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SCARBRO - SCAREY CREEK, ENGAGEMENT AT
-a Roman Doric rotunda - a mechanics' in- tion!” writes Mr. Mackaye; “Yet the sense of stitute, and the Spa and its grounds are attract- our highest deficiency is, after all, our salvaive features of the place. There
tion. There is one reality which is a basic hope promenades. The People's Park occupies both for the realization of those dreams. This sides of the valley. Fishing and the manufac- sense is human sympathy, which is, it would ture of jet ornaments are the chief occupations. seem, a more searching critic of human frailty The castle erected about 1136 was held against than satire. It is the growth of this sense the Barons by Piers Galveston, and it was which dowers with dignity and reality the holtwice besieged by the Parliamentary forces. lowest and most ludicious of mankind, and beLater it became a fortified barrack. In 1914 it comes in such a fundamental grace of charwas bombarded with a loss of civilian life by a acter.) German squadron. Pop. 37,000.
Where Hawthorne ends, therefore, SCARBRO, W. Va., town situated on
Mackaye claims, his play begins; where Hawthe Chesapeake and Ohio and Virginian rail
thorne's shafts hit charlatanism, he mingles roads. The chief industry is coal mining, the
human sympathy with irony, and there is for famed New River smokeless coal being pro
Ravensbane, the scarecrow, the same feeling of duced here. The value of the town's taxable
pity that one feels, now and again, for Don property is $400,000. It contains a 10-room Quixote. In his object the dramatist succeeds graded school. The annual receipts and ex
well. With the result that “The Scarecrow penditures average about $2,000. The town is
may be accounted a good drama, admirably fulsituated at an altitude of 1,800 feet and was
filling its purpose, and admirably reflecting New named for the English town of Scarborough.
England temperament of the early witchcraft Pop. 5,000.
MONTROSE J. MOSES. SCARECROW, The. The prolific pen of Percy Mackaye has never turned out a more
SCAREY CREEK, Engagement at. On satisfactory drama than this, called by him a
2 July 1861 General McClellan, then preparing tragedy of the ludicrous. It is clearer in its
to advance from Buckhannon against the Conphilosophical purpose, more skilful in its
federate forces under General Garnett at Rich dramatic treatment, more direct in its human Mountain, ordered General Cox to move with application than anything he has yet done.
one brigade from Camp Dennison, Ohio, cross When it was given in New York, at the Gar
the Ohio River at Gallipolis, and operate in the rick Theatre, on 17 Jan. 1911, with the excellent
Kanawha Valley, the object of the movement support of Frank Reicher, as Ravensbane, and being to secure McClellan's right flank and to Edmund Breese, as Dickon, a Yankee improv
prevent General Wise from reinforcing Garnett isation of the Prince of Darkness, it met with
at Rich Mountain. With three regiments Cox the cordial recognition it deserved. Were arrived at Gallipolis, where he was joined by repertory the fashion at the present day (1919) another regiment, and on the 10th crossed the in the American theatre, it would occupy a
river to Point Pleasant, where he received worthy place among the plays for constant re
orders from McClellan to drive Wise from the vival.
Kanawha Valley. Cox went up the Great The inspirational source for 'The Scare- Kanawha on steamboats, and at the mouth of crow is Nathaniel Hawthorne's Feathertop,
Scarey Creek, on the south side of the river, a tale included in his Mosses from an old found his passage disputed by a force of 200 Manse'; Mr. Mackaye acknowledges his de
men, with two guns, under command of Colonel pendence on the story for the main ideas of
Patton. It was necessary to dislodge Patton, his plot. But he writes an introduction to the whose two guns commanded the river. A smali printed play, showing the main details in which body of Cox's command had reconnoitered the he and Hawthorne differ. These may be position, and awaited the arrival of Cox's main summed up briefly: Hawthorne's Scarecrow body, which came up on the 16th. Cox landed "is the imaginative epitome or symbol of human on the north side of the river, and on the 17th charlatanism,” the satire being aimed against Colonel Lowe, with the 12th Ohio, two comfashionable society. Mr. Mackaye stretches his panies of the 21st, and some cavalry, in all philosophy to wider application. His Scare- 1,020 men and two guns, was landed on the crow, Ravensbane, is the "emblem of human south side of the river and advanced upon bathos." Are we not all more or less human Patton, reaching the bank of the creek about 3 scarecrows, composed of rubbish, out of which P.M. The two guns were put in position and we have to hew our own salvation? When the cavalry advanced, but were speedily driven Dickon and Goody Rickby construct a scare
back by the Confederate guns. The artillery crow, and breathe into him, by their devilish now opened on both sides and, after some magic, the breath of life, symbolized by the sharp firing, Patton's men were seized with glow of a pipe, which keeps Ravensbane alive, a panic; but reinforcements coming up, they they do so in order to wreak vengeance on the were rallied, and the Confederates advanced old justice, Gilead Morton. But they give no and took position along the bank of the creek, thought to the tragedy which might befall a across which there was quite a severe contest. scarecrow thus thrust upon the world and sub- A small Union force was sent across the creek ject to human experience. They do not realize to turn the Confederate left and seize their that when, at the end, in love with the justice's guns; but, not waiting for this movement to niece, Ravensbane looks into the magic mirror, develop, the main body charged across the creek which reveals people as they really are, he will and drove the Confederates up the hillside, back see himself as a scarecrow, and the tragedy of upon their guns, and another panic ensued. But the ludicrous, so entertaining to the onlooker, more reinforcements coming up, the Confedwill fall heavily on his own poor pumpkin head. erates rallied and poured such a telling fire into
“What absurdity is our highest consumma- the advancing Union line that it fell back in 356
SCARIDÆ- SCARLET FEVER
disorder, leaving dead and wounded on the tagion is given off in the discharges of the field, recrossed the creek, and continued the nose and throat, in the vomit, in mother's milk retreat. The Union loss was two officers and and in the desquamated skin. It may also be 12 men killed and 47 men wounded; the Con- carried in the milk-supply, as animals are liable federate loss one officer and four men killed to the disease. It occasionally happens that the and nine wounded. Two colonels, a lieutenant- disease is transmitted before the appearance of colonel, and two captains of Cox's command, the rash, but the most contagious period is after whose regiments were not engaged, but who the onset of desquamation. The young are were led by curiosity to see a fight, left camp particularly liable to the disease. One attack on the north side of the river and were taken usually protects the individual for life. prisoners. This check delayed Cox's advance The period of incubation lasts from two to up the river several days, until he could get seven days, and occasionally longer. The onset land transportation. Consult Official Record is usually sudden and active, the patient appear(Vol. II).
ing very sick and dull, complaining of sore SCARIDÆ, a large family of fishes, repre
throat and general pains througout the body. sented by the parrot-fishes, which occur in all
Severe and persistent vomiting ushers in the warm seas, lingering about coral reefs and attack. The temperature rises rapidly, reaching weedy rocks. Few species are of any value as
103° or 104° F. in the first 24 hours. These game or for food, but some are utilized in the symptoms constitute the prodromata, lasting West Indies and Hawaii. See ICHTHYOLOGY.
from 12 to 36 hours; at the end of which period SCARLATINA. See SCARLET FEVER.
the rash appears, first on the front of the neck
and chest, and gradually spreads over the entire SCARLATTI, skär-läa'tē, Alessandro, body in two or three days. This rash is a difItalian composer: b. Trapani, Sicily, 1659; d. fuse blush of brilliant scarlet hue, showing tiny Naples, Italy, 24 Oct. 1725. Appointed maestro elevations of a deeper color scattered through di capella by Queen Christina of Sweden, he the general redness. The temperature and wrote his first opera for performance in her
severity of the disease increase until the rash palace. He produced his first oratorio I
is all out, then gradually subsides, the temperDolori di Maria sempre Vergine,) in 1693, and ature reaching normal about the 10th day. was then appointed maestro di capella to the The tongue shows similar elevations to those viceroy at Naples. He held the position of described on the skin, and hence is described chapel-master at Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, as “strawberry tongue.” The throat presents a 1707-09, and then returned to Naples. Scar- general intense redness of the pharynx, palate latti was possessed of great fertility of imagina- and tonsils, with sometimes small white spots, tion. In method he opposed the enemies of the
or considerable patches of false membrane of counterpoint, being considered the greatest con
a pearly white appearance. Desquamation betrapuntist of his age, and the inventor of ac
gins about seven days from the appearance of companied recitative. His compositions, few of
the rash, and the parts that are first affected are which have been published, included 115 operas, the first to desquamate. The process continues 200 masses, 9 oratorios, 500 cantatas, and mis
until the entire skin of the body is shed. At cellaneous minor pieces. Three of his operas, first the desquamation is in the form of tiny (Geroue); (Il Flavio Cuniberto'; and La Teo- particles, but after it has continued for a few dora Augusta, preserved in the original manu- days the skin begins to peel off in large flakes, scripts, are at Christ Church, Oxford, England, sometimes even the entire skin of the hand or and another is in the British Museum.
foot being shed in one piece. This process is SCARLET FEVER, or SCARLATINA, not completed in less than 10 days, and may an acute infectious disease, the specific cause of take over six weeks, the skin between the toes which has not yet been discovered (1919). The and fingers being the last to peel. There may disease is characterized by a rapid onset of be an entire second desquamation, but it is fever, general symptoms of poisoning, and doubtful if this ever carries contagion. The later by thé appearance of a typical rash. The popular belief that the disease is more serious disease was not definitely described until the to adults than to children does not seem to be latter part of the 16th century, although an oc- warranted by the observation of eminent aucasional case is suggested in literature before thorities. that time. Epidemics ravaged Europe for 150 The complications of scarlet fever are comyears before the disease made its appearance in mon and frequently very serious. From the America; this was in Massachusetts in 1735; throat germs may pass through the Eustachian and the disease then spread all over New Eng- tubes to the ears, causing inflammation there. land and the rest of North America. Not until The lymphatic glands of the neck may be en1830 did it get a foothold in South America, larged by the poison passing through them, and but since that time epidemics have been wide- sometimes they suppurate. Inflammation of the spread and frequently very malignant.
joints having all the characteristics of rheumaIn spite of laborious researches, the caus- tism is very common; and affections of the ative agent has as yet eluded detection. The heart may follow this rheumatic complication. disease is transmitted directly from one indi- There is probably more or less affection of the vidual to another, or through articles which kidneys in all but the very mild cases, but in have been in the sickroom, such as clothing, some the inflammation of the kidney structure bedding, paper, pictures, and particularly those is so severe that the picture of acute nephritis substances from which infectious material is is paramount. (See KIDNEYS). From such innot readily dislodged. The virus is not killed flammation the patient may entirely recover, by cold, but dry heat, steam and gasses such as being left with normal kidneys, or he may sucformaldehyde or chlorine are thought to destroy cumb because of their impairment; or, again, it after a comparatively short exposure to their the kidneys may be left permanently changed; action. It is doubtful if this is true. The con- this last condition being particularly apt to
SCARLET GRAIN - SCARLET LETTER
occur when the inflammation sets in late in the disease during convalescence. Ordinary cases of scarlet fever are seldom fatal if the complications referred to are absent.
The diagnosis, before the appearance of the rash, is suggested by the rapid onset of the symptoms, the intensely red throat, and the persistent vomiting The prolonged period of fretfulness, watery eyes and running nose of measles does not occur in scarlet fever; and, differing from that of scarlet fever, the desquamation of measles is bran-like. If a membrane is formed in the throat, it may be necessary to resort to bacteriological examination to distinguish between diphtheria and scarlet fever. There are many drugs which may cause a rash, closely resembling that of scarlet fever; among them, carbolic, benzoic, boracic and salicylic acids, salol, alcohol, antipyrin, phenacetin, arsenic, mercury, potassium chlorate, quinine, sulphonol, belladonna, hyoscyamus, copaiba, cubebs, rhubarb, strychnine and various ptomaine poisons. The rash caused by these substances comes out very quickly, and usually is of very short duration, while differentiation is also made by the absence of constitutional symptoms or the peculiar symptoms of the drug.
The malignant types of scarlet fever have sometimes characterized entire epidemics, but they are now rarely seen. Such cases are seen from the start to be very serious, being attended with high fever, rapid and feeble pulse, intense and persistent vomiting, headache, delirium and coma, death ensuing in two or three days.
Treatment.- As scarlet fever is self-limiting and no specific remedy is known that in any way reduces the virulence of the intoxication, reliance must be placed on careful nursing of the patient, constant watch to ward off complications, measures for the relief of such complicating inflammations as do develop and scrupulous efforts to prevent the spread of the disease. Since isolation must be continued for six weeks at least it is important to select a bright, sunny room, if possible, having an open fire. The patient is kept in bed for at least two weeks, commonly much longer. The vomiting is relieved by small pieces of cracked ice; the throat is sprayed twice daily with a mild antiseptic, such as boric acid; the patient is bathed with lukewarm water if the temperature is high, but antipyretic drugs are best avoided. After desquamation begins the entire body is covered daily with a simple ointment to favor it and to diminish the possibility of the contagion being carried. For the first four weeks of the disease the diet consists entirely of milk, but careful watch must be kept of the kidneys, as their impairment may demand a longer continuance of that diet. Not until the lapse of six weeks at least is the patient allowed to go out of doors, and not then if the weather be inclement. To prevent the spread of the disease, thorough disinfection of the sickroom and all of its contents is essential. The patient is thoroughly washed with a solution of corrosive sublimate, then removed to another room to be dried and dressed. The mattress is wrapped in wet cloths, removed from the house, and preferably destroyed. Everything that has been left in the sickroom should be disinfected with solutions of antiseptic property, or subjected to the action of steam in a closed chamber.
The wall paper should be scraped off, and the walls, ceiling and floor washed with a strong solution of corrosive sublimate, a mop or a loaf of bread being used. Formaldehyde gas is then to be generated in the room for 10 hours, after which the windows are left wide open for several days.
SCARLET GRAIN, a dye-stuff consisting of coccid insects allied to cochineal. See Coccus.
SCARLET IBIS. See IBIS.
SCARLET LETTER, the first and by general consent the greatest of Nathaniel Hawthorne's four chief romances, was originally planned as a short tale, and was expanded to its present proportions on the urgent advice of the author's friend and publisher, James T. Fields. When, with the change of administration in 1849, Hawthorne was removed from the surveyorship of customs at Salem, he undertook a collection of short pieces that might have borne to the custom-house, where he had worked, the same relation that his preceding collection had borne to the Old Manse, where he had lived. An introductory sketch, "The Custom-House, written for this collection, is always prefixed to "The Scarlet Letter,' though it has no real connection with the romance, and though it contains some unfortunate personalities which show the writer's ill-temper over the loss of his position. The account in this sketch of the finding of a moth-eaten embroidered “A” and a manuscript in the upper rooms of the custom-house is of course fanciful. Years before, in the tale of Endicott and the Red Cross, Hawthorne had made incidental mention of a woman who was forced to wear a scarlet "A" in token of her guilt, and the thought of this punishment, or rather of its effect on the wearer, seems to have remained with him until it resulted in the creation of Hester Prynne. (The Scarlet Letter) was published in the spring of 1850, and instantly won for the author a recognition that had been denied to the delicate and finished shorter tales of his earlier collections. Its reputation in America has increased rather than diminished with time, and it has been warmly praised in England. In other countries it is less known, perhaps partly because many of its effects are too subtle for translation, partly because the peculiar New England quality is not readily appreciated by those of another race. (The Scarlet Letter) is in every way typical of Hawthorne. The background is colonial New England, and the theme is the effect of a great sin on the four persons most concerned. Hester Prynne, who wears the scarlet letter, her paramour, the wronged husband, and the child who is the offspring of illicit love. When the tale opens, the sin is a thing of the past, and the judgment of the law has been imposed. The author passed by the story of love, temptation, yielding, and discovery, and beginning where another novelist might have ended he traced the moral and spiritual tragedy which followed. Even in the handling of this material he made no use of the ordinary devices of the story-teller. Thus, the identity of the guilty man, which might have been so treated as to arouse curiosity and then revealed with startling effect, is allowed to transpire quietly, The chief contrast is between Hester, who suffers 358
openly, and her partner in guilt, who maintains his honorable position in the community unsuspected; and the lesson which is most likely to be drawn is that of the virtue of open expiation, and the evil of concealment, even where there seem to exist the strongest arguments against confession. In the author's own words, Be true! Be true! Be true! Show freely to the world, if not your worst, yet some trait whereby the worst may be inferred !) A secondary moral, the deadening effect of a secret and long-continued plotting for revenge, as seen in the husband, Chillingworth, is almost too obvious. Yet The Scarlet Letter, while it is sure to stimulate thought, is not in any sense a preachy book. The reference in the conclusion to Hester's belief in a new truth) which should establish the whole relation between man and woman on a surer ground of mutual happiness, is somewhat perplexing, but has probably been taken by radical social reformers more seriously than the author in
tended. Throughout the book the thought of V the scarlet letter, both a material ob
ject and as a symbol, is everywhere present, and is woven into the tale with even too great ingenuity. It is personified in the child, Pearl; it seems to imaginative observers to be flashed in the heavens by the track of meteors; and as we are led to believe, it was burned in penance on the breast of the guilty man. The background, the characters, like the demented witchsister of the governor, the incidents, and the motive unite to sustain throughout the romance a uniform tone sombre, tragic, unbroken from first to last by a trace of humor, and still neither morbid nor repellant. It would have been a great achievement to tell such a story for the select few who are fond of subtle psychological analysis; it is marvelous that Hawthorne made a tale, in which nothing outward happens, appeal to the mass of readers who are accustomed to demand constant action.
WILLIAM B. CAIRNS. SCARLET TANAGER. See TANAGER.
SCARLETT, Sir James Yorke, English soldier: b. 1799; d. December, 1871. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, entered the army, and in 1854 was sent to the Crimea in command of the heavy brigade. On the 25th of October he led the brigade in its famous charge at Balaclava, and later in the day it brought out of action the remnants of the light brigade after its even more famous charge. In both of these actions Scarlett took a prominent part in the hand-to-hand conflict. For these services he was promoted to the rank of majorgeneral, on 12 December following, and upon the retirement of Lord Lucan took command of the entire cavalry forces in Crimea. In July 1855 he was created a K.C.B. He commanded the camp at Aldershot 1865–70, and retired from active service in the last-named year.
SCARP. See Fault; also ESCARPMENT.
SCARPA, skär'pä, Antonio, Italian anatomist: b. Friuli, Italy, 13 June 1747; d. Pavia, Italy, 31 Oct. 1832. He studied medicine at Padua, 1772 was appointed professor of anatomy at Modena, and published in that year his first work on the anatomy of the ear, Anatomicæ Observationes de Structura Fenestræ rotundæ Auris. In 1783 he resigned this chair to accept a similar one at Pavia, where he pub
lished his great work, Anatomicæ Disquisitiones de Auditu, etc. (1789). At the time of the revolution in Italy he was deprived of his professorship in the university on account of refusal to take the oath required by the Cisalpine republic. He now published his celebrated work on Aneurisms (1804). When Napoleon, after his coronation as king of Italy, arrived at Pavia (1805), and received the officers of the university, he inquired after Scarpa. He was informed that he had long ceased to be a member of the university, and was told the reason. “What,” said Napoleon, "have political opinions to do here? Scarpa is an honor to Pavia and to any dominions. Let him be honorably restored.” Scarpa was the author of several other surgical works besides those already mentioned. Most of his works have been translated into English and French.
SCARPANTO, skär'pän-to (ancient CARPATHOS), a Turkish island of the Mediterranean, 28 miles southwest of Rhodes. It is 27 miles long by six miles wide, is rocky and mountainous, and has four harbors, two on the east, one on the north and one on the southwest side, known respectively as Port Pernesi and Port Avdemo, Port Skomaco and Port Grato. There are indications pointing to a former dense population, as judged from the numerous ruins of towns. Pop. 5,000.
SCARRON, skä-rôn, Paul, French author and playwright: b. Paris, France, 6 July 1610; d. there, 6 Oct. 1660. Refusing to take orders he led a wild life in Paris and in Rome, to which city he went in 1634. Shortly after his return to Paris in 1637 he was stricken with an illness which left him a paralytic for the rest of his life. His mind was not affected, however, and he made his livelihood by literature. At one time he was the pensioner of the queen, but losing his pension through the influence of Cardinal Mazarin, he then wrote in revenge his satirical Mazarinade (1649), one of his bestknown works. He married in 1652 the young and beautiful Francine d'Aubigne, afterward Mme. de Maintenon. Both before and after this event, which Scarron survived eight years, his house was the centre of a brilliant literary society. The most famous of Scarron's writings in his own time is said to have been his (Virgile Travesti? (1648–53), but modern critics prefer his Roman Comique) (1651). There have been many editions of his works; the best are those published in Amsterdam (10 vols., 1737) and reprinted at Paris (7 vols., 1786).
SCARZONERA, a genus of composite plants with numerous species, chiefly indigenous to the Mediterranean regions. The flowers are yellow or rarely rose-colored, having many series of involucral bracts, plumose and unequal pappus, and achenes without a beak and generally wingless. S. hispanica, sometimes known as viper's grass, has long been cultivated for its tapering, fleshy, edible roots, the dark-brown skins of which have caused it to be called black salsify. The leaves are long and lanceolate with waving edges. Other species are also cultivated for their roots.
SCAUP, skâp, or BLACKHEAD DUCK, a duck (Aythya marila), of the same genus as the redhead (q.v.), which it closely resembles in form but from which the green-glossed black
head of the male and the white face of the not stood the test of time, and his later novels female distinguish it. It is a very abundant are outranked by their predecessor. This sufduck about the shores of the North Atlantic, fices, however, to give him his place which is frequenting the sounds, bays and estuaries of larger in the affectionate remembrance of his the United States to Central America in winter compatriots than in French literary history, for and in the spring passing northward and inland his success was due to the peculiar optimism to breed. On the coasts of the New England and buoyancy of his temperament rather than and Middle States the scaup is most abundant to any special artistic quality. This temperament during the fall migration, occurring in flocks allowed him to regard his own difficult and harwhich feed chiefly upon small mussels and other assed life as a subject for comedy and highmarine animals, especially mollusks, secured by spirited rejoicing. His famous work frequently diving
reproduces scenes and incidents in his own A closely related species is the lesser scaup experience. The son of a Paris janitor and duck (A. affinus), which is almost an exact tailor, he was driven from home as a lad and smaller counterpart of the blackhead, except in his effort to win recognition as a poet was that the head of the male is glossed with purple reduced to a condition of starvation which instead of green and the length is about 16 resulted in impairing his vitality and freinstead of 18 inches. This species regularly con- quently brought him into the wards of Paris sorts with the larger scaup and is altogether hospitals. To support himself he was at insimilar in distribution and habits. Both species tervals, like his hero Rodolphe, reduced to are shot in large numbers by sportsmen and uncongenial and often unpaid tasks on cheap market gunners and regularly sold in the mar- ephemeral trade journals like the Scarf of Iris kets, but the flesh is rather coarse and strong- or Beaver (Le Castor) of the Scenes. On one flavored.
ever memorable occasion he, however, received SCELIDOTHERIUM. See MEGATHE- for past and future services 500 francs, which RIUM.
provides one of the well-known incidents of SCELOPORUS, sê-lõp'o-růs, a genus of
his story. The indulgent ever-smiling young lizards of the family Iguanidæ, to which the
Bohémiennes, like Mimi and Phemie and the Florida chameleon (Anolis) and the horned
rich young lady cousins, never if ever appeared toads (Phrynosoma) also belong. Among its
in the doorway of his garret where he toiled kindred, this genus is distinguished by its im
unremittingly for success. It is for this reason bricated keeled scales, the absence of a dorsal
that it is no true picture either of his own crest, of gular folds or a gular sac and of head
struggle or of the hard-working and serious spines. The tympanum or ear-drum is exposed
life of the Latin Quarter of his time, which, between the small scales of the side of the
though it had its rare gala days of festival and head; the tongue is fleshy and shaped some
high spirits, had also its long months and what like an arrowhead; teeth are confined to
years of unrequited toil that often ended final the jaws and have trilobate summits. Femoral
poverty and failure. For this reason those who pores, the secretion of which assists the sexes
know Bohemia) best refuse to recognize Murin mating, are well developed. Between 30 and
ger as its portrayer. A truer picture is to be 40 species of this genus are known, all of them
found in the biographies of Balzac or Zola or American and most of them confined to Central
Daudet, who passed through its toil and trials America, Mexico and the southwestern United
before or after this time. It should also be States. In this region these lizards are
remembered in this connection that of the hunceedingly abundant and are everywhere con
dreds of talented young men who struggled spicuous objects. They are chiefly terrestrial,
with them only a very small percentage won but many of the species also live upon stone
lasting recognition or any financial reward. walls or fences or run up tree trunks when
Murger was, therefore, not in any sense a alarmed. Their food consists of insects, which
realist but a delightful' humorist and idealist they seize with the greatest agility. In tem
who created certain exaggerated but ever fresh perate regions they hibernate in cold weather.
and amusing types and who made a life of toil The males are generally ornamented with bright
against heavy odds, relieved by the joys of colors on the under parts which may be con- youthful comradeship and kindred aims, appear sidered to be secondary sexual characters. The
as one long and uninterrupted holiday. This eggs, which have parchment-like shell exaggeration of type is the reason why his hardened with lime, are usually retained in the
heroes and heroines with but little charge oviducts until the young are partly or wholly
make the strikingly successful characters of the developed; when deposited, holes in the ground, light opera by Puccinj based upon his work. decayed stumps, etc., are utilized for their con
It was Bohemia as he would have wished it, cealment. As in many other lizards, the tail is
but as it never was for him or his serious easily broken along an unossified plate across
brothers in the fellowship of art. See Bothe body of the vertebræ, after which it regen
HÉME, La erates, but always imperfectly. The only eastern
CHRISTIAN Gauss. species is the common swift or fence-lizard (S. SCEPTICISM, in its widest meaning, is a undulatus). Consult Cope, The Crocodilians,
state of doubt or suspense of judgment. It is Lizards and Snakes of North America) (United
often used in connection with religious belief, States National Museum, Washington 1900). and here indicates doubt or disbelief of author
SCENES OF BOHEMIAN LIFE, The, ized doctrines. The word scepticism has a speby Henri Murger (1822-61), though published cific meaning, however, which is implied in its at the beginning of his literary career (they more general uses, and in this meaning it has began to appear in the periodical press in 1847) a philosophical reference and relates to the mark the highest point in his achievement. His problem of knowledge. Thus used, scepticism poetry (he always believed himself a poet) has signifies systematic doubt or entire disbelief in