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the Puritan rule and longed again for the flesh History) (Vol. I, London 1902); Lucas, Herpots of Egypt; the other cities of Italy were bert, Fra Girolamo Savonarola (2d ed., Lonhostile to Florence because of her course dur- don 1906); Villari, Pasquale, Studies, Hising the French invasion and because of her torical and Critical (New York 1907); Gobidemocratic government; there had been famine neau, J. A., The Renaissance (New York and pestilence, which Savonarola had been un- 1913); Myers, F. W. H., Lectures on Great able to alleviate; some of the foll rers of the Men (5th ed., London 1861); Von Ranke, LeoMedici had been executed and thus powerful pold, Historisch-biographische Studien (Leipenemies made; and now Florence was threatened zig 1877); Chesterton, G. K., Varied Types with an interdict. Savonarola had to be guarded (New York 1903); Gherardi, A., Nuovi docuby armed followers when he went to preach. menti e studi intorno a Girolamo Savonarola? In 1498, while still powerful, he in a sermon (2d ed., Florence 1887); Olschki, L. S., Biblihad called upon Heaven to consume him with otheca 'savonaroliana) (Florence 1898); also fire if he had acted from unchristian motives.

George Eliot's Romola (1863), and Alfred A friar of the Franciscan order thereupon Austin's drama (Savonarola' (1881); O'Neil, offered to pass through the ordeal of fire with Jerome Savonarola? (1898); Lucas, Life of Savonalora, who treated the offer with con- Savonarola? (1899). tempt. But the Dominicans volunteered to

SAVONNERI TAPESTRY. See TAPESundergo the ordeal to show their faith in Savonarola, and after hesitation, which his enemies made the most of, Savonarola consented to the

SAVOU, sä-voo', SAVOE, or SABOE, an judgment by ordeal, believing in Divine inter

island of the Asiatic Archipelago in the Indian vention in his favor. The fires were made

Ocean, near the islands of Timor and Sandalready and the opposing champions seemed ready

wood. It covers an area of 237 square miles. to enter the flames, when the Franciscans, who

The surface is elevated in the centre, sloping had no intention of carrying out the judgment

seaward. It is well-watered and fertile, yieldby ordeal, began to raise disputes to cause delay.

ing millet, corn, beans; tropical products as They insisted that the Dominicans must not

usual in this latitude, including betel, cinnamon, bear the crucifix nor the host through the

mangoes, cotton, tobacco, etc. Domestic aniflames. Savonarola would not agree to give

mals are numerous, besides buffalo, wild boars up the latter and the dispute lasted until a rain

and deer. Horses and tobacco are the chief came and gave the Franciscans an opportunity

exports, sent to Timor. The island consists to slink away. But upon Savonarola was

of five principalities, subject to the Dutch govblamed the failure of the ordeal. The populace

ernment of Timor. The inhabitants are Mawas infuriated because they had missed the

lays — a strong race with pagan practices, inshow, and called Savonarola an impostor who

cluding dog sacrifices. Pop. 16,000. was afraid of the ordeal. Florence turned SAVOY, House of. The territory of against him; he was arrested, accused of heresy Savoy formed part of ancient Gaul, and from and after six days' torture and a hasty and un- 122 B.C. to 407 A.D. was in possession of the Rofair trial, was condemned to be hanged and then mans, by whom it was divided into two provburned. The sentence was carried out with inces, the Graian and Pennine Alps. At the all the refinements of cruelty. Savonarola was latter date it was seized by the Burgundians, a powerful, typical mediævalist, hostile to many but with Burgundy it became subject to the of the manifestations of the Renaissance spirit. Franks in 534, was included in the CarlovingHis talent for political organization was pro- ian empire, and on its dissolution in 887 was found, but he was mistaken in thinking the granted by the Diet of Tribur to Rudolph, king Florentines capable of self-control in politics or of Transjurane Burgundy, and with that kingof puritanism in religion. The Italian despots dom was united to Cisjuran Burgundy or Arles. understood the people better than Savonarola, On the accession of the last king of Arles and only as a despotic leader was Savonarola to the imperial throne as Conrad II in 1027, himself to any degree successful. His ideals the more powerful nobles of northwestern Italy, were those of an ascetic, uncompromising, rigid. such as the Marquis of Susa, the Counts of An eloquent speaker, he, for a time, imposed his Maurienne, Turin and Chablais, became vasideals upon the Florentines, who when weary sals direct of the emperor. Umberto Blancaof being good, left him to his enemies. Of a mano, Count of Maurienne, was the first of mystical turn of mind, he attached great im- the family who took a prominent place among portance to dreams and visions which he related the princes of northern Italy. His nephew, in his sermons. The writings of Savonarola Amadeus II (1060-80), in right of his mother, were voluminous, embracing sermons, essays Adelaide, heiress to the Marquisate of Susa, and poems on religious subjects, and a treatise added nearly the whole of Piedmont to the on the government of Florence.

original possessions of his house. Humbert II, Bibliography.- Madden, "Life of Savona- his son and successor (1080-1103), further inrola) (1853); Villari, Life and Times of Giro- creased his dominions by the conquest of lamo Savonarola) (2 vols., London 1880; 10th Tarantasia. Amadeus III (1103–49) received ed. 1909); Symonds, The Age of the Despots from the Emperor Henry V the title of Count (1875); Meier, Karl, Girolamo Savonarola, of Savoy in 111l; and his grandson, Thomas I aus grossen Theils handschriftlichen Quellen (1188-1233), who supported Frederick II in dargestellt? (Berlin 1836); Perrens, F. T., his contest with the popes, obtained important

Jérôme Savonarola, sa vie, ses prédications, accessions in Chambéry, Turin, Vaud and other ses écrits) (3d ed., 2 vols., Paris 1859); Luotto, lordships. Amadeus IV. (1233–53), like his P., Il vero Savonarola (Florence 1897); Pas- father a warm adherent of the emperor, obtained tor, Ludwig, Zur Beurtheilung Savonarolas) the submission of the city of Turin to his rule, (Freiburg 1898); Hoosburgh, E. L. S., Savon- and ceded Piedmont to one of his brothers, arola' (London 1901); Cambridge Modern Thomas, Count of Maurienne. He was suc

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ceeded by Boniface (1253-63), and Boniface by his unicle, Peter (1263–68), who reconquered Turin, which had rebelled. His nephew, Amadeus V (1285–1323), now mounted the throne; he assisted Philip the Fair in his war against Flanders, and accompanied the Emperor Henry VII to Italy. His grandson Amadeus VI aided the Greek emperor, John Palæologus, against the Turks and the Bulgarians and accompanied the pretender Louis of Anjou, in his expedition to Naples. His son, Amadeus VII (1383–91), forced the Count of Provence to cede to him Nice and Vintimiglia. Amadeus VIII, grandson of the preceding (13911451), received the ducal title from the Emperor Sigismund in 1416, acquired the county of Geneva, together with Bugey and Vercelli, and re-annexed Piedmont. Louis, who on the abdication of his father had governed as regent, assumed the title of duke in 1440. The elder male line becoming extinct in 1496, the crown devolved on the nearest collateral heirs, Philibert II (1496-1504), and his brother Charles III (1504-53). The latter aided the Emperor Charles V against Francis I of France, and after losing Valais and Geneva, which joined the Swiss Confederation in 1533, and the canton of Vaud, seized by the Bernese in 1536, he was finally deprived of all his territories by the French king. But his son Philibert Emmanuel, surnamed the Iron Head (1553-80), commanderin-chief of the Spanish army, succeeded in gaining back the greater part of the paternal domains by the treaties of Câteau-Cambrésis (1559) and Lausanne (1564). In 1560 he was induced by the courts of Rome, Spain and France to attempt the conversion of the Waldenses by force, but they offered such vigorous resistance to his troops in several encounters that he granted them, under certain conditions, the free exercise of their religion (5 June 1561). Charles Emmanuel I (1580-1630) was defeated by Henry IV of France, who invaded Savoy and Piedmont. His son Victor Amadeus I speedily regained the possessions his father had lost, and added to them Montferrat, Alba, and some other places, surrendering to France in exchange Pignerol, La Perouse, Angrone and Lucerne. His younger brother Thomas was the founder of the line of Savoy-Carignan. Victor Amadeus II (1675–1730), grandson of the first of that name, at the beginning of the war of the Spanish Succession, sided with France; but bribed by brilliant offers, allied himself to Austria by the Treaty of Turin, 25 Oct. 1703. The victories of the Duke of Vendome compelled him to retire to Genoa, but the defeat of the French under the walls of Turin by Prince Eugene (7 Sept. 1706), restored his possessions. In 1709 he severed the Austrian alliance, and remained neutral until the end of the war. By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) he received a part of the duchy of Milan, with the island of Sicily, which conferred upon him the title of king. In 1720 he was compelled to give up. Sicily to Austria in exchange for Sardinia, which with Savoy, Piedmont and his other continental dominions, were erected into the kingdom of Sardinia. Consult Wiel, The Romance of the House of Savoy) (1901).

SAVOY, Military Order of. See ORDERS, Royal.

SAVOY, or SAVOIE, sä-vwä, France, consists of two eastern departments, Savoie and Haute-Savoie, formed in 1860 out of the former duchy of Savoy, one of the states of the Sardinian monarchy (q.v.); it covers an area of 4,162 square miles (2,368 in Savoie and 1,774 in Haute-Savoie), and is exceedingly mountainous. The region is separated from Switzerland by Lake Geneva and is dominated by Mont Blanc, the loftiest peak of the Alpine chain, whose many ramifications extending in all directions present a relief of successive mountains and valleys. Savoy belongs to the Rhone basin, which forms its western boundary. The other rivers are the Arve, Isère and Arc. The chief lakes besides Geneva are those of Bourget and Annecy. The climate is, generally speaking, cold. Savoy is rich in mineral waters, of which the most famous are those of Aixles-Bains (hot-sulphur), Marlioz, Challes (strong natural sulphur), Salins-Montiers (hot, saline, various minerals), Brides-les-Bains (soda, calcium). The extent of arable ground is limited, but a scarcity of grain is supplied by the chestnut which forms a staple food among the peasants and the poor. The vine is somewhat cultivated in the lower valleys and slopes. The main source of profit is in the cattle and dairy produce, as hay and pasture alone are obtained from much of the land. The forests, which cover vast mountain slopes, also afford a rich supply of timber. The minerals are not sufficiently exploited to be of any importance. The manufactures are coarse woolens, linen and cotton goods, felt hats, leather and hardware. Other industries are silk, tanning and weaving. There is an important transit trade carried on between France and Italy, by way of Mont Cenis., Coal, skins, cotton, provisions are imported; cattle, dairy produce, wood, stones, mineral waters, silk goods, tanned leather and paper are exported.

There are some schools, all speak French and they are exclusively Roman Catholic. The University Academy is at Chambéry, and clock-making is taught in two special schools at Annecy, employing 2,000 hands. (Here is also a large cotton mill). The inhabitants are industrious, honest, hospitable and intelligent; their chief characteristic, however, is love of country. Though often compelled to leave their homes for winter employment, wandering through France, Switzerland, Spain, or Italy, in order to earn a livelihood, they return to their native mountains at the earliest moment. Sardinia ceded Savoy to France in 1860. It was formed into the two departments of Savoie and HauteSavoie, whose capitals are respectively, Chambéry and Annecy. Pop. Haute-Savoie 255,137; of Savoie about 248,890; total, 503,027.

SAVOY CABBAGE, a variety of cabbage (g.v.), with many sub-varieties, forming large close heads with wrinkled leaves, and cultivated for winter use, requiring a light, rich soil.

SAVOY CONFERENCE, a conference held in 1661 at the Savoy Palace, London, between a number of Church of England and Presbyterian divines for the purpose of (advising upon and reviewing the Book of Common Prayer; and of taking into serious consideration the several directions and rules, forms of prayer, and things in the same book;

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of consulting also upon the several objections which shall now be raised against the same; and, if occasion need be, to make such necessary and reasonable alterations, corrections and amendments as shall be agreed upon to be needful and expedient for the giving satisfaction to tender consciences, and the restoring and continuing of peace and unity in the churches under his majesty's government and protection. When the Parliamentary cause triumphed in the civil war of 1642-46 the majority of the clergy, who were royalists, were either turned out of their pulpits and their places were filled by Presbyterians, then a strong body in England; and at the Restoration of Charles II a large number of the ministers connected with the church strongly objected to Episcopalian order and practice being again introduced. The government was fully aware of this state of matters, and it was accordingly resolved that the determination of all matters appertaining to the establishment of unity should be left to the advice of a national synod. On 25 March 1661, therefore, the letters-patent above quoted from were issued, appointing 12 bishops, with nine clergymen as assistants on the Episcopal side, to meet with an equal number of Presbyterian divines and discuss the matters therein mentioned. The commissioners met for the first time on 13th April. Sheldon opened the discussion by observing that the Episcopal party, being perfectly satisfied with the established forms of worship, had nothing to propose, and would therefore expect that any objections to the existing order of things, and any innovations that might be desired, should be mentioned by their opponents. The Presbyterians moved that Bishop Ussher's Reduction of Episcopacy, a scheme in which the elements of the Scotch system of presbyteries, synods and general assemblies were combined with distinctions of ecclesiastical ranks, should be laid down as a ground-work to

They further offered several exceptions to the liturgy, against the many responses of the people, and desired that all might be made one continued prayer. They objected to lessons being taken out of the Apocrypha, and wished that the psalms used in the daily service should be according to the new translation. They excepted to many parts of the baptismal service that infer the doctrine of the regeneration of the baptized. They also moved that the practice of kneeling at the Lord's Supper, and that the use of the surplice, the cross in baptism, of godfathers as sponsors, and the celebration of the holy days, should be abolished. It was urged in reply to the demand for the adoption of Ussher's scheme, that the king's commission gave them no power even to take into consideration any questions relating to the government of the church; and the Presbyterians proceeded to discuss the minor points, mainly the alterations in the liturgy. Baxter undertook the preparation of what was called a Reformed Liturgy, but the Episcopalian commissioners rejected it at once, without examining it. The two parties finally separated at the end of four months, the period assigned by the letters-patent, without coming to a single resolution, and the government passed in the following year the famous act of uniformity, the stringent clauses of which drove about 2,000 clergymen from the Anglican Church.

treat upon

SAVOY DECLARATION, the document uttered by the Independents and Presbyterians who met at the Savoy Hospital in London 29 Sept. 1658. In it these religionists declared the principles of their faith and polity. The Declaration is substantially the same as the Westminster Confession. See CONFESSION OF Faith, WESTMINSTER.

SAVORY, aromatic herbaceous or halfshrubby plants of the labiate genus Satureia, native to the Mediterranean region and the Levant. They are cultivated in kitchen gardens. Summer savory (S. hortensis) is an annual with slender branching stems nearly a foot high, bearing soft, lanceolate leaves, often stained with purple, and with lilac or white mint-like flowers in the axils. The young shoots are plucked at flowering time, and dried for flavoring dressings, etc. Winter savory (S. montana) is a perennial species, with similar qualities.

SAW-FISH, a ray of the family Pristida, so called from the sword-like snout, the sides of which are armed with spines, so as to give it the appearance of a large doubled-toothed

Armed with this formidable weapon, which may measure two or three feet or more in length, the saw-fish is said to attack even whales, and to inflict severe injuries upon them, while it is certainly destructive to shoals of small fishes upon which the saw-fish subsists. The true teeth of the mouth are small, blunt, and arranged pavement-like. The mouth is situated on the under surface of the head, and the breathing apertures are large and set behind the eyes. The fins, tail and granular scales are shark-like in most respects. About five species are known, all inhabitants of the open ocean, whence they seldom approach the shore; and they perfer warm waters. A common species on the Gulf Coast of the United States is Pristis pectinatus, which sometimes enters the lower Mississippi or wanders northward on the Atlantic Coast; it is 10 to 20 feet long. The Pristisphorida, which bears a similar weapon, are sharks.

SAW-FLIES, insects of the family Tenthredinide, so called because the ovipositors are constructed of parallel, toothed blades with which the females cut holes in vegetable tissue to receive their eggs. Unlike the wasps, bees, ants and other members of the order Hymenoptera, the abdomen is united by its full girth to the thorax; that is, it is sessile. In general they resemble other members of the order in having two pairs of transparent wings with rather few veins and cells, biting mouth-parts, and a complete metamorphosis. The larvæ resemble caterpillars, but have at least six pairs of prolegs instead of five as do the larvæ of lepidopterous insects. They are also frequently slimy, and often they keep part of their bodies curved beneath the edge of the leaf upon which they are feeding. All feed upon living vegetable tissue, and some are troublesome upon cultivated plants. The currant-worm or slug (Pteronus ribesii), a yellow bodied European insect, whose black-dotted green larvæ appear shortly after the leaves in spring, eat gluttonously for about three weeks and transform to adults below the ground. Two or three broods may appear in

season. The pear slug (Eriocampoides lamacina) is a slimy larva which sometimes

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damages pear foliage. Rose slug, grape slug, capable of turning out about 6,000 superficial raspberry slug, turnip fly and willow saw-fly feet per day. are other well known species which occasionally Saw-mills employing circular saws are of do damage. In such cases they have been com- comparatively recent date. The experimental bated with an insecticide (q.v.) which must be point in the use of the circular saw as the main eaten, though in some cases dust, forcible saw of a mill was passed about the middle of spraying with water, and other remedies have the 19th century, since which time it has been been reported effective.

developed to a state of very high efficiency and SAW-MILL, a complete sawing machine,

general usefulness. By its use a continuous cutwith all its adjuncts, for converting logs into

ting motion is obtained and driven by engincs planks, boards and slabs. The earliest form

ranging from 25 to 100 horse power circular was the sawpit with raised trestle horses upon

saws in connection with steam feeding arrangewhich the log was raised and then sawed by

ments are capable of sawing from 20,000 to hand saws or by whip saws. Windmill power

100,000 superficial feet per day, practically was applied about the beginning of the 13th

limited only by the capacity of the handlers to century and was soon followed by water power.

remove the lumber. All attempts to establish saw-mills in Eng

The saw, which is a disc of steel with a land during the period of 1660-1770 were unsuc

toothed edge, is mounted on a shaft which is cessful on account of the opposition of the hand

rotated by gear wheels, or by belts operated sawyers; but in the United States, beginning

by the shaft of a water wheel, steam engine, etc. with the erection of the mill at Piscataqua Falls

The cutting depth of the saw is somewhat less in the State of Maine in 1634 a vast number

than half the diameter of the disc and the saws of mills have been built in all of the wooded generally employed rarely exceed a maximum districts of the country and by the develop- diameter of six feet on account of the increased ment of improved methods in handling the logs, thickness required to obtain rigidity, and the and in arranging the machinery, have made consequent increase in the amount of the kerf such States as Maine, Michigan and Wisconsin or cut waste. Water power was used almost famous as lumber producing areas.

exclusively until 1835, but it has been almost Of these mills the earlier forms are known completely supplanted by steam engines. “Band as gate or sash saw-mills and consisted of two saws, although known a great many years upright guide posts held in position by a trans- before the circular saw, were not adopted until verse beam at the top. A heavy rectangular recent years on account of the difficulty exwooden frame carrying a straight band saw at- perienced in making saws of sufficient entached to the top and bottom pieces, worked durance to withstand the severe service. Durwith a vertical reciprocating motion in slides be- ing recent years, however, these difficulties have tween the guide posts. The reciprocating mo- been overcome and they are now generally tion was imparted to the sliding frame by a used in all of the great lumber producing counconnecting rod, the lever end of which extended tries. to one end of a water-wheel shaft. The car- The mechanical arrangement consists of two riage bearing the log was moved hy a rack and broad-faced wheels mounted one above the pinion arrangement operated by a feed-wheel other. Over these wheels, a continuous band of and the log was fed endwise to the saw, which steel, which is the saw, works like a belt over was run, usually, at a speed of 150 strokes per two pulley wheels, with a continuous motion, minute and was capable of producing from 500 and the logs are fed endwise against the cutting to 2,000 superficial feet of lumber per day of or toothed edge by a traveling carriage. Mills 10 hours.

employing band saws are capable of producing A larger output was obtained by introducing from 40,000 to 80,000 superficial feet of lumber the "gang” feature, which consisted of attach- per day and require from 25 to 45 per cent less ing several saws to the sliding frame. In the driving power than mills employing circular «Yankee gang,” the saws were arranged in two

The latest thing in band saw-mills is a sets, with the tooth edges of one set facing portable mill in which the log is stationary and in a direction opposite to that of the other set, the band saw, toothed on both edges, travels and enabled the sawing of two logs at one in guides lengthwise of the log, dropping the movement of the carriage. Other forms, des- thickness of a board at each traverse and sawing ignated slabbing gang," "stock gang and at both the forward and return movements. "pony gang," applied the method to special Many saw-mills employ both circular and purposes.

gang saws. Both ordinary blade and band-saws The "muley) saw followed the gate and gang are run in gangs and some band saws run on saws and was adopted generally by the smaller wheels as large as 10 feet in diameter. The mills on account of the great reduction in the mill is usually built upon the banks of a river weight of the reciprocating parts. In this ar- or pond. The general construction is quite rangement, the ends of the saw are attached to simple and consists of a saw floor and log deck two light cross-heads opposite each other, which built at an elevation of about 10 or 12 feet oscillate up and down. The saw is kept in line above the water level. A jack ladder conby means of slides working in a strong iron structed of heavy timber with its lower end frame swung from an overhead beam. The cut- resting on the bottom of the stream, leads up ting is accomplished entirely by the downward to the saw foor at the rear end of the mill. motion, during which the action of the slides Ribbons of iron are fastened to the top sides causes the saw-teeth to hug close to the wood of the ladder and form the track upon which and then recede from it during the upward the log car is operated. The arrangement and motion, so as to reduce the friction. Muley installation of the saws vary according to the saws are driven at a speed of about 300 revo- size of the mills and the kind of work that lutions of the driving wheel per minute and are is done. Since the depth of cut is less than

saws.

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three feet, usually in mills handling logs of large diameter, increased depth of cut is obtained by mounting two saws one above the other, so that they cut in the same line — the upper one cutting down from the top of the log to the cut of the lower or main saw. In the mills in California, logs measuring up to 10 feet in diameter are sawed by arranging four saws one above the other, some cutting horizontally and others vertically, thus permitting the handling of very large trees.

The gigantic trunks of the redwood trees of California, Washington and other States on the Pacific Coast, ranging from 10 to 25 feet in diameter, are first quartered by explosions of gunpowder and then passed through the mills.

One great disadvantage in the use of circular saws is the excessive kerf waste, which is fully 20 per cent greater than that resulting from the use of the band or the gang saws, and is one of the principal reasons for the employment of the last named forms in the smaller mills where the uniform character of the lumber and the saving of raw material are important factors.

The majority of the American mills use single circular saws, but many of them have saws installed upon each side of the mill floor, and the logs are rolled to either side by the log jack placed in the centre of the building. In addition to these rotaries, the larger mills have from one to four gang saws.

The arrangements for handling the logs which are floated down upon the rivers from the distant forests to the mills, consist of piles driven at convenient distances apart, into the bed of the river adjacent to the mill, to which strong “booms” of logs, are attached by heavy chains and serve to hold the logs as in a pen, until they are required and also to leave a free channel in the middle of the stream. When the mill is in operation, the boomed logs are drawn from the water by an endless chain which runs in a V-shaped log slide and is provided with spikes to prevent the log from slipping back. The logs follow each other in endless succession. When a log reaches the log deck, it is loaded upon the skids by the action of a lever operated by the sawyer, which causes a pair of arms to rise through the mill floor and raise the log forcibly upon the skids. The skids lead to the log carriage, upon the "head blocks) of which the log is securely fastened by the insertion of a dog," and it is then ready to be advanced to the saw. This is accomplished in several different ways — by rack and pinion worked by “cone feed,” consisting of two parallel cones operating a belt which regulates the motion of the pinion shaft; by "rope feed.” consisting of a wire rope which passes over pulleys set in the floor to a drum underneath, and is so arranged as to be under the control of the sawyer in the forward movement of feeding, or in the reverse movement of returning the carriage to its original position; or by steam feed, commonly termed (lightning feed, derived from the force of a steam cylinder about 10 inches in diameter, which is laid upon the mill floor underneath the saw carriage to which the piston is attached. As the log is fed and when the first slab has been removed, the sawyer touches a lever and brings the "nigger, a piece of iron-bound timber with spikes upon its front face, through the floor. The spiked

face catches the side of the log and turns it axially at once, to any desired position. If the log is being canted,” or prepared for the gang saw, the slabs are removed from the two opposite sides, a hook is thrown over the rear end of the cant so as to prevent it from returning with the saw carriage, and it is dropped upon a set of rollers which starts it toward the gang. From the time that the log is drawn out of the water and until it emerges from the gang, all of the operations are performed by machinery.

The finished product of saw-mills are beams, planks, boards, etc., of varying sizes in length, breadth and thickness, too numerous to enumerate specifically; laths, consisting of strips four feet in length, three-eighths inch in thickness and one and one-half inches in width, used for lath and plaster work. The total production of the 31,833 saw-mills in operation in the United States, in 1900, was over thirty billion superficial feet, with a market value of about $425,000,000. According to the United States census of 1900, these mills represent a total invested capital of $805,785,236, and give employment to 229,710 workmen. The 1914 census does not afford figures for comparison.

For technical description of saws see Saws AND SAWING; METAL-WORKING MACHINERY, and Wood-WORKING MACHINERY.

SAW-WHET OWL, a small American owl (Nyctale acadica), which takes its name from the rough tone of its cry. It is northerly in its distribution, ranging across the continent, but rarely dwelling as far north as Hudson Bay. It is not so large as a robin and has inconspicuous ear-tufts; bill black; cere tumid; general color: above, chocolate brown, streaked with white; below, white with brown stripes. Its food consists mainly of insects and its nest is made in a hollow of a tree, in an old crow's nest or any convenient place. Compare SPARROW-OWL.

SAWBILL, a motmot (q.v.).

SAWDUST, a general name given the accumulated particles caused by sawing wood, stone, etc. Besides the more common uses of sawdust, it is commercially valuable as the basis of various manufactures. Oxalic acid is manufactured on a large scale from wood sawdust. Sawdust is also used in the carbonating stage of the process for the manufacture of soda ash. The sawdust of mahogany and rosewood is used in dressing furs and the small fragments of some woods, such as the pencil cedar, made by saw cuts or the turning tool, yield perfumes. Sawdust sinks in water, though the wood from which it is cut floats.

SAWS AND SAWING. A saw is a tool consisting usually of a thin, flat blade of highly tempered steel serrated or having a series of triangular-shaped teeth usually on one of the edges, but sometimes on both edges. It is ong of the most important of the various forms of cutting tools and is extensively used for work ing wood, metal, stone and other substances. but principally wood.

Saws are made in a great variety of forms and sizes in order to adapt them to the varying characteristics of the material worked and to suit them to the particular kind of work for which they are used and also to suit the circumstances attending the manner in which they are operated or handled.

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