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SAPPHO. Following the success of his tropa) and others spring from the humus of first great tragedy of Fate, Die Ahnfrau, decaying leaves, in close connection with the which was written in 16 days, Franz Grillparzer hyphæ of fungi. The meadow pastures supwrote a second poetic drama Sappho (1819), port such saprophytes as the true mushroom also composed at white heat and resembling (Agaricus campestris), the moonwort (BotryDie Ahnfrau' in the general character of its chium lunaria) and the blue and violet flowered poetry although differing from it in form gentians. These micro-organisms, non-virulent and spirit. In its conception it is half way and always present in animal intestines, may in between the tragedy of fate and the modern certain conditions become virulent poisons. tragedy of character; in its form, too, it is See BOTANY; FUNGI. half way between the classical and the modern.

SAPSUCKER, the popular American name Out of the slight tradition which tells how of several small woodpeckers, but properly reSappho, one of the greatest poets of her stricted to the yellow-bellied woodpecker age, threw herself from the high Lesbian cliffs

(Sphyrapicus varius), an Eastern species repreinto the sea when she found her love for the

sented in the Rocky Mountain region by vayouth Phaon unrequited and her own hand

riety nuchalis and along the Pacific Coast by maiden preferred, Grillparzer has made a stir

variety ruber. This woodpecker is of moderate ring drama, with an acting quality strong

size; is black and whitish above; black on enough to carry it to success on the stage when

breast; rump black and white mixed; belly well performed. At the same time he has de

more or less yellowish; sides streaked with veloped a poetic symbolism in the story, and

dusky; crown red in the adult; chin scarlet and the conflict between the spiritually gifted Sap

throat black in the male, but both white in the pho and the beautiful Melitta becomes, in Grill

female. This bird illustrates well the curious parzer's hands, the conflict between art and

tendency toward increase of red in plumage the pleasures of life. Although the verse has

toward the Pacific Coast. In variety nuchalis, neither the dignity nor the sheer beauty of some

the nuchal band is red instead of brown, exof Grillparzer's later work, notably Des

tending the chin red by so much; in specimens Meeres und der Liebe Wellen,' it has the

from Nevada, the scarlet area is still larger; cumulative quality which often accompanies

and in the Coast form (ruber) the whole head, verse written in long stretches at a single sit

neck and breast are red, sometimes obliterating ting, a quality which does not detract from its

the normal pattern. This woodpecker midistinctly dramatic value. Through the dig

gratory, spending its summers and breeding nity and the success of his early dramas Grill

only in the cooler parts of the United States parzer forged the link that bound the drama of

and northward, and going South in midwinter. Austria definitely to the literature of Germany.

Its habits differ from those of other woodEdith J. R. ISAACS.

peckers mainly in its custom of drilling a SAPPHO'S LEAP. See Cape DUCATO. great number of holes in the bark of trees, to SAPRÆMIA. See BLOOD-POISONING.

get at and eat the new wood and sugary sap SAPROLEGNIACEÆ. See FUNGI

lying beneath it. In many cases serious harm Water Molds.

is done to fruit trees by the great number of

chains of holes so bored, although many harmSAPROPHYTES, a class of plants living

ful insects are also devoured. See WOODPECKon the carbonic compounds resulting from the Ers, and consult authorities cited thereunder. decay of organic life. They sometimes contain chlorophyll, but generally do not, and

SAPUCAIA (săp-oo-kią) or PARADISE since organs of assimilation are therefore not NUTS, the seeds of Lacythis zabucayo, or necessary, the leaves in many kinds are re

sometimes those of L. ollaria, belonging to the duced to mere scales. This habit of existing

Myrtacea and closely allied to the Brazil nut. only on decaying organisms makes the higher The trees, often 75 feet high, grow abundantly saprophytic plants very difficult to transplant.

in the northern part of South America. The Algæ are often saprophytes, making use of the

nuts which have a sweet almond-like flavor are decaying refuse of the sea; and fungi, especially

more wholesome than Brazil nuts. They are the molds and dung-loving genera as Splach

about two inches long and an inch thick, with num, are the most generally known cryptogams

a corky shell furrowed lengthwise, and are acting as scavengers in this manner. Even

found in hard urnshaped fruits, six inches the globular alga, the «red snow» (Sphe

across and with a woody wall half an inch rella nivalis), exists on the corpses of insects,

thick. These curious, very hard capsules, have pollen-grains and other decaying materials

lids which fit closely, but fall off when quite drifting across the snow. Certain other sapro

ripe. Like the fruits of other members of phytes attach themselves to the bark of trees,

the genus they are called monkey-pots, perhaps not to suck the juices of the host in the man- not only on account of their shape, but because ner of parasites, but to subsist on the decay

monkeys are said to be very fond of the seeds, ing bark and on the organic dust and material

which are scarce for this reason. An edible and in solution washed down by the rain and

soap-making oil, which soon grows rancid, is stopped by the projecting mass of the plants. expressed from sapucaia nuts. Many saprophytic plants living in the cracks SAPULPA, sa-pul'uả, Okla., city and of rocks have only the humus collected in county-seat of Creek County, 102 miles northtiny pockets and the supply of dissolved organic east of Oklahoma City, on the Saint Louis and matters in percolating water, to draw upon. San Francisco Railroad. It is the centre of a Some orchids, as the coral-roots (Corallor- region producing oil and natural gas in great hiza), that have no true roots, but a thin- quantities and of a rich agricultural region. skinned rootstock, which absorbs nutriment It has oil refineries, railroad repair shops, directly; the familiar Indian pipes (Mono- glass plants, cotton gins, machine shops and

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manufactories of bricks, candy, cigars, ice, oil- serves, breweries, glass, candles, soap, liqueurs, well supplies, etc. The city has 10 miles of distilleries and porcelain. Some of the articles paved streets, a large passenger railroad sta- referred to are imported besides rice, dried cod, tion, modern electric light and power plant, an bar-iron, timber and dye-stuffs. The exports electric street and interurban railway, a water- consist chiefly of chocolate, paper, cast iron, supply system owned by the city, storm and wool, hats, dyed silks, soap and especially wheat sanitary sewer system, several churches of the and 'flour -- mainly to Catalonia. Saragossa principal religious denominations, fine high was the salduba of the Celt-Iberians, but the school building, four ward schools, manual walls are all that remain of the ancient city. It training and domestic science building, Colored renounced paganism at an early period and Baptist College and district school, and the Aulus Prudentius, the first Christian poet, was Euchee Indian Mission. There are four banks born here in 348 A.D. It suffered from various with over $4,000,000 on deposit and two daily wars, and in 1808 sustained two memorable and three weekly newspapers. The freight re- sieges, costing 60,000 lives, but finally capituceipts, an index of the city's manufacturing lated to the French. strength, average $3,000,000 annually. Pop. (2) The province of Saragossa contains (1920) 11,634.

6,607 square miles. The highest elevation is SARA, sa'ra, Philippines, pueblo, province 7,700 feet. On the northwest are the spurs of of Iloilo, Panay; in the district of Concepción,

the Pyrenees. The Ebro. Jalon, Huerva, two miles northwest of the town of Concep- Aguas, Arva and Gallego and part of the Aración. Pop. 11,300.

gon are the chief streams. The lower mounSARABAND, a dance, said to be derived

tain slopes are covered by forests. The soil from the Saracens. Its character is grave and ex

in the plains is fertile, producing wheat and pressive. It originated in Spain, where it was

other cereals, flax, hemp, oil, wine, etc. Silkformerly danced to the castanets. Handel, ing industries include paper, leather, soar, bran

worms are reared, sheep are bred. The growBach and other masters frequently wrote tunes of this description for the harpsichord

dies, liqueurs, machinery, various kinds of caror clavichord. It became popular in Europe in

riages, railway material, pianos, beds, glass, the 16th century, but was prohibited for a

bronze, chocolate, jams, woolen and linen goods time in Spain because of its indecency. The

and foundries. Several railways and a canal name is used now to denote a musical com

connecting the Atlantic and Mediterranean are position written for the saraband.

the chief ways of communication. Pop. about

433,000. SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE. See MOHAMMEDAN ART.

SARAH (Heb. Princess"), the daughter SARACENS, săr'ą-sënz, a people mentioned

of Terah, half sister and wife of Abraham,

who in her 90th year bore to him a son, Isaac, by Ammianus Marcellinus as inhabiting the northern district of Arabia Felix.

according to the promise of God. She died in

At the period of the Crusades the term was employed

Hebron at the age of 127 years. See ABRA

HAM. to designate all infidel nations, against which crusades were preached; and in course of time

SARANAC (săr'a-năk) LAKE, N. Y., it became the generic name of all the Arabian village in Franklin and Essex counties, on tribes who embraced Mohammedanism and ex- Lake Saranac, and on a branch of the New tended their conquests in Asia and Africa. York Central and Hudson River and the Cha. SARAGOSSA, săr-a-gõs'a, Maid of, Span

teaugay railroads, about 70 miles south by east ish heroine: d. Ceuta, Spain, 1857. Her name

of Malonė. The village is in a part of the Adiwas Augustina and she was a vivandière in the

rondack region noted for its healthfulness and Spanish army. During the siege of Saragossa the beauty of the scenery. The hunter and (1808–09) she distinguished herself on several

lumberman settled here in 1860–70, but the occasions in battle and was made a sub-lieuten

railroad brought the health and pleasure seekant. Her praises are sung by Byron in `Childe ers in great numbers. In the vicinity are the Harold,' canto i, 54-56.

Trudeau and the Gabriel sanatoria for conSARAGOSSA, or ZARAGOZA, thä-rä

sumptive patients. The principal public buildgö'thä (ancient CÆSAR-AUGUSTA), Spain, (1)

ings are the hotels, the churches and the Capital of a province of its own name and of

schools. The government is vested in a village the ancient kingdom of Aragon, situated on the

president and a board of trustees. Pop. 5,174. river Ebro, in a fertile plain, 174 miles north- SARATOGA, The, a former wooden saileast of Madrid. The town is highly pictur

ing ship of the United States navy; displaceesque with its forest of towers, cupolas and ment, 1,025 tons. Sailing ships of this class spires, the houses of solid masonry highly are fast disappearing from the navies of the ornamented, a city of castles and palaces.

world, but for training the young apprentice Many of the chief buildings were destroyed by

into an able-bodied man-o'-war's man there is the French invaders. Others deserving notice

no better school. are the exchange (1551); the Torre Nuevo; SARATOGA, Battles of, two battles of the the old citadel, Aljaperia, built by the Moors; American Revolution, called also the battles of hospitals, numerous churches and charitable Bemis' Heights, or of Stillwater, fought on institutions, town-house, new university, schools ground about 12 miles east of Saratoga Springs of medicine, theology, etc., many monastic in- and near the Hudson River. Both battles were stitutions, theatre, bath, museum, bull-ring and fought under the same officers, the Americans botanical gardens and promenades. Agricul- being commanded by Horatio Gates (q.v.), ture is the principal occupation of the inhab- who was ably served by Benedict Arnold and itants and the industries include machinery Daniel Morgan (qq.v.), and the British by and iron foundries, tanneries, carriages, pre- John Burgoyne (q.v.). The first battle, 19

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SARATOGA LAKE - SARATOGA SPRINGS

owner

now

Sept. 1777, was indecisive. Burgoyne, having crossed the Hudson on the 13th and 14th, and cncamped on the heights and plains of Saratoga, confronted Gates' army on Bemis' Heights at Stillwater, which the Americans had strongly fortified. About 4 P.M. on the 19th the American left wing, under Arnold, was attacked by Burgoyne's right. The engagement lasted until dark, and both sides claimed the victory. The British held the field, but Burgoyne had failed in his attempt to flank the American position. The British loss was more than 500 men, while that of the Americans was under_400. Burgoyne, whose communications with Canada were cut off, was now placed in peril through the capture of his supply-boats by Lincoln in his rear. Having reason, however, to expect that Sir Henry Clinton would come up the Hudson to his assistance, he fortified his position and waited. But in view of the nonarrival of Clinton, of the shortness of his own supplies, and of the difficulty of retreat, Burgoyne was forced to risk another battle. Advancing, 7 October, with 1,500 men and six pieces of artillery, he was attacked on the right by Morgan's riflemen and a New Hampshire brigade, while Arnold, without orders, and in defiance of Gates, pressed to the front and assumed actual command of the Americans, leading them in a determined assault upon the British lines. The Americans were reinforced at the critical moment, the British again and again gave way, and the battle ended in their retreat with loss of their artillery. In this engagement the British general Simon Fraser was mortally wounded, and Arnold received a severe wound in the leg. The Americans, animated by success, pursued Burgoyne's men, assaulted furiously, and gained partial possession of their camp. This battle like the first, ended with darkness. During the night, while the American forces lay on their arms, Burgoyne withdrew to the heights in his rear, not far to the north, and on the following day, to avoid capture, he retreated to Saratoga. After vainly waiting again for aid from Clinton, being still nearer the end of his provisions, exposed to the American fire, and finding further retreat impracticable, Burgoyne proposed a cessation of hostilities. He refused Gates' demand for unconditional surrender, and Gates modified the terms, which finally provided that the British should march out with the honors of war, and should freely take passage for England, on condition of not again serving against the American army. Congress failed to ratify this agreement, and the captured British, with the exception of Burgoyne and a few other officers, were held as prisoners until the end of the war. The troops surrendered numbered 5,791. An artillery train of 42 guns, more than 4,500 muskets, and a great quantity of ammunition were taken.

SARATOGA LAKE, a lake in Saratoga County in New York State, about four miles cast of Saratoga Springs. It is a favorite place for regattas; it has a straight-away course three miles long and is wide enough to accommodate eight racing sculls abreast. In one of the intercollegiate regattas held here, 16 college crews competed, and had ample room. A steam railroad and electric cars extend from the "Springs to the lake. In the summer it is a favorite resort for fish and game dinners.

SARATOGA SPRINGS (from an Indian word meaning "Hillside of the Great River”), N. Y., city in Saratoga County, on the Delaware and Hudson, the Boston and Maine and the Adirondack railroads, 38 miles north of Albany and 185 miles north of New York. It is easily accessible to many of the large Eastern cities, the "Saratoga Special” making the run from New York in four hours; Boston may be reached in six hours; Albany and Troy one hour; from Buffalo, Rochester, the Adirondacks, the Green Mountains, the White Mountains and many other places fast trains are run, especially in the summer season. It is a remarkably healthful place and all precautions known are used to keep the water pure and the sewerage system free from defects. The missionaries were the first known white men to visit this region. In 1684 the land now constituting Saratoga Springs and adjacent counties was ceded to the Dutch by the Indians. The first white

of the

celebrated "Springs) was Rip van Dam, and Sir William Johnson (q.v.) was the first who had the efficacy of the waters tested. In 1774 the first hotel was erected. The Springs have made for the place a world-wide reputation. Thousands come to this city each year to use the waters, making the city one of the most popular health resorts in the country. Since 1826 the waters have been bottled and sent to various parts of the world. The Saratoga battlefield, the scene of the surrender of Burgoyne to Gates, 17 Oct. 1777, is 12 miles east of the city.

Saratoga Springs is situated on the southernmost spur of the Adirondacks, at an elevation of more than 300 feet above tide-water. The region around has practically no swamps nor marshes; the rainfall is moderate and the winters cold, the summers mild and pleasant. There are but few manufacturing establishments and the region around is composed largely of productive farms. The mineral springs are about 50 in number, 40 of which are well known. The most frequently visited and the waters of which are most extensively used are the Congress, Vichy, High Rock, Arondack, Hathorn, Patterson, Re-Mo-Ho, Red, Magnetic, Columbian, Geyser and Excelsior. The waters are cathartic, tonic, alterative and diuretic. The springs are in three groups: one about a mile south of the city, one a mile north of the city and the largest number within the corporate limits. The Saratoga Racing Park is a mile from the centre of the city. A paved sidewalk leads to the entrance gates. Polo Park, the golf links ground and other grounds furnish opportunity for outdoor sports. Saratoga Lake (q.v.) is about four miles distant.

The principal public buildings are Convention Hall, which seats 5,000 and which cost $100,000; the town-hall containing the theatre, a State armory and the hotels. The hotels of the city have on several occasions accommodated 40,000 guests. On account of its spacious hotels and its convention halls, it is a favorite place for conventions. There are 18 church buildings, representing eight different denominations. The educational institutions are the Skidmore School of Arts, a high school, public and parish elementary schools, several private schools, a public school library, the McMillan

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Reading Circle Library and the Athenæum. The miles. The surface is diversified by numerous charitable institutions are the Saratoga, Saint hills with intervening valleys and many streams Faith and Saratoga Cure hospitals, Home of which with a mild climate and good soil conthe Good Shepherd, Saint Christina Home and tributes to rich pastures and munificent crops. the Children's Home. The State of New York There is a scarcity of timber. The chief exhas established a reservation about the mineral ports are corn, flour, hemp, flax, tobacco, hops springs. It was established in 1909 and is main- and madder. Wheat, oats, rye and tobacco are tained and operated by the State Conservation the principal crops. The mulberry is cultivated Commission. Approximately 550 acres of land for rearing silkworms. Most of the inhabitants are included within it. Upon this property are Russians, although there are many Finns, are 122 natural springs and wells, including Tatars and Germans, etc. Bee-keeping is a practically every naturally mineralized and nat- thriving industry. The value of the manufacurally carbonated water in the Saratoga region. tures is approximately $12,000,000 yearly. The The purpose of the State in assuming control colonists have much improved industry by their over the Saratoga springs was to stop their labor and example. Pop. 3,156,100. commercial exploitation for carbon dioxide gas and to ensure the flow of their curative waters

SARAVOFF, sä-rä'vof, Boris, Bulgarian continuously for the benefit of the public. soldier, leader in the Macedonian revolutionary There are three parks upon the State Reserva- committee: b. Turkey, about 1870. He studied tion, Geyser Park, High Rock Park and Lin- in the military academy at Sofia, obtained a coln Park. At three different places upon the lieutenant's commission in the 1st Bulgarian State Reservation bath houses are conducted for infantry, in 1895 resigned his commission to administering various courses of treatment. devote himself to the cause of the Macedonian They are run in accordance with the highest revolutionists, and performed many daring exstandards of the medical profession and many ploits in that service. His death was frequently of the baths are given only under physicians' reported in the press. prescriptions. At the Lincoln Park bath house are two large, outdoor, fresh-water swimming

SARAWAK, sä-rä-wäk’, Borneo, East pools which are well patronized in the summer

Indies, an independent state, governed by an months. The Saratoga bath house, in the cen

Englishman with the title of rajah, and now tre of the city, is operated throughout the year,

under British protection. It is situated on the and every treatment may be obtained here. The northwestern side of the island, and its coast Lincoln and Washington bath houses are oper

extends from Cape Datu on the southwest to ated all summer and as late into the fall as the Brunei Bay on the northeast, having a length demand for them continues. The Washington of about 400 miles; the inland boundary is bath house, erected in 1919, is the largest and mainly formed by the Dutch territories, while most completely equipped mineral-water bath in the northeast is the independent sultanate of house in the United States, with facilities for Borneo proper, also now under British proevery important hydrotherapeutic treatment. tection. The area of Sarawak is about 42,000

The two banks have a combined capital of square miles and the population about 500,000. $225,000 and a surplus of $200,000. The an- The shore is generally low and undulating, but nual receipts and expenditures are each about immediately behind it the ground rises rapidly $125,000. The hotels expend during the sum- and becomes mountainous. The principal mer season about $40,000 for orchestral music. rivers are the Rejang, Baram, Batang, Lupar The city expends a large amount

and the Limbang. The climate is equable. streets, keeping them clean and in good repair. The soil is very productive, and sugarcane Since 1915 the commission form of government grows readily even without cultivation. Cloves, has been in operation. In that year a city char- nutmegs and cinnamon thrive well; the more ter was granted. Pop. (1920) 13,181.

important vegetable productions are cocoanuts, SARATOV, sä-rä'tof, Russia, (1) Capital

rice and sago. Metals, particularly gold, antiof the government of the same name, on the

mony, silver, quicksilver and nickel, are very Volga, 459 miles southeast of Moscow, in a

abundant and are worked to a considerable exfertile valley, surrounded by lofty hills. It is

tent. Diamonds and other precious stones are one of the most important and best-built cities

also found, and excellent coal, favorably situof eastern Russia. It occupies terraced slopes,

ated both for working and shipping. The intersected by ravines, dividing the city into

original inhabitants are Dyaks, but are now inthree parts. It contains 30 churches, besides a

termixed with Malays and Chinese. They had public library; a fine art gallery; an excellent

made considerable progress in civilization. theatre; a school of drawing; primary and Owing to misgovernment and marauding expetechnical schools, and is the seat of several ditions for the purpose of obtaining slaves and important courts and public offices. There are other plunder they were in a wretched condimanufactures of cordage, bells, pottery, tiles,

tion tisl Sir James Brooke was appointed rajah soap, tobacco, textiles, flour, oil, etc. The trade by the Sultan of Borneo in return for distinis chiefly transit by the Volga, between Moscow guished services in quelling disturbances and and Astrakhan. The industrial works com- restoring order. Under his mild yet vigorous prise flour-mills, iron and oil works, works for administration a happy change was produced, the manufacture of railway plants, and tobacco

and extended its benefits beyond Sarawak to factories. There are extensive distilleries and the adjoining territories. Sir James Brooke, manufactures of liqueurs. Agriculture and who died in 1868, was succeeded by his gardening are the chief occupation of a section nephew, Sir Charles Brooke. The exports conof the population. Pop. 217,418.

sist chiefly of gutta-percha, sago, gambier, (2) A government of southeast Russia, on pepper, dried fish, edible birds' nests and antithe Lower Volga, with an area of 32,624 square mony.

on the

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The genus

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The seat of the government is at Kuching, soda, 10 grains to one dram, dissolved in water, on a river of the same name. It consists of a and taken soon after a meal. native and a European town. Pop. est. 25,000. Sarcina is closely allied to that of Bacterium. A battery commands the reach immediately See BACTERIA. below the town, and there a number of Chinese

SARCINE, hypoxanthine, C.H.NO, houses have been built. The trade of the town

weakly basic organic substance closely related is considerable, and is carried on chiefly in to xanthine and to uric acid. Found in the large boats, some of them of 100 tons, which

muscle juice and in many other fluids of the sail annually to Singapore with sago and other

body. Colorless crystalline needles, slightly productions of the coast, receiving in exchange

soluble in cold water, more so in hot. Unites European goods, Japanese cloths, brass-work,

with acids and certain metallic oxides to form and coarse earthenware, made in China. The

compounds many of which are crystalline. revenue is derived chiefly from customs and the opium, gambling, arrack and pawn farms,

SARCODINA. A class of unicellular exemption taxes payable by Malays. There are

organisms (protozoa) that are without an extenimport duties on tobacco, salt, kerosene, wines,

nal membrane or cell wall. During the active, or etc., and export duties on sago, gambier, pep

vegetative stage of existence they form pseudoper, jungle produce, dried fish, etc. The reve- podia, processes of the protoplasmic body subnue is $900,000 annually and the expenditure

stance by which locomotion is achieved and about $750,000. Imports annually amount

food material seized and taken in. For protec

to about $4,000,000 and exports to $5,500,000.

tion many of them construct a shell of lime, There are military and police forces, the former

silica or chitin though a few cement together consisting of 500 Dyaks under an English army

fragments of foreign material to form such a officer. There are 23 post offices and wireless test. The common ameba, very similar in genstations are located at Sadong, Sibu and Miri.

eral structure to the white blood corpuscles, is Straits Settlements currency is in use, of which

usually regarded as a typical representative of one dollar is equivalent to 58 cents of United the group. It illustrates the simplest forms in States currency. Consult Baring-Gould, S., and

that no skeleton or other specialized structures Bampfylde, C. A., History of Sarawak) are present although at certain times a tem(London 1909); Low, Sir H., Residence in porary cyst wall is formed as a protection Sarawak) (ib.); Ranee of Sarawak, My Life against cold or drought, or during spore formain Sarawak) (ib. 1913); Roth H. Ling, The tion. The character of the pseudopodia and of Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo

the shell are the main factors utilized in distin(2 vols., ib. 1896); Saint John, Sir S., (Life of

guishing the subdivisions of the class. Certain Sir Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak? (Lon- amebæ are parasitic and are indistinguishable in don 1879); Rajah Brooke' (ib. 1899).

general structure from the free-living species. SARCEY, sär-sā, Francisque, French jour- slime-inhabiting forms which would require

They are indeed doubtless descended from nalist and dramatic critic: b. Dourban, 8 Oct. 1828; d. Paris, 15 May 1899. After several

very little physiological modification to adapt

themselves to parasitic existence in the intesyears spent in general journalistic work he be

tine. came dramatic critic for Le Temps? (1867),

Most species exhibit under a high power a and in this position, which he held until his

narrow marginal zone of clear material the death, was a dictator of dramatic criticism, his

hyaline ectoplasm which includes a more fluid word being accepted as final by a large part of

granular endoplasm. The latter is in constant the public. He was the author of The Word

movement and contains food particles, nonand the Thing! (1862); Le Siège de Paris

contractile vacuoles, reserved materials, waste (1871), which reached 30 editions in its first year; Etienne Moret' (1875); (Comédiens et

products, and one or more nuclei.

The conComédiennes) (1878–84); Souvenirs de Jeun

tractile vacuoles are located at the indefinite esse) (1884); Souvenirs d'Age mûr) (1892);

boundary line between the ecto- and endoplasm.

They are, however, rarely found in parasitic (Quarante Ans de Théatre' (1893).

species. SARCINA, sär-si'na, a genus of micro- Multiplication is ordinarily simple cell discopic fungi, consisting of cubic or prismatic vision. The periodic encystment is usually acmasses, made up generally of 8, 16 or 64 companied by formation within the cyst of rounded, cubic cells, the faces of each cell being numerous swarm spores by multiple division divided into four frustules or projections by In some cases and perhaps always before entwo light grooves which cut each other at right cystment two individuals come together with an angles. Each cell has a diameter of about i doth exchange of nuclear substance or complete to it, th of a line, and consists either of a com- fusion as a preliminary to the rapid division pletely homogeneous mass only, without nucleus that produces the numerous

spores. Such or granulations, or of such a mass with four, swarm spores are very minute. In parasitic sometimes two or three nuclei. The cells are species they are the elements for the infection separate from each other by rectangular striæ. of new hosts and this is brought about ordinaSarcinæ are found sometimes in considerable rily by the transfer of ripe cysts, or less easily quantities in the vomitings of persons ill with of the vegetative state of the organism. chronic affections of the stomach, in the fæces Differentiation of species is very difficult of chronic diarrhea, etc.; they have likewise and demands knowledge of the cyst and of debeen detected in the stomachs of rabbits, dogs, tails of spore formation. Many amebæ in vegetortoises and other animals; in the urine; in tative form are merely developmental stages of the pus of gangrenous abscesses; in the bones, other organisms and even those which are etc. The appearance of sarcinæ in vomitings properly members of the group of Sarcodina indicates a particular form of dyspepsia, for are so similar that accurate differentiation is not which the best-known remedy is sulphate of yet possible in most cases,

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