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SAINT CROIX (sometimes called Schoo celebrated for its venerable abbey, from which DIC), (1) a river, the outlet of Grand Lake, it derives its name; the two high towers are flows south, east-southeast, and forms part of respectively Romanesque and Gothic; the rose the boundary between Maine and New Bruns- window dates from the 13th century. The wick. It empties into Passamaquoddy Bay. It abbey was the burial place of the kings of is 75 miles long; navigable as far as Calais, France and in the chapels of the nave are the Me., above which there is extensive water tombs of Louis XII, and Anne of Brittany power. (2) A river which rises in Douglas (1591); of Henry II; Catharine de Medici; County, Wis., flows southwest to the Minnesota Louis of Orleans; Francis I; and Claude of border, then south, forming the boundary be- France - one of the splendid tombs of the tween Wisconsin and Minnesota for a distance Renaissance; and that of Dagobert, one of the of about 100 miles, entering Mississippi River most curious of mediæval (13th century) works at Prescott, Wis. It is about 150 miles long of art. The Crypt dates partly from the time and navigable to the Falls or the Dalles, a dis- of Charlemagne. In the centre is the vault, tance of 54 miles from its mouth. At the Falls

where the last king reposes — Louis XVIII, there is a descent of 50 feet in 900 feet, and the only one whose ashes have been respected. below there is a cañon.

The crypt also contains the Bourbon vault, SAINT-CYR, Laurent Gouvion, lo-ron

where repose Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. goo-ve-on săn sēr, MARQUIS DE, marshal of

Modern features deserving notice are an orFrance: b. Toul, France, 13 April 1764; d. phanage (1886), the monument commemorative Hyères, France, 17 March 1830. In 1792 of the Revolution and other public statues, and he entered the army and was attached to the

the railway station. In 1888 the old Hotel Dieu staff of General Custine. He was rapidly

was converted into a hospital for old men. Pop. promoted and in 1796 commanded the cen

about 72,000. division in the army

the Rhine

SAINT-DENIS, the capital of the French under Moreau. He was appointed to the

island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, on the command of the army of Italy in 1798

north coast of the island. It is built on a long, where he re-established discipline, the army hav

narrow beach shut off on the land side by a ing been on the verge of revolt against their

range of high volcanic mountains.

In the city general, Masséna. He returned to the army

are a cathedral, a palace for the governor, a of Moreau in 1799, was victorious at Biberach

theatre, and a large number of educational inin 1800, and in 1801 was sent to Spain to com

stitutions, including a lyceum, several large mand the army which was to invade Portugal.

schools, a library, a museum, and a botanical After the treaty of peace was signed he became

garden. The harbor is an open roadstead exAmbassador to Madrid. He participated in the

posed to frequent severe storms, but a new, Prussian and Polish campaigns of 1807, and in 1808 was in command in Catalonia, where he

protected harbor has been constructed at Pointe relieved Barcelona. In 1811 he was assigned to

des Gallets, a few miles to the west, which is the command of a corps in the Russian cam

connected with the city by a railroad. Pop. paign. He was victorious at Polotsk in 1812

about 25,000, chiefly French creoles. and was created marshal of France in recogni- SAINT DIZIER, săn de-ze-(ancient tion of his services. He made a brilliant fight DESIDERII FANUM), France, department of at Dresden, but was forced to capitulate and re- Haute-Marne, on the Marne, 35 miles southeast mained a prisoner in Hungary for some time. of Châlons. Part of the old castle is standAfter the Restoration he was created a peer of ing and the church has some peculiar Gothic France, was appointed Minister of War in 1815, windows. There is a library and a museum. Minister of Marine in 1817 and a few months It is an important centre of the iron trade, with later Minister of War again, retiring in 1819. foundries of iron, steel, copper and bronze, enHe wrote Journal des operations de l'armée de gineering works, etc. It is a railway station. Catalogue en 1808 et 1809) (1821); Mémoires In 1544 Saint Dizier was besieged and taken

(1829–31), etc. Consult De Vernon, Vie de by Charles V, although strongly fortified. In Maréchal Gouvion Saint-Cyr) (1857).

1814 there was severe fighting nearby, between SAINT CYR, or SAINT CYR-L'ECOLE,

Napoleon and the Allies. The walls have been

razed and the site now constitutes the promelā-kol, France, a village near Paris, west of Versailles, at the end of the old park of Louis

nade of the town. Pop. about 15,000. XIV, celebrated for its military school. Ma- SAINT ELIAS, Mount, in Alaska, in the dame de Maintenon founded here (1686) a southeastern part of the Territory; long. 140° seminary for the education of the daughters 55' 47.3" W.; lat. 60° 17' 35.1" N. The United of families of high rank in reduced circum- States Coast and Geodetic Survey report the stances. The convent chapel contained the height 18,100 feet above sea-level. It rises from tomb of Madame de Maintenon, and Racine's an elevation of considerable height, and the (Esther) and Athalie) were written for the foot-hills on the south side are covered with pupils of the school and first acted there. Dur- trees. The timber line is from 2,000 to 2,500 ing the Revolution this institution was abol

feet above sea-level. The mountain itself is ished, and in 1806 Napoleon transferred to covered with snow and ice and has many Saint Cyr the famous military academy which glaciers. The south side is almost perpendicuhe had founded at Fontainebleau. Two ad

lar; the storms of ages and the avalanches vanced forts of the new enceinte around Paris

have removed many of its rugged features. are situated at Saint Cyr. Pop. about 5,000.

The north side is more accessible, and has been SAINT DENIS, săn de-nē, France, in the explored to some extent, The Malaspina department of Seine, four and one-half miles glacier (area with subsidiary glaciers 1,500 north of Paris, is an important junction on square miles) is on the slope and at the foot the Northern Railroad. The town is especially of Mount Saint Elias, near Yakutat Bay.





SAINT ELMO CASTLE, Naples, Italy, a p. 344, 1779); Griffis, New England Magazine, fortress crowning a rocky hill on the western July 1893; Ferger, Alone in the Caribbean outskirts of the city. It was built by Robert (1918). the Wise in 1343. It has massive walls sur- SAINT-EVREMOND, săn-tavr-môn, rounded by fosses cut out of the solid rock, Charles de Marguetel de Saint Denis, French and was long held to be impregnable. It is

courtier and author: b. Saint Denis-le-Guast, 1 now used as a military prison.

April 1613; d. England, 20 Sept. 1703. He was SAINT ELMO'S FIRE. See ELMO's educated by the Jesuits, entered the army about FIRE, SAINT.

1629, served in Italy, under Bassompierre and SAINT ETIENNE, săn ta-te-en, France, later in Germany in the Thirty Years' War. He a manufacturing town in the department of

was a witty and accomplished courtier, and was the Loire, on the Furens, 32 miles southwest of

for a time a favorite with Condé and also with Lyons. It is located amid some of the richest

the king; but incurred their displeasure by his coal fields of France. The important buildings

sarcastic raillery and especially by his letter on include the old abbey of Valbenoite, dating

the Peace of the Pyrenees. In 1662 he went to partly from the 13th century, a Protestant

England, where he became a favorite at court church, a synagogue, a town house, a school of

and received a pension of £300 ($1,500) from mines with fine collections, and an art palace,

Charles II. He wrote dramas, essays and letwith a museum and library, rich in old manu

ters, his collected works being published in scripts, collections of natural history, and of

1705. These include (Sir Politics, written with ancient artillery. The enormous metallurgical

Buckingham. Consult Merlet, Gustave, (Saint establishments yield one-third of the whole

Evremond, etude historique (Paris 1870). French production of steel, manufactured ac- SAINT FRANCIS, a river which rises in cording to the Bessemer and Martin processes, eastern Missouri and flows into the Mississippi Here are also the national gun factory and River in Arkansas, lat. 34° 45' N. It is a other metal works. The manufacture of hemp large river, and was formerly navigable 300 cables, pottery and lime, the weaving of ribbon, miles for large keel boats; but the earthquakes laces, trimmings, etc., and conditioning of silk of 1811-12 raised its channel so much, and so are among the varied and active industries of irregularly, as to cause the waters to overflow the town, giving employment to thousands of the banks and form a vast number of lakes men and women. The collieries are very ex- and swamps. At high water the river is still tensive, alone employing 15,000 miners, while navigable at seasons of the year for 80,000 work in the ribbon factories, 16,000 oper- about 150 miles. Its waters abound with excelatives on heavy iron goods, 7,000 on hardware, lent fish. Length, about 450 miles. and 6,000 on military and naval material, etc. SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI. See

SAINT EUSTATIUS, or STATIA, an CANTICLE OF THE SUN; FRANCIS OF Assisi. island in the Dutch West Indies, one of the SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER COLLEGE, Lesser Antilles. In 1774, the closing of the

New York City. It was founded in 1847 by the port of Boston, by order of the British govern

Jesuits, and was granted the powers of a uniment, shut off the supplies of food hitherto

versity in 1861 by the State board of regents. furnished by the colonists, caused the death

Its organization includes a collegiate and a preof 15,000 negro slaves in the West Indies.

paratory department. The regular college course From immediately after the battles of Lex

leads to the degree of A.B.; it includes instrucington and Bunker Hill, this island became

tion in logic, metaphysics, and theodicy, Engthe chief source of supplies for the Continental

lish and the classics, mathematics and science, Congress and armies. Fleets of American privateers, loaded with dried fish, rice, sugar, to

and history. Post-graduate work in literature, bacco and indigo, traded their cargoes for war

history, sociology, and psychology is provided

for, and leads to the degree of A.M. There are munitions. Here, on 17 Nov. 1776, the Dutch

46 scholarships. The college is well equipped; governor, Johannes de Graeff, after having read the Declaration of Independence, shown

the library contains 115,000 volumes, and the him by Captain Josiah Robinson, of the United

grounds and buildings were valued at over

$750,000. Student attendance averages 450, a States man-of-war, Andrea Doria, 29 guns, ordered a salute to be fired in honor of the

large majority being in the preparatory deCongress flag) and the new nation. This was

partment; the faculty numbers 38. In 1913, the the first formal foreign salute in honor of the

college department was removed from the 13-striped American flag, on which

island of Manhattan to Brooklyn, N. Y., where

it still continues to confer degrees as the Colrepresented as many independent States in

The Union. From May 1775 until 1781, Saint Eusta

lege of Saint Francis Xavier, N. Y. tius, or "Old Statia,” as our fathers called it, high school department remains at its former

location. was a mart for many nations. On 3 Feb. 1781, Admiral George Rodney, with the largest fleet

SAINT GALL, gâl, Switzerland, (1) capiever assembled under the British flag - leaving tal of the canton of Saint Gall, on the Steinach, Cornwallis in the lurch - captured the island in a high, narrow valley, about 50 miles from and 24 American ships, including two men-of- Zürich. It is the see of a bishop, and has bewar, with 2,000 sailors. Rodney auctioned off sides the cathedral, several churches, a mon$11,000,000 worth of stores, but was plagued astery, now containing public offices, a large for years with lawsuits, since many of the town-house, library and orphan asylum. The traders were from Great Britain. Much of the town library is rich in works relating to the Refconfiscated property was British, and some of ormation. The ancient Benedictine Abbey was his heavily loaded prize ships on their way famous as an asylum of learning during the to England were captured by French privateers. Dark Ages, and was one of the most celebrated Consult De Graeff's Deductie! (The Hague, educational institutions of Europe. Several of


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the classics, namely, Quintilian, Silicus, Italicus, powerful imagination and an original mind. and Ammianus Marcellinus, were preserved The Victory is exactly where it belongs, and solely among its manuscripts. Notker and Ek- bears a relation as true, as unforced, as anykehard were among its pupils. Saint Gall is an thing in nature itself to the horseman pressing important manufacturing centre, celebrated for close upon its flying robe. Once more a word its fine laces and embroideries. Pop. 38,683. on the sculptor's discretion is inevitable. He (2) The canton covers an area of about 780 wanted to express movement in this monument, square miles.

It has a diversified surface; to give to Victory almost aerial lightness in her the southern and central portions are covered carriage, to embody in the horse a type of by lofty Alpine ranges. Its principal lake is great strength, pushing its way to the front. the Walensee but it also contains part of the and to make Sherman himself the very ideal Lake of Constance. The climate of the valley of a leader, who spurns the miles behind him. is mild, but in the mountainous district is The bronze seems almost sentient. The group rigorous. There are important stone quarries, quivers with vitality. But the rhythm of this much wood and good pastures; on the lower dramatic conception is held so well in hand, it slopes vineyards and orchards, and some arable is so majestic, that classic art itself could not lands. Manufactures consist of cotton and produce a more nobly monumental effect.” linen goods. The constitution is pre-eminently democratic. German is the main language

SAINT GEORGE, Cape, Newfoundland, spoken. Pop. about 301,141.

the westernmost projection of the island, form

ing the northwestern extremity of Saint George SAINT-GAUDENS, gâ'děnz, Augustus, Bay, on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. American sculptor: b. Dublin, Ireland, 1 March SAINT GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. 1848; d. Cornish, N. H., 3 Aug. 1907. He was

See DRAGON. brought to the United States in infancy and at 13 was bound in apprenticeship to learn cameo

SAINT GEORGE'S CHANNEL, an arm cutting and spent several years at this art. Six

of the Atlantic which separates Ireland from years later (1867) he went to Paris and studied England. At the north it unites with the Irish under the sculptor Jouffroy at the Ecole des

Sea. Its entire length from southwest to northBeaux Arts. While at Rome in 1871 he pro

cast is about 100 miles. The tide rises in this duced his first figure, Hiawatha,' and the fol

channel about the same time as in the English lowing year returned to the United States. Channel, so that there is high water simultaSaint-Gaudens was a sculptor of originality and neously at Brest in France, Falmouth in Engfreshness, who had adopted the best standards land, and Cape Clear in Ireland. of French taste and method of execution with- SAINT GEORGE'S CHAPEL, Windsor, out being hidebound by tradition. He had a England. See WINDSOR. style at once polished and free. Among his

SAINT-GERMAIN, săn-zher-măn, CoUNT other works are the President Lincoln' statue in Lincoln Park, Chicago; the bas-relief

OF, adventurer of the 18th century: b. perhaps (Adoration of the Cross by Angels'; the (Shaw

1710; d. Eckernfoerfe, Schleswig,. 1784. A Monument at Boston; and the Diana' on the

mystery enveloped his birth and origin, of which tower of Madison Square Garden, New York.

he took every advantage. He spoke English, He also took part in executing the Parnell

German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese to Memorial monument in 1901, designed several

perfection, and French with a slight Piedmontese medals of presentation authorized by Congress,

accent; and was variously thought to be the son and assisted John La Farge in decorating

of a tax collector at San Germano, Savoy, an Trinity Church, Boston.

Alsatian Jew, a Portuguese marquis named What perhaps is the most strikingly charac

Betmar, or the illicit offspring of a Spanish teristic of all his ideal statues is The Puritan

princess. After sojourning in various cities (at Springfield, Mass.). It represents the puri

of Italy under as many pseudonyms, he lived tan of earlier New England in all his aggress

from 1750 to 1760 at the French court under ive and unbending strength - soldier, theo- the patronage of Marshal de Belle-Isle, and, logian, statesman. There is nothing winning or

having a fine personal appearance and address, conciliating in his air. He is come to conquer

considerable erudition and a wonderful memthe wilderness as Cromwell conquered the aris

ory, became a favorite of Mme, de Pompatocracy of England and wiped out for the brief

dour and the king. He was reported to be from period of the commonwealth the haughtiest of

2,000 to 3,000 years old. Frederick the Great, European dynasties. The puritan, as Saint

having asked Voltaire for some particulars Gaudens has portrayed him, carries the Bible

respecting this mysterious person, was told that next his heart in one hand and a stout cudgel

he was a man who never dies and who knows of oak in the other. He personifies those un

every thing.” He passed the last years of his swerving, and sometimes fanatic principles on

life at the court of the prince of Hesse-Cassel, which the ancient commonwealths of New Eng- and is supposed to have been emploved during land were established. The Sherman equestrian

the greater part of his life as a spy at the statue which was unveiled at the southeast en

courts at which he resided. Cagliostro owned trance of Central Park in 1904 is the last of a

himself a pupil of the Count of Saint Germain. series of five in which he commemorated heroes

Consult Oettinger, (Graf Saint Germain of the Civil War, among the most notable of

(1846). which is the remarkable statue of Farragut in SAINT GERMAIN-EN-LAYE on lā, Madison Square, New York. Of the Sherman France, a town in the department of Seine-etmonument, executed by Saint-Gaudens, a critic

Oise, on

a height bordering the Seine, 11 had said: “The composition of the Sher- miles west of Paris. At the edge of a forest, man is his own, and it has the spontaneity and 200 feet above the river, the air is bracing and the balance of a work evolved straight from a salubrious. It is a favorite summer resort and

VOL. 24-9

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