were then built chiefly of coquina, a formation found on Anastasia Island, a concrete made of broken shells cemented with shell-lime. The sea-wall, the city walls and the fort were made of the same material. San Marco, now Fort Marion, is a fine specimen of the knowledge of military engineering of that age. The government added a water battery in 1842–43, and has made occasional repairs, but it stands to-day about as built by the Spaniards. It is said to have been constructed by Mexican convicts and Indian prisoners, and to have been in process of erection for about 100 years. The shaft of marble in the Plaza was erected in 1812-13 to commemorate the adoption of a Spanish constitution which was more liberal than the one under which the city had been governed. The inhabitants were ordered to destroy the shaft when the project failed, but the authorities only removed the tablets which have since been restored. A Roman Catholic Church begun in 1793 and used later as a cathedral, was burned in 1887; but the façade remained almost uninjured. In rebuilding, this front wall was incorporated into the new structure; and the bell bearing the date of 1682 is also preserved. The only part of the old wall which now remains is the city gateway with about 30 feet of the wall on each side. The wall extended south along