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RUSSIA - GEOGRAPHY, POLITICAL DIVISIONS, ETC. (1)

Europe; Onega, Peipus and Ilmen. Almost all is as a belt stretching south-southeast from the the other lakes of any size belong to the basin eastern coast of the Gulf of Tcheskaia in the of the Volga; chief of these are the Bielo- Arctic Ocean, and in a longer but narrower Ozero, in the government of Novgorod, and the belt on the western side of the Ural chain, Koubinsköe, in the government of Vologda. In where it immediately overlies the Silurian forthe south are several large salt_lakes, among mation already mentioned. The formation next them the Elton and the Khaki Salt Marsh, in in order is the Carboniferous. The main body the Government of Astrakhan.

of it lies within the above fork of the Old Red Geology. A vast tract of gneiss and other Sandstone, and in immediate contact with it, crystalline schists, penetrated by granite, ex- and then keeping parallel with the northeast tends east from the Gulf of Bothnia, and north branch of the fork, is continued in the same from the Gulf of Finland over the whole prin- direction to its termination in Mezen Bay. It cipality of the latter name, the western part of occupies the whole of the government of Tver, the government of Olonets, and the extensive the capital of which is situated near its centre; part of the government of Archangel which is and large parts of Smolensk, Kaluga, Tula and isolated from its main body by the White Sea. Riazan on the one side, and of Novgorod and The only other region where a similar develop- Olonets on the other. The government of ment occurs is in the south, where a large gran- Moscow is situated in the very heart of it, and itic steppe stretches in a southeast direction. It that of Vladimir on its eastern side. It is evibegins near Ovrutch, in the northeast of dently continued beneath these governments the government of Volhynia, covers the far and covers part of their surface, the other and greater part of the government of Kiev, as far greater part being covered by oolite or Jura much of the government of Podolsk as lies limestone. The Carboniferous system occurs in north of the Bug, the northern half of the gov- two other distant and isolated localities; the ernment of Kherson, the west and south of one in the south, a little north of the Sea of Ekaterinoslav, and a part of Taurida, and Azov, where it occupies the eastern part of the terminates in Ukraine just before reaching the government of Ekaterinoslav, and the western shores of the Sea of Azov, from which it is extremity of that of Don Çossacks, and where, excluded by a narrow belt of Tertiary marls too, the coal forming the characteristic mineral and limestone. In the east, however, and along of the system is partially worked by pits; the the whole crest of the Ural Mountains, from other locality is on the western side of the Ural their commencement on the shores of the Arctic chain, where, in the ascending series, it succeeds Ocean, and almost continuously southward to the Silurian and Devonian systems, and has a their last ramifications, granite of more recent larger development than either of them. This origin than that already mentioned occurs, in development of the Carboniferous system on connection with other eruptive rocks of green- the side of the Ural chain, and the still larger stone, porphyry, syenite, serpentine, etc. These development above described as existing in the rocks are overlain on both sides of the chain governments of Smolensk, Kaluga, etc., forms by metamorphic schists, forming long and nar- the opposite boundaries of a system which in row belts nearly parallel with its principal axis. European Russia is highly developed; and to Immediately to the west appears a similar belt which from the large space which it covers in of Silurian strata, which, where lowest in the Perm and the contiguous governments, the series, is in the state of chloritic and talcose name of the Permian system has been given. schists. The only other locality where the Its rocks belong to the upper part of the coal Silurian system receives a marked development measures and consist chiefly of magnesian limeis on the southern shores of the Gulf of Fin- stone and new red sandstone. The latter name land, where it stretches from its western ex- is still often applied to the whole system. The tremity east along the governments of Esthonia Permian system extends over the governments and Petrograd, and is then continued across of Kostroma, Viatka and Kazan, and large the isthmus between the eastern extremity of parts of Archangel

, Vologda, Yaroslav, Nijnithe gulf and Lake Ladoga, and along the south- Novgorod, Simbirsk, Orenburg and Perm. In ern and southeastern shores of that lake. In the north of the governments of Kostroma and immediate contact with this Silurian formation Viatka, and more especially in the part of Volon the south, but on a much more magnificent ogda between the towns of Nikolsk and Ustscale of development, appears the Devonian sys- Sisolsk, it disappears for a time beneath strata tem, or Old Red Sandstone. The main body of belonging to the Jurassic or colitic system. this formation begins near the southeastern This system is developed partially in several shores of the Baltic, and gradually widens out other localities, and very largely in the northwith its northeastern and southeastern sides, east of the government of Archangel. Immediso as to assume the shape of a wedge. It then ately above it in the geological series is the forms a wide fork, sending one of its branches Cretaceous system, of which the principal lonortheast across Lake Onega, and along Arch- calities are Chernigov, Orel, Kursk, Kharkov, angel Bay to the northwestern extremity of and Voronezh, near the centre; Volhynia and Mezen Bay, and the other southeast to the north- a small part of Poland in the west; and a long western frontiers of Voronezh. It thus covers tract along the northern base of the Caucasus. continuously the whole of the governments of

The rocks next in succession belong to the Kurland, Livonia, Vitebsk and Pskof, and parts Tertiary formation, which in both its Eocene of Vilna, Minsk, Mohilef and Smolensk, on the and Miocene periods is very largely developed. one side, and of Petrograd and Novgorod on Strata of the Eocene period, beginning in the the other; while its northeast branch traverses east in the government of Simbirsk, stretch Olonets, and penetrates into Archangel; and its west over the greater part of the governments southeast branch stretches over considerable of Penza and Tambov, then, after a considerparts of Kaluga, Orel and Tula. The only other able interruption, reappear on the frontiers of localities in which the same formation occurs Kursk and Kharkov, cover the far greater part RUSSIA — GEOGRAPHY, POLITICAL DIVISIONS, ETC. (1)

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of the governments of Chernigov and Poltava, November and is seldom open again before the and are thence continued without interruption beginning of April. In all the countries borderinto the governments of Mohilev, Minsk and ing on the shores of the Baltic Sea and the ArcGrodno. The Miocene period has its chief de- tic Ocean, and bounded on the west and north velopments in Volhynia, Podolsk and Bessara- by the basin of the Volga, the air is charged bia." Beds of still more recent formation may with a superabundance of moisture, which debe traced in the limestones, marls and clays on scends in mists and frequent falls of rain or the northwestern shores of the Black Sea, on

Toward the centre, and still farther the far greater part of the Peninsula of the east, the superabundance of moisture disapCrimea, on the eastern and northern shores of pears, though enough still remains to keep vegethe Sea of Azov, on the low fats along the tation in full vigor even at the hottest season. western and northern shores of the Caspian, Still farther south the want of rain is often and the low, sandy steppes of Astrakhan. felt and long-continued droughts do frequent Mere alluvial deposits, of comparatively recent mischief. In general, however, the climates of date, are to be found in a greater or less degree all the regions are not unfavorable to health. at the mouths of all the rivers, and are par- Forestry and Flora.- Forests are found ticularly discernible in the great estuary of the chiefly in the more northern districts, particuPechora. Vast numbers of erratic blocks and larly Archangel, Vologda and Perm, and cover similar drift are spread over the greater part about 39 per cent of the total area of European of northern Russia, evidently transported from Russia. In many of the central and southern Finland, Lapland and Sweden.

governments a deficiency of timber is seriously Climate.--As the country extends over 35 felt and many extraordinary expedients are redegrees of latitude, from the warmer regions of sorted to in order to obtain adequate supplies the temperate far into the regions of the of fuel. The districts most imperfectly profrozen zone, it exhibits several marked diversi- vided with wood are Esthonia, Bessarabia, ties of climate, usually considered in four di- Kherson, Ekaterinoslav and Astrakhan. The visions -- a polar region, including all the coun- prevailing trees of the northern forests are fir, try north of lat. 67°; a cold region, extending larch, alder and birch. The oak is seldom found from lat. 67° to 57° N.; a temperate region, beyond lat. 61o. A considerable proportion of from lat. 57° to 50° N.; and a warm region, from the surface still continues almost in a state of lat. 50° to 37° N. The characteristic features nature; and, where it is well wooded, it is a of the climate in general are a greater coldness question whether any other mode of occupation and variableness than is common under the would be equally productive. Russia possesses same latitudes in the more westerly parts of about 3,400 species of phanerogamous plants, Europe. The mean annual temperature of the

but the examination which botanists have upper part of the Norwegian Coast to its ex- made is incomplete and it is probable that many tremity at the North Cape is above the freez- remain to be discovered. ing point, whereas a considerable portion of The forest area of European Russia covers Russia within the same, and even in a lower lati- a territory of 474,000,000 acres. In the Ural tude, is below it. This is true of the whole of Mountain region forests cover 70 per cent of Russian Lapland as far south as 66°; and to the the total area. In 1917 the revenues derived east of the White Sea the thermal line, indicat- from the state forests amounted to 111,206,000 ing a mean annual temperature of freezing, de- roubles (about $55,603,000); the expenses scends so rapidly that on reaching the Ural amounted to 41,592,000 roubles ($20,796,000), Mountains it is found to be as low as 60°. The leaving a net profit of 69,614,000 roubles ($34,region to which the name of cold has been 807,000). given has a mean annual temperature varying Fauna.-Animals, both domestic and wild, between 32° and 40°, but very unequally di- are numerous in Russia. Among the latter are vided throughout the year, the cold in winter the bear, the wolf, wild hog, the desman, the often sinking the thermometer to 30° below mole-rat, the saiga, the bobak or Russian marzero, or 62° below freezing, while the summer mot, the elk, the bison, the lynx and various heat often raises it above 80°. At Petrograd animals which are hunted for their furs. Wild considerably below the centre of this region, the fowl abound, particularly near the mouths of mean annual temperature is rather above 40°; rivers; among them the pelican frequents the on the other hand, that of Kazan, situated at shores of the Black Sea. Both on the coasts the very south extremity of the region, but and in the rivers a great number of productive much farther inland, is rather below 36o. The fisheries are carried on. In the Arctic Ocean temperate region, situated between lat. 57o and whales are killed and vast numbers of seals are 50° N., has a mean annual temperature varying taken. The rivers of the Caspian, particularly from 40° to 50°, and includes within it the far the Ural and Volga, and the Sea of Azov, are finest part of the Russian territory, though even celebrated for their sturgeon. In the same quarthere the thermometer has a very wide range, ters are also important salmon fisheries. Repthe summer heat, which suffices to grow melons tiles are few and mostly innocuous. and similar fruits in the open field, being often Land Tenure.- Under the empire the posucceeded by very rigorous winters. The warm litical divisions of the Russian people comprised region, extending from 50° southward, well numerous grades of nobility, which were partly merits the name from its extreme summer heats, hereditary and partly acquired by military and the thermometer in June and July standing civil service, especially the former, military commonly about 100°, and often considerably rank being most highly prized. The clergy, higher. It is not, however, free from the re- both regular and secular, formed a separate markable contrasts which a Russian summer privileged order. The higher clergy were forand a Russian winter exhibit; for the Sea of merly possessed of great wealth, but much of Azov, situated almost in the heart of this re- their property was confiscated by Catherine II, gion, usually freezes about the beginning of who compensated them by state pensions. Pre

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RUSSIA — RUSSIAN HISTORY (2)

vious to the year 1861 the mass of the people Russia of Yesterday and To-morrow? (New were serfs subject to the proprietors of the York 1917); Stephens, Winifred (ed.), The soil. The emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I Soul of Russia) (London 1916). took the same initial steps toward the emanci- Asiatic RELATIONS: Beveridge, Albert Jerepation of this class; but a bold and complete miah, “The Russian Advance) (New York scheme of emancipation was begun and carried 1903); Meakin, Annette M., In Russian Turkout by Alexander II. The decree of emanci- estan (London 1903); Popowski, Józef, “The pation was dated 3 March 1861 and began to Rival Powers in Central Asia' (Westminster come into execution within two years. There 1893) ; Simpson, Bertram Lenox, The Coming were about 22,000,000 of serfs belonging to pri. Struggle in Eastern Asia! (London 1908); vate proprietors and rather more than that num- Campbell, Jane Maud, Selected List of Rusber on the crown lands. By an imperial decree sian Books (Chicago 1916); Herberstein, of 8 July 1863, lands were granted to the peas- Sigmund, Notes upon Russia,' being a transants on all the estates of the Crown on a 49 lation of the earliest account of that country, years' rental equal to the former poll-tax and entitled (Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii) as a freehold estate at the expiration of this (Hakluyt Society Publications, 1851–52); Alekperiod. A similar arrangement was made on sinskii, G., Russia and Europe (translated behalf of the peasants on the lands of private by B. Miall, New York 1917); Jarintzov, proprietors. The redemption money of the Nadine, Russia: The Country of Extremes/ serfs with their land was estimated at 162/3 (ib. 1914); Mackail, John William, Russia's years' purchase of their annual produce. Gift to the World' (rev. ed., New York 1917); Twenty per cent of this had to be paid by the Sarolea, Charles, Great Russia, Her Achieveserfs on procuring their emancipation, the re- ment and Promise' (ib. 1916); Vinogradov, maining 80 per cent was guaranteed by the gov- Pavel Gavrilovich, “The Russian Problem? ernment, which levied it from the peasantry in (London 1914); Wiener, Leo, An Interpretation a tax extending over 49 years. The emancipa- of the Russian People,' contains a bibliography tion of all the serfs on these terms was ar- (New York 1915); Bain, Robert Nisbet, The ranged for by July 1865, and from that date Pupils of Peter the Great: A History of the this form of servitude ceased to exist in Rus- Russian Court and Empire from 1697 to 1740 sia. From this change until 1917 the cultivable (Westminster 1897); Ballou, Maturin Murray, land in Russia was mainly distributed among Due North; or, Glimpses of Scandinavia and three classes. The Crown held nearly 35 per Russia? (Boston 1887); Buel, James W., A cent, the emancipated peasants about 20, while Nemesis of Misgovernment (Philadelphia

' ( the remainder, with the exception of mines and 1899); Dobson, George, Russia' (London town lands, remained in the hands of the nobil- 1913); Eastlake, Elizabeth, A Residence on ity and other landed proprietors. Soon after the Shores of the Baltic)_(London 1841); their advent to power in November 1917 the Geddie, John, The Russian Empire: Historical Bolsheviki undertook the solution of the land and Descriptive! (New York 1882); Graham, question. All private ownership was declared Stephen, A Vagabond in the Caucasus) (New to be henceforth null; the land was nationalized York 1911); Hubback, John H., Russian and given to the people who cultivated it. The Realities) (London 1915); Reeves, Francis large estates of the nobility, all the lands be- Brewster, Russia Then and Now, 1892–1917) longing to the state and to the Church were (New York 1917); Reynolds, Rothay,. My left to the disposition of local committees pend- Slav Friends) (London 1916); Sears, Robert, ing a decision of the Constituent Assembly. An Illustrated Description of the Russian EmMines, forests and great waterways became the pire; Embracing its Geographical Features, Poproperty of the state; while lesser forests and litical Divisions, Principal Cities and Towns, waterways were turned over to local communes. Manners and Customs, Historic Summary, etc.?

Bibliography. GENERAL: Aleksinskü, Gri- (New York 1855); Beazley, Charles Raymond, gorii, Modern Russia' (translated by Bernard Russia from the Varangians to the BolsheMialí, London 1913); Baring, Maurice, The viks (Oxford 1918); Cazalet, Lucy, Short Mainsprings of Russia (London and New History of Russia' (Oxford 1915); Krausse, York 1914); Bond, Sir Edward A. (ed.), Rus- Alexis Sidney, Russia in Asia ; a Record and a sia at the Close of the Sixteenth Century' Study, 1558-1899 (New York 1900); Munro, (London 1856); Child, Richard Washburn, H. H., (The Rise of the Russian Empire Potential Russia' (New York 1916); Drage, (London 1900); Poole, Ernest, The Dark Geoffrey, Russian Affairs? (London 1904); People: Russia's Crisis) (New York 1918); Duff, James (ed.), Russian Realities and Russell, Charles Edward, (Unchained Russia' Problems? (by Paul Milyoukov, Peter Struve, (ib. 1918); "The Russian Year-Book.' A. Lappo-Danilevsky, Roman Dmowski, and

JOHN B. McDONNELL, Harold Williams, Cambridge, England 1917);

Editorial Staff of The Americana. Fanning, Clara Elizabeth, Selected Articles on Russia) (New York 1918); Graham, Stephen, 2. RUSSIAN HISTORY. The Russian Russia and the World' (ib., 1915); Hume, Slavs were one of the Asiatic tribes designated George, Thirty-Five Years in Russia' (Lon- by the Greeks, "Scythians," who in unknown don 1914); Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole (Henry times immigrated into the vast plains of eastJean Baptiste Anatole), The Empire of the ern Europe. They had settled near lakes and Tsars and the Russians' (translated from the rivers in the primitive forests of the region ex3d French edition with annotations by Z. A. tending east and west from lakes Ilmer and Ragozin, New York 1902–05); Lethbridge, Mrs. Chud to the lower banks of the Dnieper and Marjorie Colt (Byrne), The Soul of the Rus- the Dniester. There were other East-Slavonic sian' (New York 1916); Miliukov, Pavel tribes: the Lithuanians, west, and the Finnis Nikolaevich, Russia and its Crisis? (Chicago north of them, while the Turks and Tartars 1906); Souiny-Seydlitz, Leonie Ida Philipovna, lived in the southeast. The Russian Slavs lived RUSSIA - RUSSIAN HISTORY (2)

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in small communistic and patriarchic groups Vladimir before his death in 1015 again divided governed by the Vieche (a council of family the country among his sons, Garoslav, Yaropolk elders) until the Variagi, or Northmen, helped and Sviatopolk, but Garoslav reunited it at the them to form an independent state. No exact time of the mutual fight of the brothers in data is available concerning its origin. It is which Yaropolk died and Sviatapolk fled. unknown whether the Slavs submitted to the Garoslav I like his father divided in 1054 the Northmen of their own accord or whether they Russian principality among his sons, the oldest were forced into submission by conquest. Ac- receiving the principality of Kiev with the title cording to the chronicle, the state originated in of Grand Prince. This division of the country 862 when the three Varangian brothers, Rurik, into a group of states was known as the system Sineus and Truvor, became rulers of the Sla- of Appanages. Each state had a ruling prince vonic Stenm clan, the country began to be and subordinate or appanaged princes. The called Russia, and Novgorod became the cen- grand prince had authority over all of them tre of the principality. Simultaneously another and lived in the capital. He had a guard, called centre, Kiev, sprang up in the south where two the druzhina, consisting of volunteer warriors Varangian brothers, Askold and Dir, had who were his friends and counselors at all formed another principality. Upon the death of times and were well rewarded for their servRurik's brothers, their territory also passed to ices. The drushiniks (members of the druhim and he assumed the title Grand Prince. zhina) of the highest rank called Boyare, acted The successor of Rurik was his relative Oleg by the appointment of the king as viceroys in (879) whose wisdom and steady success gave cities, as judges, called tiunui, and collectors of him the surname “Vieschi," which

tributes and fines. The king himself was chief (soothsayer.) He extended his rule over all justice. The main administrative was the the Slavonic clans except the Viatichi and im- Viechi, a popular assembly convened by the posed upon them a heavy tax. He took posses- princes. Its head was the possadnik elected by sion of Kiev and made it the capital of his the people, who next to the prince was the principality, naming it Mother of Russian highest authority. The possadnik, just as well Cities. He also led an expedition against By- as the tiuiniu guarded social order and conzantium with the results which favored Russian ducted trials. Self-government had reached its business enterprises in Greece. Oleg was fol- highest development in Novgorod which had lowed by his son Igor in 912, who also several become almost an independent state. Novgorod times attacked Byzantium but with no success. was also the commercial centre in the North, His main object was to quell uprisings of sub- just as Vladimir in the South, both having busijugated Slavonic clans and to repel attacks of ness connections with the Hanseac Union the pillaging savages of the Ural Steppes, called formed of the German cities on the coast of the Petchenegi. He met his death in 945 at the Baltic and the German Sea. While the system hands of Drevlian, a Slavonic clan, while visit- of the Appanages on the one hand favored the ing them for the purpose of collecting the yearly distribution of population and the developtribute. Upon Igor's death, his wife, Olga, an ment of commerce, on the other hand it led to energetic and cunning woman, became ruler for internal wars of the appanaged princes. After the time of their son's minority. She avenged Yaroslav the right of succession to the throne her husband's death by setting on fire the capi- was transferred from the oldest son to the oldtal of the Drevli Kastrov, and then subjugat- est in the family and Yaroslav's sons and ing its people. The most noteworthy event of grandsons ruled one after another. Their rule her time is her conversion to Christianity (957). was greatly disturbed by internal wars of the

When her son Sviatoslav became ruler, he appanged princes, complicated by the question displayed all his cunning and ambition in the nu- of seniority in such a large family as that of merous expeditions for_the purpose of con- Yaroslav. During these struggles Kiev was quest. He defeated the Turkish tribe Khazarui subject to attacks and pillage which finally and subjugated the Viatichi, the only Slavonic caused its fall. In the second half of the 12th tribe still under tribute to them. At the sug- century it was replaced by another capital, Vladgestion of the emperor of Byzantium Nikifor imir upon the Kliazma. At that time Russia Fok, he turned his weapons against the Bulgars began to suffer from the destructive invasions along the Danube, but with no consequences. of the Palovtzui, a tribe kindred to the PecheReturning home he was killed near Kiev by the negs. For better protection against the external Petchenegs who in his absence had attacked the enemy, the cousins and nephews decided to city (972). Sviatoslav had divided his domin- make peace and by the treaty in Linbetz (1097) ion among his sons, but it was reunited by the resolved that everybody inherit his own paternal youngest son Vladimir; he killed his oldest estate. In spite of it the internal wars conbrother Yaropolk who had already assassinated tinued until Vladimir Monomakh, the son of another brother Oleg and subdued several re- Vsevolod and grandson of Yaroslav I, became volting clans. He also made several successful ruler. He was the first to realize the ideal of a attacks on the Poles, the Yatvags and the Bul- peaceful principality with the grand prince as gars along the Kama. The most significant the supreme power. He exercised his authorcvent of Vladimir's rule was the conversion of ity to stop the wars of the appanaged princes the Russians to Christianity (988) after Vladi- and, instead, have them join him in his expemir's conquest of the Greek city Khersan. ditions against the savages to check their inUntil then they had been pagans and worshiped vasions. all natural phenomena which they represented The internal wars, however, had considerably by different idols. Vladimir, at first cruel, vo- weakened the country, and it could not resist luptuous and an assassin, is known to history the wild hordes of the savage Mongols and as the “Beautiful Son of Kiev,” due to a change Tartars. Their invasion resulted in Russia's said to have been worked in him by the Chris- subjugation to Mongol oppression (1237) and tian faith. Following the custom of the time the formation of a Tartar kingdom, the Zolo

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RUSSIA ---RUSSIAN HISTORY (2)

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taya Orda, along the lower Volga, with Sarai period of incessant troubles in Russia. Boris, as its capital. In these days two prominent fig- suspicious of the hatred of the boyars, spared ures stand out. Aleksander Yaroslavitch Nev- no punishments and, as a crowning, piece of sky, prince of Novgorod, and Daniel Romano- misfortune, the country was stricken by famine vitch Galitzki in the South. The first attained and epidemics. At his death he left the throne fame through his victory over Birger in the war to his son but Lzhedimitri (False Dimitri), against Sweden, and the second, by checking pretending to be Feodor's dead brother, by the the invasions of the Lithuanians, who at that help of the Polish King Sigismund, who time had united with Poland and became a dreamed of spreading Catholicism in Russia, powerful principality to balance the power of seized the throne and ruled 11 months, when the German orders on the Baltic Coast

he was assassinated by a conspiration headed by The first attempt at freeing Russia from Vasili Shniski, who succeeded to the throne. Mongolian oppression was made by Dimitri During his rule another pretender, Lzhedimitri Danskoi (1363–89). He defeated the Tartars II, unsuccessfully besieged Moscow for two in the famous battle of Kulikov 8 Sept. 1380 years. Here begins the period of interregnum and after renewed attacks under Ivan III they and anarchy. The Moscovite Crown was threatwere driven from Russia and the Zolotaya ened by the Polish King Sigismund and was Orda was destroyed. The Lithuanian conquest saved only by the bravery of a meat merchant pressing in from the west, and the Tartar inva- Kozma and Prince Pozharski; the former by sion from the south, greatly impeded the growth his fiery patriotic speeches stirred the people of of the Moscovite empire into which the north- Novgorod, who, joined by other cities, elected western territories had begun to form, with Pozharski as their leader and forced the Poles Moscow, founded according to the chronicle by to surrender. The Zemskaya Duma convened Yuri Dolgoruki (in 1147) on the Moscow in 1613 and elected to the throne Michael FedorRiver, as the dominating city and later, under ovich of the dynasty Romanov. When the dyJoann Kalita the capital and ecclesiastical cen- nasty of Romanov came to the throne the Mosire. The first steps toward building the Mos- kovite Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean covite empire was the annexation of the princi- to the mouth of the Don and Caspian Sea, and pality of Novgorod by Vasili I (1389-1425) and from the White Sea to the Ural Mountains and the abolition of self-government by the dissolu- throughout Siberia. Its main cities were the tion of the Vieche (1478) under Joann III capital, Moscow, fortified by the famous Kraul, (1462–1505), the son of Vasili II (1425–62) and and the two commercial cities Novgorod and the grandson of Vasili I. The two remaining Arkhangelsk engaged since Ivan III in negotiaterritories, Pskov and Riasan, were annexed by tions with Holland, Germany and England. The the son and successor of Ivan III (1505-08). territories in the immediate vicinity of Mos

The first prince to be crowned (1547) Tsar cow were called the territories of the Grand of Moscow was Ivan IV, son of Vasili III and Prince. They were inhabited by a mixture of Helen, the daughter of a Lithuanian magnate. Finns and Slavs. In the south lived the CosThis was a time of great oppression and re- sacks, in the Don region, while Turkish and volt. The former friendly relations of grand Mongolian tribes inhabited the steppes of Azov princes and druzhina had long ceased. The and the Black Sea. Southwestern Russia was peasants were in serfdom, having been tied by occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom, the Moscovite princes to the land which they of which the main divisions were Little Russia, cultivated. The members of the Boyarskaya White Russia and Galicia. Though the RusDuma, the ruling power during Ivan's minority, sians in these regions were the Greek Orthodox, contested for individual power at the expense

the union of Liublin (1569) made them recogof the people's freedom and the little Tsar's nize the Pope as the ecclesiastical head. This education. As a result he developed into a hard

aroused the discontent of the people and finally hearted and cruel man, hence his surname led to the uprisings of the Cossacks which re“Grozni” (Terrible). Oppressing the people, sulted in the separation of Little Russia from Ivan was suspicious of disloyalties and was Poland and its annexation to Russia under liberal with punishments by death. His lack Alexei Mikhailovitch. Later (1667), however, of success in the war against the Polish King the western region went back to Poland. With Stefan Batore he ascribed to treason. His Michail (1613-45), anarchy came to an end and bodyguard were the "oprichniki” (a band of peace and order were re-established. The rule young noblemen) of whom he required a com- of his son and successor, Alexei (1645–76) is plete renunciation of their parents, and absolute marked by a revolt of the people against opsubmission to him. These sad days were pression and heavy taxation as in the time of brightened by the conquest of Siberia, an Ivan III. This pointed to the necessity of a achievement of the Cossacks of the Don and new code of laws and the Sobornoye Polozhetheir leader Ermak. The hard and exciting niye was composed. Ivan's oldest son, Feodor times of Ivan the Terrible were followed by Alexsieyevich (1676-82), succeeded him and the peaceful rule of his son Feodor (1584-98), six years later was followed by Peter the Great, a pious and mild prince who left the ruling to the youngest son of Aleksei Michailovich and the Boyarskaya Duma, headed by Boris Gudu- Natalia Naruishkina, as his older brother nov, his wife's brother. As he was childless Joann, son of Maria Miloslavskaya, was in illand his brother Dimitri dead, the line of Ruriks health. Owing to the ambition of their sister came to an end with his death. The people and Sophia Miloslavskaya two parties formed and the Zemskaya Duma (an assembly of mer- contested for the throne. The result was that chants and landlords which convened only in both princes were crowned in 1682 and Sophia important cases) elected the cunning Boris made regent till Peter's majority. Gudunov to the throne despite the opposition Peter the Great spent his childhood in the of many boyars. With this Tsar begins the suburban Moscovite village surrounded by for

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