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SAMIAN WARE, the name of a kind of ancient Greek pottery made of Samian earth, or to a variety of Roman pottery made in imitation of this. The vases are of a bright red or black color, covered with a lustrous silicious glaze, with separately molded ornaments attached to them.

SAMNITES, an ancient people sprung from the Sabines, and inhabiting the province of Samnium, in Lower Italy. They were divided into four nations: 1, the Caraceni in the north, capital, Aufidena; 2, the Pentri in the centre, capital, Bovianum, who constituted the most powerful nation of the Samnite stock; 3, the Caudina in the southwest ; 4, the Harpini in the south, capital, Beneventum. The Samnites are described in Roman history as a people fond of war and of liberty, who were brought completely under the Roman yoke after long and bloody wars, which continued with few interruptions 53 years. After the most fatal defeats, and the entire devastation of their country, the Samnites, together with the other nations which had assisted them, found themselves obliged to submit to the supremacy of Rome, 290 B.C. When the Italian allies of Rome revolted against her in the year 90 B.C. the Samnites once more rose against their oppressors, and fought with desperation. But Sulla entirely subdued them, and commanded that every Samnite should be put to death. Three days after the battle he ordered 4,000 of them who had been taken prisoners to be put to death on the Campus Martius. The few that remained lived from that time scattered in villages. The Samnites cultivated various arts and manufactures, for the proximity of the refined Greeks in Lower Italy had a very beneficial influence upon them. Even their laws and constitution were borrowed in a great degree from the Greeks. Their form of government was democratic At the commencement of a war they were accustomed to choose a common general.


SAMOAN ISLANDS, The, or SAMOA, formerly known as the Navigator Islands, an important group in the South Pacific Ocean, belonging till 1914 partly to Germany and partly to the United States. They are about 2,000 miles south of the Hawaiian Islands, in an almost direct line between San Francisco and Australia and extend from about lat. 13° to 15° S., and from long. 168° to 173° W. They lie 2,410 miles north of Auckland, New Zealand, and about 4,200 miles southwest of San Francisco. The group comprises 14 islands, of which only Savaii (700 square miles), Upolu (500 square miles), Tutuila (200 square miles) and the Manua group (26 square miles) are important. The total area is about 1,700 square miles. The climate is tropical, with abundant rainfall and a mean temperature of 80° in December and 70° in July.

All the islands are peaks of a submarine chain of volcanic mountains. Barrier reefs encircle the large islands more or less, and especially Upolu. Brown and bare in many places at low water, the reefs are submerged at high tide, when the surf booms and bursts upon them in miles and miles of snowy whiteness. Between the outer reef and the shore stretches a lagoon of multi-tinted waters, varying in

width from 200 yards to two and three miles. This generally smooth belt of water is, in effect, a canal encircling the islands and is the highway along which all intercourse is had between different points of the islands. In the interior, lofty mountains, rise,, leaving broad stretches of comparatively level land bordering the shore and reaching up to low-lying foot hills. Water courses extend down the mountain side through which the tremendous rains, turning into furious torrents in a few minutes, have cut great ravines. In many places the sides of the mountains are not far from perpendicular. Yet such is the climate that they are held in place by the network of growth that covers them. Over such a surface is spread a tropic forest of often giant trees.

Savaii, the most westerly member of the Samoan group is much the largest and most rugged. It is ridged with lofty, cloud-en-circled mountains that are covered with a mantle of dense tropical foliage, giving to them an evenness of outline that delights the eye of the newcomer. The interior of the island, which has never been explored and concerning which little is known, is wholly occupied by mountains. Only a small strip of alluvial land bordering the shore is productive and the island is capable of sustaining a small population. Ten miles east of Savaii is Upolu, in many respects the most attractive island of the group. Its centre is occupied by a range of hills, the sides of which are covered with vegetation and slope gently down to the sea with many intervening valleys and broad plains. The soil of these slopes is for the most part stony. A comparatively small part of it can be cultivated, but on the lower foot-hills it is largely alluvial and consequently very fertile. Here all the productions of the tropics grow in abundance and the gentle, half civilized natives have made their villages and plantations, where they spend an indolent life, with a minimum of care and labor. Upolu has no perfectly sheltered harbors except those of Apia and Saluafata, upon the north coast, which are anchorages of considerable area. They afford convenient shelter from the easterly trade winds and for the most part are perfectly safe, except during the hurricane season, which includes the months of December, January, February and March. At this time, these anchorages, being opened to the north, are exposed to the full fury of the cyclonic storms that annually traverse this region, and blow most heavily from that direction. Upon such occasions great losses occur. Ships are driven ashore, where they break up on the coral reef; sometimes they go down at their anchors. About 40 miles off the eastern coast of Upolu lies Tutiula, on the south side of which is Pango-Pango harbor. This is the only landlocked anchorage in the group and affords protection in all kinds of weather to the largest men-of-war or ocean vessels. The land around the harbor is level and well adapted for wharves, warehouses or other structures. It is more suited to steamers than to sailing vessels, since the heavy trade winds sometimes blow directly into the entrance, making it difficult for vessels under sail to leave it. But as a harbor for steamships it probably has no equal among the thousand islands of the Pacific.' It lies, moreover, directly in the great circle track between Australia and America, and is, there

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fore, a convenient calling place for vessels melancholy air and meekness which Humboldt traversing the Pacific.

first pointed out_as a characteristic of the Within the sea reef of Upolu lies the island islanders of the Pacific. Their skin is dark of Manono, little more than a barren rock, olive, resembling polished copper, presenting which has played a great part in the domestic no difference in the sexes, though the prominent history of the group. It has always been the chiefs and better families are much lighter, cradle of a feudal aristocracy and the focus with smoother skin. They are also taller and of native politics. Its chiefs have held a com- more symmetrical in person than the common manding influence in all Samoan affairs. The people. The infant is much lighter in comManua Islands, three in number and of small plexion than the adult. The male Samoan is area, are 60 miles east of Tutuila. Although tall, erect and proud in bearing, with smooth, they are properly classed with the Samoan straight and well-rounded limbs, the contour group they have little in common with the seldom presenting muscular protuberance or three larger islands already mentioned save in development. Females are generally slight, their language and origin.

especially the young girls; erect and symmetriThe Samoans belong to the so-called brown cal, easy and graceful in their movements, the people or Malayo-Polynesians. Although they charm of light-heartedness seeming to follow have always been considered as having affinities every action. Beauty of feature is not the rule; with the Malays of the Indian Archipelago, though many of the village maids are nothing is positively known about their origin. ceedingly attractive. That they are a branch of the Malay race or The Samoans build primitive houses, stone family is not much questioned and they are fences and canoes, and in war time dig ditches, also remotely allied to the Malagasy of Mada- throw up earthworks and construct forts and gascar. The parent race has disappeared; but palisades. They cultivate the yam and taro that branch from which the Samoans are de- and to some extent, since the advent of the scended was one of its earliest offshoots, and whites, collect cocoanuts and make copra; they having remained almost free from admixture manufacture cloth and mats and engage in fishof blood, nearly represents the original. They ing and in collecting the food that nature offers trace back directly to the great Aryan family to them freely for the gathering. The fale


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Map of Samoan Islands. and their ancestors centuries before the present teles or council houses features of all the vilera emigrated from India and established them- lages, in many instances are of imposing dimenselves in the Indian Archipelago, whence they sions. The houses are built of the wood of the afterward pushed further on into the Pacific. bread-fruit tree. They are slightly oval, some Never having been subject to the inroads of 25 or 30 feet high. In building them three other alien races, and the consequent admixture centre posts are raised, which support a ridge of blood, the Samoans have preserved uncor- pole, while cross beams are lashed in at difrupted and unchanged many of their original ferent heights, thus binding the structure firmly racial characteristics. They are of splendid together. A thatching of sugarcane or panphysique, handsome, bright, strikingly erect, danus leaves covers the roof. Large houses sound, healthy, vigorous and of tremendous generally have prominent sides; the smaller strength. Many of the distinctive marks of the ones are open all around, but are curtained by European appear in their faces, giving that mats.

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The first Christian missionary visited Samoa in 1830. In 1903 nearly every native had embraced the Christian religion. Food is collected on Friday and prepared on Saturday. On the Sabbath scarcely a boat is to be seen; the hunter is never in the woods. Attendance upon church meetings affords almost the only sign of life; even the sports of the children are sacrificed, in a large degree, to the strict observance of the day. To a stranger the villages seem deserted. Three denominations have been established in Samoa and there has been strong rivalry between them. All the churches have good schools, those of the London Missions and of the Catholic Church being especially well conducted and prosperous. At Malua, on the coast of Upolu, 12 miles to the west of Apia, the London Missionary Society maintains a settlement or college founded by the Rev. Dr. Turner. The establishment consists of a house for the principal, or resident missionary, a large building which is used as church and schoolroom, and a number of cottages standing in regular order round an open place or square. At Leulumoenga is a college, established about 1890 for the purpose of educating_the sons of the chiefs and of teaching them English. Roman Catholics took the initiative in teaching English. The Protestant missionaries, at first, declined to admit natives who desired to learn English into schools attended by whites and half-castes, nor would they teach English in the native schools. Later they erected near Apia a fine high school or college for Samoan girls of the upper class.

In education the Samoans have displayed quite as marked proficiency as in their assimilation of Christianity. Probably fully one-half of all persons over 20 years of age can read and write. Under that age, all of both sexes, with but few exceptions, are educated to that extent. Beyond this, and the addition of elementary arithmetic, education does not extend, save to those in the mission schools, who are preparing themselves for the ministry. Samoans are keenly alive to all the advantages of education. Every village, without exception, has its resident pastor, or faife'au. This person is at once minister and teacher, regularly teaching the village school besides attending to his ministerial duties. In like manner each village is provided with a building that serves for the purpose of schoolhouse as well as church.

Cotton, sugar, coffee and cocoanuts are the leading articles of trade in the islands. The copra of commerce is obtained by drying the kernel of the cocoanut, the copra, which is exported to Europe and the United States, where it is used in the manufacture of cocoanut oil.

History.- The islands were first visited by whites in 1721. The French explorer, De Bougainville, named the group in 1768. In 1787 John F. G. de la Perouse spent several weeks in and around the islands; his experiences with the natives were not altogether agreeable, for on the island of Tutuila Captain de Langle, the second in command of the expedition, with several sailors, was massacred. In 1839 the famous expedition of Commodore Charles Wilkes, of the United States navy, made the first thorough survey and exploration of the principal islands of the group. Wilkes also negotiated an agree

ment with the principal chiefs by which the interests of the natives and the whalers and traders visiting the islands from time to time were provided for. He appointed a consul to represent the United States and took measures to insure amicable relations in the future_between the islands and the United States. This agreement was the beginning of treaty connections between the Samoans and the outside world. A third of a century · elapsed after Commodore Wilkes' visit before anything more formal or important developed in the relations of the islanders to the United States or to any European nation. Notwithstanding the steady development of commercial interests in the islands, no serious attempts were made by any nation to obtain a footing in Samoa. During this entire period, however, the islanders had a friendly disposition toward the United States, and later a coaling station at PangoPango was secured by the American government. The native government of the islands had been from time immemorial under the two royal houses of Malietoa and Tupea except on the island of Tutuila which was governed by native chiefs. In 1873 at the suggestion of former residents a house of nobles and a house of representatives were established, with Malietoa, Laupepa and the chief of the royal house of Tupea as joint kings. Subsequently Malietoa became sole king. In 1887 he was deposed by the German government on the claim of unjust treatment of German subjects, who formed the bulk of the foreign population of the island, and was deported first to German New Guinea and then to Kamerun, in Africa, and finally in 1888 to Hamburg. Tamasese, a native chief, was in the meantime proclaimed king by the Germans, though against the protest of the British and American consuls at Samoa. Mataafa, a near relative of Malietoa, made war on Tamasese and succeeded to the throne.

Meanwhile a commercial treaty was negotiated between a representative of the Samoan government and the United States Secretary of State, William M. Evarts, by which the claim of the United States to the harbor of PangoPango as a coaling and naval station was affirmed. Germany followed in the footsteps of the United States in negotiating a treaty, securing, to that country practical control of the harbor of Saluafata. The same treaty also gave the Germans unusual commercial privileges and exceptional power in the adjustment of affairs between German residents at Apia and the Samoans. Great Britain also concluded a treaty, securing a naval station and coaling, depot and other privileges.

In 1889 a conference between the representatives of the American, British and German governments was held at Berlin, at which a treaty was signed by the three powers guaranteeing the neutrality of the islands in which the citizens of the three signatory powers would have equal rights of residence, trade and personal protection. They agreed to recognize the independence of the Samoan government and the free rights of the natives to elect their chief or king and choose a form of government according to their own laws and customs. A Supreme Court was established, consisting of one judge styled the Chief Justice of Samoa. To this court were referred all civil suits con



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cerning real property situated in Samoa; all city is Vathy, on the north side. The old civil suits between natives and foreigners or capital, Khora, is a poor place on the south between foreigners of different nationalities; side. This was the site of the famous temple all crimes committed by natives against for- of Hera. The island is extensively cultivated, eigners or committed by such foreigners as produces excellent Muscadine wine, corn, fruit are not subject to any consular jurisdiction. and vegetables. The minerals include silver, The capital was located at Apia. A commis- lead, antimony, calamine, manganese and copsion was appointed to investigate titles to land per. Samos is renowned as the birthplace of alleged to have been purchased from the natives, Pythagoras and other distinguished men. It and this in 1894 completed its labors, confirming was formerly inhabited by Ionian Greeks. The about 75,000 acres of land to Germany, 36,000 chief exports are wine, brandy, raisins, hides, to British and 21,000 to Americans.

leather, oil, tobacco and carob-beans. Samos By the agreement of 2 Dec. 1899 the Samoan was constituted a principality under Turkey, Islands were divided between the United States, with the guarantee of France, Great Britain Germany and Great Britain. The latter, how- and Russia, 11 Dec. 1832. In November 1912 ever, traded her claims to Germany for certain the island was seized by the Greeks and has concessions in Africa and other places. Under since been held by them. The question of the this agreement the United States retained Ægean Islands was further complicated by the Tutulia and all other islands of the Samoan Great War and local changes, and had not been group east of longitude 171° west of Green- settled by the middle of 1918; therefore Samos wich, while Germany obtained all the Samoan was still under Greek rule. territory to the west of American holdings. SAMOSATENES, or SAMOSATIANS, a The king of Norway and Sweden was made heretical sect, followers of Paul of Samosata, arbitrator to determine and adjudge the amount

bishop of Antioch, from 260 to 274 A.D. He of claims due to citizens and subjects of British,

denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, saying Jesus German and American governments having pos- was simply man, though favored with the insessions on the islands and affected by recent

dwelling of the Logos from the instant of his military operations there. German Samoa was

conception: by the unvarying conformity of his administered by an imperial governor and a will to the Divine will, he became like unto God, native chief assisted by a native council, while

and through love he became one with him. the American possessions were placed in charge His doctrine was condemned as impious by of a naval governor. Shortly after the open- three councils of bishops, the third of which by ing of the European War in 1914, an expedi

decree deposed him, 269 A.D. ; but Paul would tionary force of New Zealanders captured

not comply with the decree, till at last, after German Samoa. By the terms of the Peace the overthrow of his great patron, Zenobia, Treaty of May 1919 the German portion was

queen of Palmyra, it was enforced by order placed under the administration of New

of the Emperor Aurelian, 274 A.D., who deZealand. The German and the American fleets

clared that the controversy had been determined suffered very severely from a sudden tempest in by the judgments of the bishops of Italy, and the roadstead of Apia on 16 March 1889. The

in particular the bishop of Rome. The SamoAmerican losses were the Trenton and the

satenes are also called Paulinians and PauliVandalia, and 52 men; the German losses, the

anists. Adler and the Eber, and 134 lives. A volcanic erruption in the interior of Savaii, which be

SAMOTHRACE, sam o-thras, or sā-mogan in August 1905, continued until 1909, thus

thra'sē, or SAMOTHRAKI (Turkish, Samaforming the greatest known volcanic disturb

drek), an island of the Ægean Sea, about 40

miles northwest of the entrance to the Dardaance in the world's history. Bibliography - Brown, G., Melanesians melles, and nearly opposite the mouth of the :

Hebrus, 36 miles from the coast of Thrace. It and Polynesians (New York' 1910); Griffin, A. P. C., Books on Samoa and Guam, pub

is rugged and mountainous and of almost oval lished by the United States Library of Con

form; its highest summit, Saoce, reaches an

elevation of 5,248 feet. On the northern coast gress) (Washington 1901); Henderson, J. B., American Diplomatic Questions (New York

are sulphur Springs of considerable renown. 1901); La Farge, John, Reminiscences of the

The principal products are grain, wood, oil, South Seas) (New York 1912); Stevenson, R.

honey and wax, and on the coast there is a L., A Foot-note to History) (London 1892);

considerable sponge fishery carried on by (Letters from Samoa) (New York 1906).

traders from Smyrna. In the northern part of

the islands the ruins of ancient Samothrace were SAMOKRISCHTCHINS. See RELIGIOUS

found (1873–75), consisting of Cyclopean walls; SECTS.

a Doric temple of marble and another of cirSAMOS, sā'mos, now SAMO, or SOU. cular form. Samothrace was of importance SAM-ADASSI, an island in the Ægean Sea from early times and is frequently mentioned belonging to the Grecian Archipelago. It is 45 in the works of Pliny, Homer and others. miles southwest of Smyrna, and is separated Here Poseidon witnessed the contests between from the coast of Asia Minor by a narrow Greeks and Trojans on the plains of Troy. channel, Little Boghaz, and from Nikaria and But its chief renown was due to its having the Furni Islands by the Great Boghaz. It been the seat of worship of the Cabiri, and to covers an area of 213 square miles and has its religious mysteries, supposedly derived from several good harbors on the coast; it is trav- the Pelasgians. The island is once mentioned ersed by two rocky and barren mountain in history in connection with the expedition of ranges, relieved by some forests of pines, with Xerxes, one of its ships having taken a convineyards and olive groves on the lower slopes. spicuous part in the famous battle of Salamis. The valleys are well-watered and fertile, and The island was first colonized by Phænicians, contain beautiful scenery. The capital and chief afterward joined by Greeks. It always en

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joyed autonomy, partly owing to its sacred character, partly to its lack of political importance due to the fact of its having no good harbor. Saint Paul visited the island in the course of his second missionary expedition (Acts xvi, 11). The inhabitants are mostly Christians. Pop. 4,600. Samothrace, with all the other Ægean Islands, was in the possession of Greece and Italy in 1918, pending a definite arrangement with regard to their future control.

SAMOVAR, a Russian tea kettle, the water in which is boiled by means of hot coals contained in an iron tube, and then poured over the tea.

SAMOYEDES, săm'oi-dēz, or SAMOIEDES, a Mongolian people inhabiting the shores of the Arctic Ocean, from the Kanin Peninsula, on the eastern shores of the White Sea, in European Russia, to the Gulf of Khatanga, in the northeast of the government of Yeniseisk, Siberia. They consist of three principal tribes, speaking different dialects. Their origin is unknown, but they are supposed to have come from more southern regions, and have been erroneously confounded by the Russians with the Laplanders, whose country, called in the Lapland tongue, Sameanda has probably given them their name. They are nomadic and live chiefly by fishing, hunting and keeping reindeer. Their principal wealth consists in herds of reindeer, which supply them with food, clothing, tents, utensils, etc. They are of small stature, usually between four and five feet; have a flat, round and broad face, thick lips, wide nose, little beard, black hair, in smali quantity. They are extremely superstitious and generally peaceable. They are unacquainted with the art of writing, their traditions being imperfectly preserved only in their songs, When Russian expansionists first became acquainted with them they had already been driven from their native seats by the Tartars, and separated from their kindred tribes.

SAMP, originally an Indian article of food consisting of maize, broken or bruised, which is cooked by boiling and eaten with milk.

SAMPAN, a boat of various build used on the Chinese rivers, in Straits Settlements and elsewhere, for the conveyance of merchandise, and also frequently for habitation. They are swift sailers both with oar and sail.

SAMPHIRE, an umbelliferous plant (Crithmum maritimum), pale-green with bi-triternate leaves and fleshy very succulent leaflets, and umbels of small yellowish flowers followed by fennel-like fruits. It grows wild along the rocky shores of northwestern Europe, near the water, and when abundant, is used as a pickle, salad or potherb. It can also be cultivated in gardens, if not too far from the coast, and if supplied with plenty of salt and soda solutions. The name is a corruption of the old French (herbe de Sainte Pierre, and it is also called in England Saint Peter's-wort.

SAMPLE,, Robert Fleming, American Presbyterian clergyman: b. Corning, N. Y., 19 Oct. 1829; d. New York City, 12 Aug. 1905. He was graduated from Jefferson College in 1849. From 1853 he was engaged in various pastorates in Pennsylvania and Missouri until 1887 when he assumed charge of the Westminster Presbyterian Church, New York, where

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he remained and was pastor emeritus from 1902 till his death. He was professor of Christian ethics in Lincoln University, was editor of

North and West in 1895–1902, traveled widely in Europe and Palestine, and was connected with numerous religious educational and religious organizations. He published Early Dawn (1861) Memoir of Rev. John C. Thorn) (1868); Beacon Lights of Reformation (1889); Elements of Pulpit Power (1901), etc.

SAMPLERS. A strip, or square of linen, or canvas, recording specimen stitches and patterns, was, for hundreds of years, worked by every young girl of aristocratic and well-to-do families. The sampler had the double value of giving the child skill as she worked it and of serving as a guide and source of reference all the rest of her life. The sampler ceased to become a part of education in the middle of the 19th century. After 50 years of oblivion, it came into prominence in a new way, to enjoy fame by appealing to the fancy of the collector. The first and finest collection was made by the late A. W. Drake and is now scattered. A splendid collection is in the South Kensington Museum, London. Although no earlier examples exist than the 17th century, the sampler, which is nothing more nor less than a patternbook for the embroiderer, is probably as old as the art of embroidery (q.v.) itself.

The embroiderer was seldom the designer of the decoration that grew beneath her needle. The samples was, therefore, a kind of notebook (corresponding to the artist's sketch-book), exhibiting various stitches and suggestions for embroidery, or for making cross-stitch letters, numbers, patterns, etc. It was, consequently, of both artistic and practical value. The name tells plainly what it is.

Chaucer uses the word ensampler as synonym for pattern, and the poet Skelton (1469_1529) speaks of "the sampler to sew on, the lacis to embraid." The inventory of Edward VI (1552), mentions "a sampler, or set of patterns, worked in Normandy in green and black silks." Shakespeare mentions it twice - in A Midsummer Night's Dream,' when Helena reminds Hermia that they worked together on a sampler, and in "Titus Andronicus) in reference to the Greek story of Philomela. From the 16th century samplers are constantly met with in records and diaries and even in wills, for they were deemed worthy of special bequest. Samplers of the 16th and 17th centuries often contained insertions of reticella or cutwork (see LACE), drawn-work and patterns for needlepoint lace; for although pattern-books of lace were published, they were hard to procure and the supply was limited.

The evolution of the sampler is as follows: First, the sampler consisted of decorative pictures thrown here and there upon the surface of a piece of canvas; then came designs placed in orderly rows and making in themselves a harmonious whole; next, alphabets and numerals chiefly for the use of these who marked the linen; and next, imitation of tapestry pictures by the addition of figures, houses, birds, animals and flowers. Last of all the sampler was adopted as an educational task in a dame's school as a specimen of a pupil's phenomenal achievement at an early age.


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