Slike strani



Arthur Saint Clair, and later General Schuyler Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia and Reading and was tried by court-martial for alleged neglect the Lehigh Valley railroads. It is situated in a of duty in permitting its capture. He was ac- coal mining region, and is an important coalquitted and completely vindicated. On 29 July shipping point, having a coal storage yard of a 1777, he evacuated Fort Edward and retreated million tons' capacity. There are rolling mills, down the Mohawk Valley before Burgoyne. railroad car shops, pipe mills and manufactures Notwithstanding the patriot success at Benning- of underwear, hosiery, shoes, soap, paper boxes ton (16 August), he was superseded by Gates and flour. Pop. (1920) 5,437. (19 August), yet he remained with the army and SCHWAB, shwäb, Charles M., American to him belongs credit of effecting Burgoyne's

financier: b. Williamsburg, Pa., 18 April 1862. surrender (19 October). He was again a dele- He was educated at Saint Francis College, gate to the Continental Congress (1778-81) and Loretta, Pa., entered the service of the Carhis counsels were often sought by Washington. negie Company as a stake driver in the enAs president of the board of Indian commis

gineering corps of the Edgar Thompson Steel sioners he visited the tribes of the Six Nations

Works, and became chief engineer and assistant and made treaties that secured their neutrality.

manager in 1881. He was superintendent of the He was a member of the New York senate

Homestead Steel Works in 1887–89; president (1780-84, 1786-90 and 1792–97) and actively pro- of the Carnegie Steel Company in 1897–1901; moted the building of a canal between the Hud- and president of the United Steel Corporation son and Lake Erie. He was United States

in 1901-03. He is chairman of the board of senator from New York (1789–91 and 1797-98).

the Bethlehem Steel Company and of the He resigned because of ill-health. He was mar- Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and director in ried (17 Sept. 1755) to Catharine Van Rens

many trust and manufacturing companies. He selaer and had 11 children. His daughter Eliza- was appointed director-general of shipbuilding beth became the wife of Alexander Hamilton.

of the United States Shipping Board EmerConsult Lossing, Life and Times of Philip

gency Fleet Corporation, 28 April 1918, and Schuyler (1860-62; 2d ed., 1872–73); Tucker

earned high approbation for the energy and man, Life of General Philip Schuyler) (1904)

ability with which he handled its affairs. SCHUYLERVILLE, ski'lėr-vīl, N. Y., vil SCHWAB, John Christopher, American lage, Saratoga County, on the Hudson River, political economist: b. New York, 1 April 1865; and on the Fitchburg Railroad, about 10 miles d. New Haven, Conn., 12 Jan. 1916. He was east of Saratoga Springs, and 35 miles north of

graduated from Yale in 1886 and later studied Albany. It was named in honor of Philip at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen. Schuyler (q.v.) who planned the campaign He was instructor, assistant professor and proagainst Burgoyne. The village is in an agri- fessor of political economy at Yale in 1890cultural region, and has a number of industries 1905, editor of the Yale Review from 1892 connected with farm and dairy products. It is and librarian from 1905. He published Hisa favorite summer resort; and many tourists tory of New York Property Tax? (1890); “The visit the village on account of its historical as- Confederate States of America (1901), etc. sociations. A tablet on one of the business blocks gives the information that near is the

SCHWANN, shván, Theodor, originator of place where Burgoyne surrendered to Gates.

the cell theory: b. Neuss, 7 Dec. 1810; d. A half mile up the slope from the main street

Cologne, 14 Jan. 1882. He was educated in stands the Saratoga Battle monument, erected

philosophy and medicine at Bonn, Wurzberg

and Berlin. From 1834 to 1839 he was the by the Saratoga Battle Monument Association. The corner stone was laid on the 100th anniver

assistant of Johannes Muller (q.v.). While

occupying this position he discovered pepsin sary of the Burgoyne surrender, 17 Oct. 1877. It is ornamented on each side of its four fronts

(q.v.), and published numerous important reby niches, three of them containing bronze

searches on artificial digestion, on the trans

mission of nerve-impulses, on the law of musstatues of Generals Schuyler, Gates and

cular contraction, on the walls of the capillaries, Morgan. The south "niche, where would have

on decomposition and fermentation, on probeen placed the statue of Benedict Arnold, stands empty.

In 1838 Schwann became proAll roads from Schuylerville

creation, etc. seem to lead to battlefields whereon were fought

fessor of anatomy at Louvain, and in 1848 at

Liège. In 1858 he was also appointed to the and won the independence of the republic.

chair of physiology. His Mikroskopische unterSCHUYLKILL, skool'kil (from the Dutch, suchungen uber die Übereinstimmung in der meaning "hidden channel”), a river in Penn- Struktur und dem Wachstum der Tiere und sylvania, which has its rise in Schuylkill der Pflanzen) (Berlin 1839) marks an epoch in County, flows southeast and enters the Delaware biology. Here he points out that both animals River at Philadelphia. The total length is about and plants are made up of elementary units, 125 miles. In 1816-25 the river was made the cells (q.v.). This book was translated into navigable for freight boats to Port Carbon, English in 1847 by Henry Smith under the title, three miles above Pottsville (q.v.). Phila- Microscopical Researches into the Accordance delphia obtains from the Schuylkill a large part of the Structure and Growth of Animals and of the city water supply. The river furnishes Plants. Schwann also wrote the article considerable water power which is used for (Anatomie du corps humain in the Encyclomanufacturing at Pottsville, Reading, Norris- pedia populaire (Brussels 1855). town and other places on its banks, and also at

SCHWANTHALER, shvän'tä"lěr, Ludwig Philadelphia.

von, German sculptor: b. Munich, 26 Aug. SCHUYLKILL HAVEN, Pa., borough in 1802; d. there, 28 Nov. 1848. He attended the Schuylkill County, on the river of the same Art Academy at Munich, and was a pupil of name, 25 miles northwest of Reading, on the the battle painter Albrecht Adam; but in 1821.




took up his father's profession of sculpture preciation of the services of Schwartz in India.
and at once received a commission from King Consult Pearson, Memoirs of the Life and Cor-
Maximilian to furnish a model for a silver respondence of C. F. Schwartz (1833).
épergne decorated with incidents from the fable SCHWARTZITE, a mercury-copper ore
of Prometheus. After a year's travel in Italy worked in Sumber district, Baker County, Ore.
(1827) he executed the figures for the Ægina
Gallery of the Glyptothek at Munich, and other

SCHWARZ, Berthold, a Franciscan friar decorative work for the same building. His

of Freiburg or Dordmund: d. Venice, 1384. His (Shakespeare) in the vestibule of the theatre in

real name was Constantin Anklitzen: Berthold

was his native city belongs to this period, as does

his monastic name, and the epithet the Bacchus frieze in the ballroom in the palace

Schwartz, (black," was added to it, because of of Duke Max. On being appointed professor

his addiction to the study of chemistry, in the in the Art Academy at Munich he soon gathered

course of which he is supposed to have disa great number of pupils about him. He was

covered an explosive, formed by the combinameanwhile busy in numerous important works;

tion of saltpetre, sulphur and quicksilver; or of frieze illustrating the Voyage of the

saltpetre, sulphur, lead and oil. Thus he is Argonauts); a statue, Poetry of Hesiod"; the

sometimes credited with the invention of gunreliefs illustrative of Pindar; the statues of

powder. This is said to have taken place in the Æschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes; the re

early part of the 14th century. Schwarz, liefs illustrating the myth of Aphrodite. Of

whether the inventor of gunpowder or not, was his monumental work in marble and bronze, are

undoubtedly the inventor of artillery. In 1380 the pediment groups in the Walhalla, consist

he came to Venice, and was commissioned by ing of 15 statues illustrating the Victory of

the government to cast some cannons, which Arminius over Varus); and the two pediment

are described as of an enormous size. The groups for the Munich propylæum. The great

price agreed upon for his work not being forthest, however, of his works of this class is the

coming he became importunate, and was refigure of Bavaria, more than 20 feet in height, warded by being cast into prison, where he

died. for the Hall of Fame in Munich. He also

In 1853 a statue was erected to him in executed many statues of notable individuals.

Freiburg. Consult Hansjakob, Der schwarze Among his ideal works are the life-size figures

Berthold. der Erfinder des Schiesspulvers) in sandstone of Venus'; Diana'; Vesta and

(1891). See GUNPOWDER. Ceres); Apollo'; 'Eros); Bacchus); and SCHWARZENBERG, shvärt'sěn-běrg, Pan. This series was completed in 1840 for

Adam of, Franconian count: b. 1587; d. Spanthe castle of Wiesbaden. His Dancing Girl,!

dau, Prussia, 17 March 1641. He was descended a life-size figure in white marble is a work of from one of the oldest families of Franconia, was remarkable beauty. His (Shield of Hercules,' Prime Minister to George-Wilhelm, the Elector begun at Rome, is conceived in the pure classic of Brandenburg, was all-powerful during the spirit. It illustrates, after Hesiod, that divinity's Thirty Years' War, and caused great calamities exploits, etc., in 140 figures; has been cast in to the electorate of Brandenburg through his bronze, and replicas are to be found both in promoting an alliance with Austria against the Germany and England. He was a sculptor of Swedish Protestant League. When the Great the Romantic school and his works did much to Elector) assumed the reins of government in promote, the cause of Romanticism, an 1640 he punished Schwarzenberg by divesting cause which lost much by his death. While him of his power and imprisoning him in the several of his works exhibit great spontaneity, fortress of Spandau, where he died. sometimes he overelaborates to such a degree SCHWARZENBERG, Karl Phillip of, as to impair the force of his original concep- Franconian prince and soldier : b. Vienna, Austion.

tria, 15 April 1771; d. Leipzig, Germany, 15 Oct. SCHWARTZ, shvärts, Christian Fried- 1820. He received a military training and rich, German Protestant missionary: b. Son

served with distinction in the battles of Wanenburg, Prussia, 26 Oct. 1726; d. Tanjore, gram, Hohenlinden and Ulm, and after the India, 13 Feb. 1798. He was educated at the Peace of Vienna 1809, was Austrian AmbassaUniversity of Halle, 1746–49, ordained at dor to Paris, where he is said to have arranged Copenhagen and sailed from London for India the marriage between Maria Louisa and Napo1750. He was stationed at Tranquebar, a

leon. At Napoleon's request he was created a Danish mission, until 1766, when, having trans- field-marshal and, in 1813, placed at the head ferred himself to the English Society for Pro- of the Austrian army of observation in Bohemoting Christian Knowledge, he removed to mia. When Austria joined Russia and Prussia, Trichinopoly and founded a church and a Prince Schwarzenberg commanded the allied school. He removed to Tanjore, in 1778, and forces, gained the battle of Leipzig and led went as an ambassador to negotiate peace with the victorious armies into Paris 1813. Consult Hyder Ali, at Seringapatam, in which he was Prokesch-Oesten, Denkwürdigkeiten aus dem successful after all others had failed.

Leben des Feldmarshalls Fürsten Schwarzenlater war he succeeded in saving the city of berg) (1882). Tanjore from famine by his influence with the SCHWATKA, shwät/ka, Frederick, Amerpeasants, whom he induced to send supplies. ican Arctic explorer : b. Galena, Ill., 29 Sept. He gained the friendship of the rajah of Tan- 1849; d. Portland, Ore., 2 Nov. 1892. He was jore and of Hyder Ali, and the former, on his graduated at West Point in 1871, served as deathbed, entrusted his son and successor to the second lieutenant, United States army, until 1878, missionary's care. A monument designed by when he obtained leave of absence, and headed Flaxman and erected at Tanjore commemorates an expedition to King William's Land, in search the young rajah's gratitude for his tutor, while of records and remains of Sir John Franklin's another at Madras testifies to the general ap- Arctic exploring party. He was successful and

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brought back in 1880 some valuable geographi- Columbian University, Washington. He was cal information as well as the buried records, dean and professor at the Columbian Medical then having made a sledge journey of 3,251 miles, School and director of the biochemic laborathe longest on record. Schwaika next explored tory of the Derartment of Agriculture at Washthe Yukon River in Alaska, and returning in ington, and made many original investigations 1884, resigned his army commission, having in regard to bacteria, tuberculosis, disinfectants meantime been promoted to first lieutenant. He and hygienic problems. The ults of these led three other exploring expeditions: one to investigations appeared in numerous published Mount Saint Elias, which he ascended for 7,200

scientific papers. feet, for the New York Times in 1886; one in SCHWEINITZ, George Edmund de, 1891 to Alaska, opening up some 700 miles of American opthalmologist, son of Edmund A. de new territory; one in 1889 to Chihuahua in Schweinitz (q.v.): b. Philadelphia, Pa., 26 Oct. Mexico, for the journal America. He was the 1858. He was graduated at the Moravian Colrecipient of the Roquette Arctic medal from lege in 1876 and took his M.D. at the University the Paris Geographical Society, of a medal of Pennsylvania in 1881. He was professor of from the Imperial Geographical Society of opthalmology at the University of Pennsylvania Russia and of honors from geographical so- from 1902; and was consulting opthalmologist cieties of Rome, Berlin and Geneva. He was at the Philadelphia Hospital and consultant at the author of Along Alaska's Great River the Philadelphia Polyclinic. He was for many (1885); Nimrod in the North) (1885); (The years first lieutenant in the United States army Children of the Cold (1886). Consult Gilder's medical reserve corps and was promoted major (Schwatka's Search (1881).

in 1917. He was coeditor of the Opthalmic SCHWEINFURTH, shvin'foort, Georg Year Book (1905–09), and author of DisAugust, German explorer and botanist: b. eases of the Ear) (8th ed., 1916); (Toxic Riga, 29 Dec. 1836. He was educated at Amblyopias(1896); Diseases of the Eye, Heidelberg, Munich and Berlin, specializing Ear, Nose and Throat (1899), etc. in botany, and in 1863-66 explored the SCHWEINITZ, Louis David von, Amervalley of the Nile and the African Coast ican Moravian clergyman and botanist: b. of the Red Sea; in 1869–71, aided by the Bethlehem, Pa., 13 Feb. 1770; d. there, 8 Feb. Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, he ex- 1834. He was educated in Germany, entered plored equatorial A ca in the countries of the Moravian ministry and in 1812 returned to the Bongo, Madi, Dinka and other peoples, and America as the general agent of the Moravian discovered a tribe of pigmies and the river Church in the United States. He afterward Welle. He founded the Egyptian Geographical

filled other important offices in the Church both Society 1872, and in 1880 became the director at Salem, N. C., and at Bethlehem. He was an of all the Egyptian collections in Cairo. In

enthusiastic botanist and added 1,400 new speciother explorations he investigated the oasis of

mens to the catalogue of American flora. He El-Chargch; the botany of various districts of devoted himself particularly to the study of Egypt; the southern portion of Arabia, and

American fungi, which had hitherto received Helouan and the Italian colony of Erythrea.

scant attention. At his death he possessed the His publications chiefly relate to travel and largest private collection of plants in America, botany, and include Plantæ quædam Niloticæ)

and this he willed to the Philadelphia Academy (1862); Beitrag zur Flora Æthiopieus) (1867);

of Natural Science. Author of 'Conspectus Reliquiæ Kotschyarze (1868); Im Herzen Fungorum Carolina (1818); (Synopsis Funvon Afrika (1874); Artes Africanæ (1875),

gorum in America Boreali Media Degentium etc.

(1832), etc. SCHWEINITZ, shvi'nits, Edmund Alex

SCHWEINITZ, Rudolf, German sculptor: ander, de, American bishop of the Unity of

b. Charlottenburg, 15 Jan. 1839; d. Berlin, 8 the Brethren Church, of L. D.

Jan. 1896. He was a pupil of the Berlin AcadSchweinitz (q.v.); b. Bethlehem, Pa., 20

emy and of Schievelbein, took a prominent part March 1825; d. South Bethlehem, Pa.18

in the decoration of the National Gallery at

Berlin and executed numerous commissions for Dec. 1887. He was graduated at the Moravian Theological Seminary at Bethlehem

monuments, public works and official buildings. in 1844, and studied Berlin in 1845.

Among his works were many busts, such as

those of Crown Prince Frederick William He held various pastorates in 1850_80, and in 1870 was consecrated bishop. His fam

(1872) and William I (1882) in marble. The

Inemorial of William I and Frederick III at ily for more than 100 years was continuously Fürstenwalde is also by him, as are also 20 represented in the American branch of the

decorative statues for the equestrian memorial Moravian ministry. He was president of the of Frederick William III at Cologne. Theological Seminary at Bethlehem in 1867–84.

SCHWENKFELD, shvěnk'felt, Kaspar In 1856 he founded the Moravian and edited it in 1856–66. Author of Moravian Manual?

von, German mystic and religious leader: b. (1859); "The Moravian Episcopate! (1865);

Ossig, Silesia, 1490; d. Ulm, 10 Dec. 1561. He (Some of the Fathers of the Moravian Church

studied at Cologne and other universities, in (1881); History of the Unitas Fratrum

1516 entered the service of the Duke of Lieg(1885), etc.

nitz, and was made a councillor. A learned

scholar, he differed from Luther on several SCHWEINITZ, Emil Alexander de, points of theology, and was thus opposed by American bacteriologist : b. Salem, N. C., 18 both Catholics and Protestants. His writings Jan. 1866; d. Washington, D. C., 15 Feb. 1904. are of interest in the study of the times of the He was graduated from the University of Reformation. Those who adhered to his views North Carolina in 1882, subsequently studying were subjected to greater or less persecution at Göttingen and taking a medical degree at and in 1734 many emigrated to Pennsylvania,







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where they settled in Montgomery and adjacent There are manuiactures of bricks, pottery, barcounties. There they maintain a few small rels, baskets, olive oil and many persons are churches, the doctrines, disciples and govern- employed in fish-curing. Pop. about 27,000. ment of which in many particulars resemble SCIÆNIDÆ, si-ěn'i-dē, a family of percothose of the Society of Friends. The Schwenk

morphous, spiny-rayed teleostomous fishes, felders or Schwenkfeldians have sometimes

somewhat resembling perches, in which the been erroneously identified with the Dunkards.

body is usually slightly compressed and elonConsult Kadelbach, Ausföhrliche Geschichte gated and covered with thin, slightly ctenoid Kasper von Schwenkfelds und der Schwenk- scales. The head is scaly and its superficial felder in Schlesien, der Ober-Lausitz und bones are remarkable for the extensive deAmerika' (1861).

velopment in them of passages for the mucous SCHWENKFELDIANS, shvěnk' fěl-di

canals. The premaxillary bones are protractile anz. See RELIGIOUS SECTS.

and the chin is provided with pores and some

times a barbel. Jaw teeth are well developed SCHWERIN, shvā-rēn, Germany, capital but, beyond the formation of enlarged canines, of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, are not differentiated, but large molar teeth picturesquely situated on the west shore of the may pave the pharyngeal bones. The fins are Lake of Schwerin, 20 miles south of the Baltic, well developed, the soft dorsal long, the caudal and 130 miles northwest of Berlin. The lake usually rounded or truncate and the anal short is 14 miles long and 3 broad, and has smaller and preceded by one or two spines, never more. lakes behind it. The town is surrounded with With few exceptions the air-bladder is large handsome suburbs and contains the grand and of complicated structure, and it is by castle (1845-58), Renaissance structure, forcing air through this organ that the peculiar erected by Wallenstein on a small island, one grunting and rumbling sounds produced by these of the finest Gothic cathedrals in northern Ger- fishes are caused. Most of the species are many, begun in 1248 and completed in the 15th

marine and littoral, but a few are fresh-water. century, with interesting monuments and Most of them feed upon other fishes but some stained glass; an arsenal; a museum and pic- upon crustaceans and mollusks. The family is ture-gallery, and manufactures lacquered wares, an extensive one of 30 genera and about 150 machinery, cloth, tobacco, beer, etc. Pop. species widely distributed and especially nuabout 43,131.

merous in warm scas, and most of them are SCHWIND, shvint, Moritz von, Austrian

good food-fishes, two species, the Maigre and painter: b. Vienna, 21 Jan. 1804; d. Munich, 8

the Bearde dumbrina, being particular favorFeb. 1871. He was a pupil of the Vienna and

ites for the table. Nearly all of the genera and Munich academies, and in 1832–34 decorated a

more than 100 species are recorded as occurroom in the Königsbau with encaustic pictures;

ring in North American waters, including some in 1834-35 he undertook one of his greatest

food-fishes of first-rate importance and several works, the painting of 60 compositions in water

game-fish. There may be mentioned as becolor for Castle Hohenschwangau; became a

longing here the weakfishes, drums, croakers, professor in the Munich Academy in 1847; in

kingfish, spot and yellowtail. 1854–55 painted the frescoes in Wartburg, and SCIATICA, si-ăt’i-ką, a painful neuritis of in 1864-67 those in the Vienna Opera House. the sciatic nerve, which is the chief nerve of He was a member of the Berlin, Vienna, Paris the back of the thigh and leg. It is characterand other academies, and was knighted in 1855. ized by extreme pain, often excruciating and He is considered one of the foremost of modern occurring in paroxysms, and increased by any painters and the best representative of German change of temperature and moisture; there is romanticism. He worked as well in fresco, stiffness and generally swelling of the limb at oils or water-colors, and his compositions num- the beginning of the disease, but after repeated ber several hundreds.

attacks the limb seems to shrink, owing to

the wasting of the muscles. In some cases the SCHWYZ, shvíts, Switzerland, capital of

articulation of the hip seems affected, and perthe canton of Schwyz, on the Gotthard Railroad,

manent immobility of the limb takes place. three miles northeast of the Lake of Lucerne.

Mild attacks are often called neuralgia of the The interesting old town-hall contains the

sciatic. In all cases very careful examination earliest trophies of the Swiss struggles for in

of the pelvis and the hones of the lower part of dependence. There are also a handsome church the spinal column should be made, and all and several higher educational institutions. The causes for chronic poisoning sought for. It chief industries are cotton-spinning and the is a very chronic condition. See NEURALGIA; manufacture of bricks. Fruit and cattle-rais- NEURITIS. ing are extensively carried on in the neigh

SCIDMORE, skid'mör, Eliza Ruhamah, borhood. Pop. about 9,000. Schwyz took

American traveler and author: b. Madison, such a conspicuous and leading part in the

Wis., 14 Oct. 1856. She became identified with revolts against the house of Hapsburg that its name was applied to the whole of the Swiss

the National Geographic Society at WashingConfederacy.

ton, D. C., in 1890, and later its corresponding

and foreign secretary. : Her published works SCIACCA, shäk'kä, Italy, a seaport town include Alaska: The Southern Coast and the and bishop's see in Sicily, in the province of Sitkan Archipelago) (1885); Jinrikisha Days Girge 30 miles northwest of Girgenti on a in Japan? (1890); Guide to Alaska and the sloping hill. It is badly built; its principal Northwest Coast (1890); Westward to the buildings are the cathedral (11th century), some Far East'; From East to West); Java: the ancient castles, several convents and a techni- Garden of the East' (1897); (China, ihe Longcal school and gymnasium. It is the Sicilian Lived Empire) (1900); Winter India' (1903); headquarters of Mediterranean coral fishing. (As The Hague Ordains) (1907), etc.,



SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. See LAN- to their mental origin but to the mental purGUAGE, SCIENCE OF.

poses which are to be fulfilled by them. It SCIENCES, Classification of. The effort

can be said that such a reference to purpose to classify systematically the manifoldness of

controls the classification of Aristotle. He scientific achievements is a part of the method

combines the Dialectics and Physics of the ology of science, and thus ultimately a part of

Platonists into the one group of Sciences with logic. It has attracted the philosophical think- theoretical purpose. A second group is then ers from the days of Plato to the present time.

formed by the Sciences which refer to practical It came to the foreground of logical thought

ends of action. And the third group, finally, especially at those epochs in which new scien- are the Sciences related to creative activity. tific movements started. It was thus mostly

The Theoretical Sciences are divided into much more than a mere dividing and subdi- Analytic, Metaphysics and Physics; the Pracviding of the already existing sciences. It was

tical Sciences into Ethics and Politics; the essentially an endeavor to open new perspec

Creative Sciences into Art and Technics. In tives and to show the way to new possibilities a similar way, Locke, too, adjusts the divisions of development. The new ordering and group- of knowledge to three groups of purposes. The ing of the parts of knowledge was thus always

first end of Knowledge is a theoretical undera symptom of great philosophical movements standing; the second purpose is the good and and an expression of deepest energies in pro- the useful; and the third is the development of ductive ages. Only those periods whose scien

Science in the interest of the understanding. tific thought was lost in specialization without

He comes thus to the separation of Physics, originality neglected the logical task of working

Ethics and Logic, defining Logic as a nominalout a survey of the whole field.

istic science. The principles of classification have changed The progress of natural science, with its frequently, and it would be almost artificial to important efforts of classification in descripseek a direct continuity in the successive ef- tive botany and zoology suggested in the meanforts. Essentially psychological are those classi

time more and more a classification of all fications with which both the classical philos- knowledge with reference to the various groups ophy and the modern philosophy answer the of objects. Of course, in the subdivision such problem for the first time, inasmuch as both grouping with reference to the various things Plato and Bacon group human knowledge in in the universe had always been acknowledged; relation to mental faculties. When the Platon- but complete systems of classification of this ists divided all knowledge into dialectics, type were now worked out from various sides, physics and ethics, the three large parts cor- Both the physicist Ampère and sociologist responded to the activity of the reason, to the Bentham, for instance, start thus from the difsensory perception and, thirdly, the desires and ference of physical and mental phenomena, the impulses. Bacon, also, comes to a three-fold one dividing all sciences into Cosmology and division of human learning, corresponding again Noology, the other into Somatology and Pneuto three mental regions. It is memory, imagina- matology. Their further classifications elabtion and reason which are responsible for the orate a complex system in which partly theosubdivision of the intellectual globe.” The retical, partly practical, principles are influential. memory gives us history; imagination gives Their fundamental division corresponds in a us poetry; and reason furnishes us with philos- certain way to the two large classes with which ophy or the sciences. History is divided into in our present time the unphilosophical efforts Natural History, with its subdivisions of Nor- of popular science are usually satisfied. Popumal, Abnormal and Artificial Phenomena; and lar sciences prefer, indeed, to-day mostly to Civil History, with its subdivisions of Politi- group all knowledge with reference to the macal, Literary and Ecclesiastical History. Poetry terial and, accordingly, to work with a classiis to be divided into Parabolic, Dramatic and fication which begins with a separation of physiNarrative. Philosophy, or the sciences, finally cal and mental facts. The physical facts are refer first to Man, secondly, to Nature, thirdly, then subdivided with reference to the differto God. The Science of Man is subdivided into ent classes of objects and the mental facts Civil Philosophy, with its departments of In- of the individual and of society with regard to tercourse, Business and Government; and on the different groups of mental interests. the other side, Philosophy of Humanity, which Yet the classification, with reference to menrefers either to the Body, with Medicine, Athlet- tal faculties, practical purposes or groups of ics, etc., or to the Soul with Logic and Ethics. material are not the only ones which have beThe Science of Nature is Speculative, and as come influential in the development of though. such either Physics or Metaphysics; or it is Even a naturalistic age could not overlook the Applied, and as such either Mechanics or Magic. fact that, after all, the different sciences do

This classification of Bacon remained a not really deal with different objects, but more classic model for more than a century. The often with different aspects of the same objcct. French Encyclopædists still stood completely Man himself, for instance, can play a role in under his influence, and d'Alembert substituted a large variety of sciences which do not beonly art in general for poetry, thus continuing long together at all. These various aspects the intellectualistic attitude, according to which which interest the different sciences are, howpoetry and art are defined as technical means ever, not simply co-ordinated; otherwise they of communication and expression and thus as wou be unfit to constitute a systematic order. parts of the system of knowledge. Yet the Comte recognized that they were dependent onesidedness of every psychological classifica- upon each other, and thus he created a system tion was always felt, especially because there in which the fundamental sciences were conis no knowledge which originates from one ceived in one straight line of logical order. If group of mental functions only. It thus seemed each member of the series really demands the a natural antithesis to refer the sciences not foregoing as its presuppositjon, it is a necessary

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