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San Sebastian River, and from the river to the of arts, while the degree of master of arts is castle of San Marco (Fort Marion) where conferred for two years' post-graduate study. were a wall and moat. The old city extended The commercial course leads to the degrees nearly a mile, from the Castle of San Marco to of bachelor and master of accounts. the Franciscan Convent, now Saint Francis bar- paratory course is also provided. Two comracks, and the old sea-wall, built to protect the petitive scholarships are offered those who city from the sea, was also limited by the castle enter the classical course and there are five and the convent. The government rebuilt the elective scholarships. Handsome new buildings sea-wall in 1837–43, and there is now a granite with modern equipment grace the extensive coping three feet in width. For many years, college grounds since 1908. The average annual until 1817, the entrance to the city from the attendance of students is 250; the faculty mainland was by means of a drawbridge. Farm- numbers 26. ing, dairying and stock-raising are extensively SAINT BERNARD, Great (Rom. Alphis carried on in the vicinity.

Pænina), Alpine Mountain pass, 8,108 feet There are a number of manufacturing indus

above sea-level, 15 miles east of Mont Blanc, tries; chief among the establishments are the

leading from Martigny, Switzerland, to Aosta, Florida East Coast railroad shops, printing Italy, a distance of 53 miles, and connecting plant, lumber and wood works. There are en

the valleys of the Rhone and the Dora Baltea. gaged in oyster canning and in fishing fully

It was known to the Romans and traversed by 250 persons. Saint Augustine is a famous winter

them as early as 57 B.C., while a military road resort; about 25,000 persons visit the city an- is recorded in 79 A.D. It was used also in mually. Two_fine hospitals, the Alicia and

niediæval times; and Napoleon used the pass the Florida East Coast, the public library,

with his army in May 1800. A carriage road the State School for Deaf and Blind, several

now extends its full length. churches, and the municipal buildings are among

The famous monastery or hospice of Saint the principal structures. The educational insti

Bernard, which stands at the summit of the tutions are Saint Joseph's Academy, Warden

pass, was founded in 962 by Saint Bernard of Academy (colored), three public schools

Menthon and is maintained for the relief of (white), two parish schools (white), one parish

travelers lost in the snows or exhausted by the school (colored), one kindergarten and one of rigors of the journey. It is in charge of the 17 best libraries in the United States, enti

Augustinian monks, who, with their celebrated tled to all government publications free, and a dogs, have saved countless lives, and who care museum of natural history. The one bank has

for the bodies of the dead. There are remains a capital of $100,000; the annual amount of

of a temple of Jupiter Pænius on the plain at business is about $1,100,000. The waterworks

the top of the pass, dating from the early days are the property of the municipality. The city

of the Roman Empire, and excavated in 1890 has adopted the commission plan of government.

93. Pop. (1920) 6,192.

SAINT BERNARD, Little (Rom. Alphis SAINT BARTHOLOMEW, , bär-thol'o- Graia), Alpine Mountain pass. 7,235 feet above mù, or SAINT BARTHÉLEMY, săn bar

sea-level, leading from Italy to France and contāl-mē, West Indies, an island 190 miles east of necting the valleys of the Isère and the Dora Porto Rico. It is about eight square miles in

Baltea. It is believed to be the pass used by area, of irregular form and mountainous. Al- Hannibal and his army, 218 B.C. A monastery though nearly treeless it is fertile; vegetables similar to that at Great Saint Bernard was are cultivated in some of the valleys and ba- founded here by Saint Bernard about 1000. A nanas, cassia, tamarinds, and sassafras are ex

carriage road now traverses the pass. There ported. Rocks and shallows make access to the

are remains of a Roman road and temple. island difficult for any but the larger coasting craft. Lead and zinc ores have been found in

SAINT BERNARD, Ohio, city in Hamilthe island but are not worked. The principal Baltimore, the Ohio Southwestern, the Cleve

ton County, a suburb of Cincinnati, on the town is Gustavia, near the port. The island belonged to Sweden, but in 1877 was sold to

land, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis and the French who had previously held it from

the Norfolk and Western railroads, and the

Miami and Erie Canal. There are large manu1648 to 1784; the people, who had retained the French language and customs, desiring it.

factories of soap, fertilizers and cigars. Pop.

(1920) 6,312. Slavery was abolished in 1848. Pop. 2,942.

SAINT BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX. SAINT BARTHOLOMEW, Massacre of. See BARTHOLOMEW, Saint, MASSACRE OF.

See BERNARD, SAINT,

SAINT BERNARD DOG, a race of large SAINT BEDE COLLEGE, a, Roman

dogs which gets its name from the Hospice of Catholic institution, in Peru, Ill., opened in 1891,

Saint Bernard, where it has long been kept by and in charge of the Order of Saint Benedict.

the monks to aid them in rescuing perishing The faculty numbers 18 professors, and the

travelers. This dog is very valuable in assistaverage annual attendance of students about

ing the monks to keep to the line of the road 200. The courses are preparatory, commercial

and in finding their way back. They are seldom and classical. The classical course is intended

burdened. Dogs of other races are used for for those studying for the priesthood or for the professions.

the same purpose in other parts of the Alps.

The Saint Bernard dog is of two varieties: the SAINT BENEDICT'S COLLEGE, At- rough and the smooth coated; the first, which chison, Kan., was founded in 1858 by Bene- has long white hair with black or tawny spots dictine Fathers. Two courses of studies are are few in number. This famous dog, accordoffered, the classical and the commercial; the ing to the traditions of the monastery, is the classical course leads to the degree of bachelor result of a cross between a Danish bull-bitch

124

SAINT BONIFACE - SAINT CHARLES

W

and a mastiff, a native hill dog, though at what racks, formerly an Ursuline convent, a statue time effected it is impossible to say. After the of Du Guesclin, and the colossal statue of the breed was once established it was kept pure Virgin on a dominating northern hill are among till 1812. About 1860 these dogs first attracted the chief features. Pop. urban, 15,300; comattention of English travelers, who imported munal, 23,000. them to Great Britain, where they were ex

SAINT CATHARINES, Canada, town of hibited and at once excited much notice on account of their size and beauty. Others were

Lincoln County, Ontario, on the Welland Canal,

and on the Grand Trunk and Niagara, Saint introduced, and the Saint Bernard was soon

Catharines and Toronto railways, 12 miles northestablished as the most popular big dog, a pop

west of Niagara Falls, 32 miles east of Hamilularity which has gone on increasing. The

ton. Saint Catharines is noted for its mineral Saint Bernard, as bred to modern English ideas, is an immense red or orange colored dog,

wells, has large hotels and is in a picturesque marked with white on muzzle, neck, chest, feet,

and fertile region. It has important manuand tip of tail. The head should be massive

factories of agricultural implements, sewing and imposing, with a strong square muzzle, a

machines, foundry products, saws, edge tools, point of great importance. Legs should be

furniture, flour, saw, also planing, mills, shipstraight, with large feet, and double or, at least,

yards, tanneries, woolen faciories and breweries. single dew claws. Hind feet should turn out,

Saint Catharines also carries on an extensive though not sufficiently to hinder the dog's move

fruit trade. It has good water and sewerage ments. The coat of the rough variety is of

systems, gas and electric lights, banks and newsmedium length; it should not be too curly. In

papers. The more noted local institutions are the smooth variety the coat should be short

Bishop Ridley College, a marine hospital and a and wiry. Many of the finest Saint Bernards

commercial college. Pop. (1921) 19,664. measure over 30 inches high at the shoulder SAINT CHAMOND, săn shä-mon, France, and weigh over 150 pounds. While most of in the department of Loire, eight miles norththese dogs are good-tempered, strangers should east of Saint Etienne by rail, at the confluence be cautious in dealing with them; they are very of the Gier and Janon, is a well-built manulikely to attack and kill small pet dogs, especially facturing city. There are large coal mines in fox-terriers.

the vicinity, famous dye-works and extensive SAINT BONIFACE, Canada, city and metallurgical manufactures and various other county-seat of Provencher County, Manitoba, at industrial works, including large mills for the the confluence of the Red River of the North manufacture of silk, lace, etc. The remains of with the Assiniboine, opposite Winnipeg, and a Roman aqueduct are found at Saint Chaon the Canadian Pacific, the Great Northern,

mond. Pop. about 17,000. the Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk

SAINT CHARLES, Ill., city and countyPacific railroads. It is the seat of the Roman

seat of Kane County, 30 miles west of Chicago, Catholic archbishop of Manitoba, and has a col

on Fox River, and on the Chicago and Great lege, seminary, normal school, convent and two Western and the Chicago and Northwestern hospitals. It has meat packing and lumber in

railroads. It is built on both sides of the river, dustries, as well as grain elevators, brickyards, and has abundant water-power. It has milk glass works, and other manufactures.

Pop. condenseries, and manufactures steel ranges, (1921) 13,816.

chandeliers and pianos. Pop. 4,099. SAINT BRENDAN'S ISLE, a legendary

SAINT CHARLES, Mo., city, county-seat island supposed to have existed to the southwest

of Saint Charles County, on the Missouri River, of the Canary Islands and to have been discovered by the Irish monk, Saint Brendan, and

20 miles from its mouth, and on the Wabash, the 75 brother monks in the 6th century, after seven

Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroads, about

14 miles northwest of Saint Louis. It was setyears spent in search for the land of saints. This legend is traceable as far back as the 11th

tled in 1769 by Blanchette "Chasseus,” incorcentury. Each of the various early geographers

porated in 1795, and chartered as a city in 1849. gives it a different location. The legend had

There is an electric road connecting Saint some influence upon the discovery of America.

Charles with Saint Louis. The city is in an

agricultural region, in which the chief products SAINT-BRIEỰC, săn-bre'e, France, city, are wheat and corn. The principal manufaccapital of the department Côtes-du-Nord, 63 turing establishments are car works and flour miles by rail northwest of Rennes. It is built mills, shoe factory, oil engine works, and a stay on a hill rising 290 feet above the right bank

factory. The city has large grain elevators, a of the river Gorrët, a mile from its outlet, in foundry and machine shop. The principal pubits port of Le Légué, on the bay of Mont Saint lic buildings are a court-house, 10 churches, 11 Michel. A considerable coasting trade is carried schools, post-office, city hall, and county jail. on in fish, garden and farm products, and the The educational institutions are Sacred Heart manufacturing industries include iron, steel and Academy, opened in 1818; Lindenwood College, agricultural implement works, lumber, brush the largest college for girls in the west, opened and wool factories. The city dates from a in 1830; a new high school, public and parish monastery established by the Welsh missionary elementary schools, private schools and four liSaint Brieuc, in the 5th century, and has had a braries. Saint Charles has Blanchette Park turbulent history, especially during the 18th which is nature's wonderful place of recreation century Reign of Terror.

The 13th century and an excellent playground for children. The restored cathedral, a church of the same five banks have a combined capital of $320,000. period, the modern church of Saint Michael, The government is vested in a mayor and a the bishop's Palace, the city hall with its council of eight members, elected biennially. museum and picture gallery, the military bar- Pop. (1920) 8,503.

SAINT CHARLES - ST. CLAIR

125

SAINT CHARLES, Engagement at, a at Baltimore. The course including the prebattle of the Civil War, fought in Arkansas paratory work is six years. The college has County on the White River, 17 June 1862. On power to grant degrees. Several scholarships 10 June Capt. C. H. Davis, then in command of are available in competitive examination. Recent the Federal Mississippi flotilla, received a re- statistics give the faculty numbers as 18, the quest from General Halleck to open up the students as 190. Of 4,461 students who have White River for communication; he accord- matriculated, over 1,500 have been ordained. ingly despatched a force under Commander Among its distinguished sons Saint Charles Kilty, consisting of the ironclads Mound City counts a cardinal, five archbishops and 13 and Saint Louis, and the wooden gunboats Lex

bishops. ington and Conestoga. Meanwhile the Con

SAINT CHRISTOPHER, popularly federates had fortified the bluffs at Saint Charles and, on learning of the approach of the

SAINT KITTS, West Indies, 45 miles northUnion vessels, had sunk their gunboat

west of Guadeloupe, is an island belonging to

the Leeward group, and a British possession. Maurepas across the channel and transferred

Its area is 68 square miles; its length 23 miles; her guns to the shore-battery. On 17 June a

breadth five miles. It is traversed by a rugged detachment of Federal troops landed below the bluffs, and the gunboats opened the attack upon

fange whose highest summit, Mount Misery,

has an altitude of about 4,000 feet. Basse-Terre, the Confederate position, the Mound City lead

the capital, on the coast, has a population of ing; when she was within 600 yards of the shore a 42-pound shell entered her casemate

about 7,000. It is united administratively with and exploded her steam-drum; badly crippled

Nevis, and the small island Anguila. The chief she was towed out of action by the Conestoga,

products are sugar, molasses, rum, salt, some

coffee, tobacco and cattle. The island was disand the other boats continued the attack. The

covered in 1493 by Columbus; colonized by the commanding officer of the land forces very

French and British simultaneously in 1625, and shortly signaled them to stop firing, and the

held by those nations alternately for some troops successfully stormed the Confederate

time, passing over entirely to England in 1713. battery. The Confederate loss was six killed, one wounded and eight missing; the most ST. CLAIR, Arthur, American soldier: serious Federal loss was on the Mound City, b. Thurso, Caithness, Scotland, 1734; d. Greensthe majority of her crew being killed by the burg, Pa., 31 Aug. 1818. He was a grandson escaping steam, or in consequence of jumping of the Earl of Roslyn and was educated at into the river. Of 175, only three officers and the University of Edinburgh, after which he 22 men were saved. As there were no Confed- studied medicine. He came to America with erate works farther up the river, this action the fleet of Admiral Boscawin and took part gave control of the White River to the Federals. in the capture of Louisburg and of Quebec. Consult Mahan, (The Gulf and Inland Waters, In 1762 he resigned his commission of lieup. 50; Battles and Leaders of the Civil War) tenant and two years later established a home (Vol. III, pp. 552–553).

and a manufacturing industry in Ligonier ValSAINT CHARLES COLLEGE, Catons

ley, Pa. He became prominent in his vicinity

and held several civil offices. In 1775 he was ville, Md., under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church, was founded 11 July 1831 at

nade colonel of militia; and on 9 Aug. 1776 ott City, Md. The funds for the institu

was appointed brigadier-general and was ortion were donated by Charles Carroll of Car- dered by Washington to organize the New Jerrollion, one of the signers of the Declaration of

sey militia. He fought at Trenton and PrinceIndependence, who gave 253 acres of land

ton, and having been appointed major-general in from his own domain, and $5,349 in money.

1777, succeeded General Gates in command at The charter of the school as agreed upon by

Ticonderoga. At the approach of Burgoyne, Archbishop Maréchal of Baltimore and Charles

with a force more than three times outnumCarroll, stipulated that the purpose of the school bering his, he evacuated the fort. A part of his was "the education of pious young men of the

force was attacked and defeated at HubbardCatholic persuasion for the ministry of the

ton. For this disaster he was tried in courtgospel," and that the legal administration of the martial in 1778, but acquitted of the charges college should be entrusted to five trustees, who

brought against him. He commanded a body must be citizens of the United States. The of troops in 1781-82 under General Greene in the founder also requested that the trustees be South; was a delegate to the Continental Conmembers of the Society of Saint Sulpice. The gress in 1785–87 and its president in 1787. He school was not opened until October 1848. The was appointed first governor of the Northwest faculty then consisted of the president, one as- Territory in 1789, and was appointed comsistant and four students. Under the direction

mander-in-chief of the forces engaged in warof the Rev. Oliver Lawrence Jenkins during 18

fare with the Indians in 1791, but was defeated years the college steadily developed, until at on 4 November, near the Miami villages. In his death in 1869 the faculty numbered 13, the March of the following year he resigned his students 140 and 100 graduates were at work commission and in 1802 President Jefferson rein the ministry. On 16 March 1911 the college lieved him of the governorship of the Territory. was totally destroyed by fire. Plans for re- He published A Narrative of the Manner in building were promptly set in action on a which the Campaign against the Indians in more eligible site at Catonsville generously the year 1791 was conducted under the comdeeded by Saint Mary's Seminary of Baltimore. mand of Maj.-Gen. St. Clair,' with his obserFine buildings and spacious grounds furnish vations on the statements of the Secretary of all facilities. Saint Charles College forms the War (1812). Consult Smith, W. H., The classical department of Saint Mary's Univer- Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair sity and Theological Seminary of Saint Sulpice, (1882).

128

SAINT CLAIR - SAINT CLOUD

SAINT CLAIR, Mich., city in Saint Clair view of Paris, and the beautiful shady park, County, situated at the mouth of the Saint with its chateau and elegant fountains, is a Clair River, and on the Michigan Central Rail- favorite resort of Parisians. Within the preroad, about 43 miles northeast of Detroit and cincts of Saint Cloud are situated the new 12 miles south of Port Huron. A ferry con- national Sèvres porcelain manufactory. The nects the city with Courtwright on the Canadian chateau was built by Gondi in 1572, purchased side of the river. It is in an agricultural region by the Duke of Orléans, the brother of Louis and has considerable manufacturing interests. XIV in 1658, and by Louis XVI for Marie AnThe chief industrial establishments are lumber toinette in 1782. Henry III was murdered in mills, sash, door and blind factories, shipyards, the old mansion by Jacques Clement 21 Aug. salt works, brick works, iron works, foundry

1589. Peter the Great was received there in and tannery. The value of its taxable property

1717. It was the scene of Napoleon's coup of is $1,708,475. There are good public, Catholic,

the 18th Brumaire, and his favorite residence; Lutheran schools, and churches of the various

here he caused himself to be declared first condenominations. The government is vested in

sul, and here Blücher had his headquarters a mayor and council There is a good system

(1815). At Saint Cloud, Charles X (1830) of waterworks. Pop. 3,204.

affixed his signature to the ordinances which

doomed him. Here Napoleon III signed the SAINT CLAIR, Pa., borough in Schuyl

declaration of war against Prussia (1870). kill County, on the Philadelphia and Reading, and the Pennsylvania railroads, five miles north

SAINT CLOUD, Minn., city, county-seat of Pottsville. An electric railroad connects the

of Stearns County, situated on the Mississippi borough with Pottsville. It is in an anthracite

River about 65 miles north of Minneapolis, on region, and the chief industries are connected

the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railwith mining and shipping coal. It has large

roads. It was settled by John L. Wilson, it coal shipping yards, a large mining implement

being located on his homestead platted by him works, two shirt factories, and a miners' squib

in 1855, was incorporated in 1856, and adopted factory. There are a high school, public and

its first city charter in 1868. Saint Cloud and parish schools, a private school, and a library.

surrounding region lies above extensive and Pop. (1920) 6,585.

very valuable quarry ledges of red and gray

granite that are used for monumental purposes, SAINT CLAIR, a lake on the boundary be- some building and road work. The business tween Michigan and Canada, and between Lake of shipping the finished product, monuments, Huron and Lake Erie. It receives the waters etc., has increased to such an extent that the of Lake Huron through Saint Clair River and output for one year alone was $2,000,000. The discharges its waters into Lake Erie through city possesses one of the finest waterpowers on Detroit River. It is about 30 miles long, from the Mississippi River. The developed and unnorth to south; its maximum width is 24 miles developed waterpower amounts to 22,500 horseand the average width 12 miles; area, 396 square power.

The Public Service Company has a miles. It is about three feet higher than Lake hydro-electric plant and owns 300 miles of highErie and five feet four inches lower than Lake voltage lines that supply light to 40 villages Huron. The northern part is shallow, owing and cities, in addition to the electric power to the sediment from Saint Clair River; the supplied to the city of Saint Cloud, State reaverage depth of the central part is 19 feet. formatory and innumerable quarries in surThe bed is covered with a blue mud, with sand rounding districts. They also own a gas plant. and gravel in some parts, all supporting a dense The chief manufacturing, establishments are growth of low vegetation in which are many manufactures of automobiles, trucks and tracforms of animal life. The lake is noted for tors, also drop-forgings. The Great Northern the large number of steamers and the enormous

shops are located in the city. Other manutonnage which it carries each year.

factories are flour mills, iron works, foundries, SAINT CLAIR, a river called originally broom factory, woodworking factories and blank

machine shops, woolen mills, sledge factory, Sinclair, in honor of Patrick Sinclair, a British

book and tablet factories; cold storage and officer, who in 1765 purchased from the Indians

creameries, agricultural implements, etc. a tract of land along the river. The river is the

The Watab Paper and Pulp Mills, one of outlet of Lake Huron, and discharges its waters

the largest in the Northwest, is located five by several channels into Lake Saint Clair. The

miles north of the city. The large surrounding delta at the mouth is known as the Saint Clair

region has fine, large, fertile and productive Flats. A number of summer cottages and ho

farms; both grain and stock farms, of prize tels have been built on the Flats. One of the

horses and cattle. Saint Cloud has the Minnechannels has been improved for navigation; a canal about one and one-half miles long has

sota State reformatory prison, Saint Raphael

Hospital and Saint Joseph's Home for the been built at such an angle as to shorten the

Aged. The educational institutions are the course, and of such a width and depth as to

State Normal School, largest in the State, pubadmit large lake steamers. A railroad tunnel

lic schools, technical high school -- cost about under the river connects Port Huron in the

$280,000, junior high school, three Catholic United States with Sarnia in Canada. It is

parochial schools with their high school, and a nearly two miles long, including approaches, and

Carnegie public library. The Saint Cloud Inwas opened for travel in 1891. The river is

stitute one of the finest buildings for a comabout 41 miles long.

munity centre is located here. Saint Cloud is SAINT CLOUD, să n-kloo, France, in the the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. There department of Seine-et-Oise, on a height near are 20 churches. the Seine, seven miles west of Paris, is charm- On 22 April 1912 the city of Saint Cloud ingly situated and especially interesting for its adopted the commission form of government. historical associations. It commands a superb Pop. (1920) 15,873.

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