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consequence to see with Comte in this logical to find general laws which hold for all the conorder at the same time the historical order of crete objects of that special group. This newer the sciences. The latest and most complex school, on the other hand, insists that there group of knowledge is that which he called are sciences which on principle do not want Sociology, which contains practically all the to find laws and are not interested in genknowledge of history ,and civilization, all the eralities, but seek to understand and to intermental and moral facts as far as they enter into pret the concrete objects just in their individuala system of positive knowledge at all.


ity. All the historical sciences then belong to this whole social life presupposes the under- this group as against the natural sciences which standing of man as an organism. The science seek the abstract laws. It is evident that this of sociology is thus dependent upon the science division has again nothing to do with the of biology. But the biologist, again, tries to separation of the different kinds of objects, as bring back his facts to the laws of chemistry, any kind of material may be considered from which he presupposes, and so forth. The one- both standpoints. Any process may be on the dimensional system of Comte thus begins logi- one side considered as a special case of a cally with a most general type, with mathema- general law, interesting thus only in so far lics, and goes from that to astronomy, from as it allows the recognition of any law in it, that to physics, then to chemistry, then to and, on the other hand, it may be considered biology and finally to sociology. Spencer's in its incommensurable individuality. As a matsystem is essentially an elaboration of Comte's. ter of course from such a logical standpoint He, too, begins with the most abstract science, mental life, too, allows both ways of consideramathematics; progress is then to the abstract tion, and enters thus on the one side, into the concrete sciences which deal with the general law-seeking naturalistic sciences, on the other forces of the universe, mechanics, physics and side, into the historical sciences which seek the chemistry for which mathematics is the pre- unique individuality. Psychology would be the supposition, and thence to the concrete sciences natural science of the mental phenomena. which refer to single objects; that is, to astron- It can be said that these various motives omy, geology and biology, while psychology which have alternated in the classification of and sociology become special parts of biology. science are all still influential to-day, partly The shortcomings of all these efforts are evi- as after effects of historical movements like dent as soon as we consider that such posi- those of Comte and Spencer or Fichte and tivistic systems crowd the totality of mental and Hegel, partly as results of conditions which moral sciences and all that refers to history ever again repeat themselves. Especially the and civilization under the conception of sociol- different emphasis on different sciences must ogy. That means, of course, a strictly natural- lead always anew to different methods of istic aspect of the history of culture. All that grouping. The philosopher, the physicist, the the inner civilization of mankind has produced, historian, the psychologist insist instinctively politics and law, literature and art, knowledge on different schemes of classification, the one and religion and philosophy, become then noth- perhaps influenced by the manifoldness of maing but functions of the biological organism; ierial, the other by the manifoldness of method and yet everyone who takes the standpoint of or by the variety of purpose; the one anxious the historian or jurist, of the philosopher or to draw sharp demarcation lines between the theologian, feels the artificiality of such a different fields and thus taking care for an naturalistic standpoint for these disciplines. exact logical relation, the other much more The principle of grouping the sciences with anxious to express and to favor in his system reference to their logical relation is, however, the manifoldness of interrelation between the in itself, of course, not responsible for this various parts of human knowledge and science. artificiality and for this unfairness to the his- It is thus hardly possible to sketch a classifitorical and cultural disciplines. It was the ma- cation of sciences which would find general terialistic metaphysics of those positivistic sys- agreement and which would be in principle tems which brought about this overweight of independent of a particular philosophical standnatural science. On idealistic ground the refer- point. Yet it may be possible to characterize at ence to logical relations yielded accordingly a lcast certain chief tendencies which can be system of very different type. In Hegel's philo- recognized in the scientific life of our time and sophical system, for instance, the sciences are which express themselves in the practical dibrought, too, into logical relations with fullest vision of scientific labor, for instance, in the justice to the demands of the moral sciences. organization of the higher institutions of learn

But while the Hegelian system has lost its ing. influence in our day through its speculative The largest division of knowledge may be character, our time is, in its deeper thought, that which separates the Theoretical Sciences strongly influenced by a newer movement which and the Practical Sciences. It cannot be deagain brings order into the intellectual globe nied that even this separation offers logical by insisting on logical differences which had problems. On the one side it has been said been neglected too long a time. This move- that the so-called Practical Sciences, for inmient, starting with Windelband, considers as stance, those of the engineer or of the physithe more essential difference between the vari- cian, of the lawyer or of the minister, of the ous special sciences whether the logical aim is. diplomat or of the teacher, are after all theoto find laws or to understand the individual ob- retical as far as their really scientific content jects. When Spencer separates those more is concerned, while that element in them which abstract sciences of the physical and chemical makes them practical is an art and not knowlenergies from the sciences of the concrete in- edge. The skill in diagnosing disease or teachdividual object, it is a matter of course for him ing pedagogically, or presenting legal arguthat these sciences of individual objects have ment, can be imparted by training but cannot to overcome the concrete individuality and have be communicated in judgments, while every



science must be a system of judgments. The juristic of theological or technological science, on the other side, seems just as theoretical as history or mathematics. While in this way the knowledge element of the practical sciences would go over into the sphere of the Theoretical Sciences, others have taken the opposite view and have claimed that there is no knowledge but practical knowledge. It is a philosophic doctrine which became popular partly in the sphere of biological thinkers, partly among radical empiricists. They all agree that knowledge is a function of the human organisms which became developed through the practical needs of life. Every science, including all the so-called theoretical ones, thus exist only by their fulfilling certain practical needs of men.

But even if we accept the arguments on both sides, that fundamental division of Theoretical and Practical Science remains justified. The question whether all knowledge serves ultimately practical ends and has its meaning in this relation to practical purposes is an epistemological one; the separation between theoretical and practical sciences, for instance, between physics and engineering, between biology and medicine, is a methodological one. The arguments thus move on different levels. In a philosophical sense every science may be practical; in a logical sense astronomy is strictly theoretical, while the science of bridge-building is not. It is again such logical argument by which we must reject the opinion that all Practical Sciences are ultimately theoretical. Of course, if we were to call theoretical every group of propositions which can be communicated and learned, the science of bridge-building would be just as theoretical as geometry. But the logician has the duty to discriminate between these sciences which consider the facts as such without any relation to our own practical purposes and those other sciences in which the whole grouping of facts, the sifting and combining of the material, is controlled by a practical human end. Medical science is certainly made up of statements which would find their place in a complete theoretical system of the physical world. But in such a concrete description of the processes in the universe the pathological variations of the human organism would play a most insignificant rôle, and a knowledge of the chemical substances which bring harmony again into the organism would be accidental. In the Practical Science of medicine such curing of the diseases becomes a centre of the thought system, and the selection of theoretical facts which are to enter into this science is completely determined by this practical end.

It is thus not even sufficient to characterize the Practical Sciences as applied sciences. The latter expression suggests that the logical difference between the theoretical and practical disciplines is given merely by the fact that the one considers a certain relation theoretically and the other teaches how to apply it. Every Practical Science would thus correspond exactly to a special theoretical science. But the relation is a much more complex one, inasmuch as the Practical Science cannot logically be characterized by the relation to the theoretical starting point, but only by the relation to the practical end. The one end may demand the co-operation of a dozen sciences and one Theoretical Science

may enter as means into a dozen different Practical Sciences. We have to acknowledge thus for the Practical Sciences a unique and independent logical structure and the system of practical sciences would demand subdivisions which would not correspond at all to the subdivisions of theoretical knowledge. The chief human ends and aims would have to determine the grouping of these practical disciplines. We might separate thus, firstly, the Utilitarian Sciences; secondly, the Sciences of Social Regulation; and thirdly, the Sciences of Social Culture. In the Utilitarian Sciences the practical aim refers to the world of things; it may be the technical mastery of nature, or the treatment of the body, or the production, distribution and consumption of the means of support. Here belong, therefore, also the disciplines which are studied in the institutes of technology and in the medical schools, in the agricultural institutions, and so on. The Sciences of Social Regulation serve those aims which refer to the mutual relations of subjects; they deal with the political, legal and social problems. The Sciences of Social Culture, finally, refer to those aims in which not the individual relations to things or to other subjects are in the foreground, but the purposes of the development of the subjects themselves; education, art and religion here find their place.

On the other side we find, then, the universe of Theoretical Knowledge as it is studied in the collegiate departments and graduate schools of the universities. Inasmuch as the pure theoretical knowledge for Knowledge's sake made up, the original meaning of the word Philosophy, the whole of it might be called Philosophical Sciences in the widest sense of the word. This tradition is still alive, for instance, in the German universities, where all Theoretical Sciences are classed together in the Philosophical Faculty as against the Faculties of Law, Medicine and Divinity; and in a corresponding way the American universities confer the Ph.D., that is, doctor of philosophy, on the student of mathematics or history, of languages or natural sciences. In the historical development of scientific work this unity of theoretical knowledge has been replaced by the most complex manifoldness of scholarly endeavors. One part of theoretical knowledge after the other was dismissed from philosophy as soon as it reached a certain independent importance, and yet philosophy in the narrower sense of the word remained in its traditional rôle of furnishing a theoretical view of the world. It was no longer identical with the totality of knowledge, but it fulfils the same purpose by bringing unity into the manifoldness of scattered special sciences, in examining their fundamental conceptions, their relative values, their methods and the position of the whole of knowledge in the system of human purposes. We can divide, thus, the totality of Theoretical Sciences from the first into the special sciences on the one side and the unifying philosophy on the other.

If we abstract from philosophy, we have thus


subdivide further the specialistic sciences. It would be certainly unfair to the actual tendencies of the scientific life of our day if we accepted the scheme which was more or less modeled after the old positivistic samples. The work which our modern historians are doing, the work of the students of litera



ture and language, of art and religion, is not done in the spirit of those who saw in it only special applications of natural laws and thus a sociological department of biology. However widely opinions may diverge as to the logic of historical thinking, the whole scientific work of our time is decidedly aware of a fundamental difference between the naturalistic and the historical attitude toward the world. We should thus have to divide the non-philosophical theoretical sciences into naturalistic and historical sciences. The historical sciences which aim toward a connected view of the one development of our human civilization might then be subdivided into political history, history of art, history of religion, history of language, history of economics, and so on.

The natural sciences, on the other hand, which start from the single objects only to find the general laws might well be subdivided with reference to their mutual dependence. We have, then, in mechanics the science of the most general relations of natural objects; and if mechanics represents the top of this pyramid of special sciences, the lower level would be represented by physics and chemistry and the broad basis by astronomy, gcology, mineralogy, botany, zoology, anthropology. There would remain uncertain the position of mathematics. In some and very important respects mathematics is a science which studies the formal relations of the natural objects and might thus well be grouped with mechanics. But at the same time mathematics has its fundamental relations to logic and thus to philosophy. The elements of mathematical knowledge are not found, like the physical things, but are created by human thoughts and their relations are valid for the universe because we cannot think the universe otherwise than through the categories of our thought. It must depend upon the emphasis which we lay on the one or the other side of the mathematical science whether we group it with philosophy or with the natural sciences.

We have further to acknowledge that the totality of sciences which are naturalistic in their logical structure cannot be grouped together into that one pyramid whose top is mechanics, because we have so far neglected the psychological sciences. Their general constitution corresponds indeed completely to the natural sciences and is thus also sharply to be separated from the historical sciences; but their material cannot be brought under the category of mechanical movement. The mental phe

are certainly related to the physical brain process, but the meaning of psychology is 'destroyed if physiological processes are really substituted for mental facts. We have thus to consider the sciences of mental life as a special group of naturalistic sciences. The top of their pyramid would be general psychology, and its basis the special sociological sciences. While psychology is thus independent and not at all merely a part of biology, we have to acknowledge it as a special science and thus to keep it separated from philosophy. That does not deny that by many traditional ties psychology is still nearly related to philosophy and it will remain so, inasmuch as its special work is more than that of other sciences dependent upon a critical philosophical examination of its fundamental conceptions.

Bibliography - Bacon, De

Augmentis Scientiaram'; D'Alembert, Encyclopedie, Discours préliminaire); Comte, A., Cours de Philosophic Positive' ; Spencer, The Classification of the Sciences' ; Sedgwick, W. T., A Short History of Science (New York 1916); Wuedt, Uber die Einteilung der Wissenschaften'; Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, Saint Louis 1904 (Vol. I).

HUGO MÜNSTERBERG, Late Professor of Psychology, Harvard University.

SCIENCES, National Academy of, an association incorporated by act of Congress, 3 March 1863, the object of which is to investigate, examine, experiment and report upon any subject of science or art whenever called upon by any department of governinent; the actual expense of such investigations to be paid from appropriations which may be made for the purpose. The Academy holds a stated session each year at Washington, D. C., in April and another in autumn at such places as may be determined. In 1918 there were 135 active members and foreign associates, comprising investigators in every department of science. Headquarters in Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. A national research council is connected with the Academy.

SCIENCES, Normative. Normative sciences are systems of propositions whose contents are not facts, but norms; not experiences but values, and whose teaching is, therefore, not that something is, but that something ought to be. There is thus a possible place for logic, ethics and ästhetics, for philosophy of law and religion. Yet it would be meaningless to apply the term, normative sciences, to every kind of logic, ethics and ästhetics. The term has gained its characteristic importance in immediate relation to certain definite philosophical presuppositions. The conception of norm is intended to

more than an empirical prescription, more than a social agreement which binds the individual through merely social inducements, and also more than a merely biological necessity. A large variety of so-called philosophical enterprises has been at all times and is to-day satisfied with just such sociological or anthropological doctrines of ethical, æsthetic and logical functions. There is indeed no logical difficulty in building up a system of ethics, for instance, which describes and explains how at different times and with different peoples different groups of actions became enforced through the organs of society. Biological sociology can easily show that a social organism can exist only when certain rules of behavior secure a social harmony. From the standpoint of such empirical philosophy, the moral conscience becomes an emotion which is artificially trained by the suggestions of education and the norm of action has no more value than any legal statute which is voted by a majority and reinforced by threatening the violators with punishment. From the same standpoint æsthetics describes and explains the various tastes which have been developed in the history of civilization by the silent agreement of the richest minds, their norms shading off into the changing prescriptions of fashion. Finally, in a similar way, logic becomes a description and explanation of those ways of thought which a





certain period accepts as leading to such propo- knowledge an absolute duty to prefer this sitions as a particular society calls its truth, thought to its opposite.

In all these cases it is not meaningless to Of course, there remains the possible objecspeak of an ought. Anyone who wants to agree tion that we can live our life without respecting with the demands of the community stands such absolute duty; that we can think, for inunder a certain obligation to act, to feel and to stance, without claiming more than relative think in the prescribed way. He must subor- value for our thoughts. We should thus be dinate his particular wishes to the general trend,

satisfied with the conviction that whatever we otherwise he will appear immoral or tasteless call truth may be found untrue by a future or erratic. On the other hand it is evident that generation. But the philosophers of the northe so-called norms cannot claim any other au- mative sciences answer that this is an impossible thority than as being the expression of the will standpoint. A knowledge which is not anchored of a number of individuals and as offering a in any absolute truth contradicts itself. If, for certain appropriateness for the development of instance, the skeptical sociologist insists that the social organism. Such sociological systems there is no absolute truth, this at least is a would themselves repudiate every idea of an judgment which he affirms with the conviction absolute value for the ethical, æsthetic and log- and with the understanding that it is itself a ical norms; the impossibility of such a claim truth of absolute character, otherwise its meanwould seem to them sufficiently proved by the

ing were lost. A consistent relativism, in short, fact that one nation or one period prescribes to

destroys itself in the field of thought, and the the conscience actions which are forbidden at acknowledgment of absolute norms is thus another time or by another nation. In the the indispensable presupposition for logic. A same way the history of art shows how the particular thought or a particular theory may, æsthetic standards were changing all the time, of course, be superseded, but the duty to think and the history of science demonstrates how the consistently and in accordance with logical scientific theories were always only the expres

axioms cannot be touched by the changes of sions of certain tendencies, superseded con

civilization. stantly by new ideas. It would thus appear ab- The same holds true for morality. The surd to claim an eternal value for the norms particular rules may change, but the meaning of of behavior, of art and of science which chance morality is lost if we do not give absolute value to be influential with us to-day.

to the fulfilment of duty. It depends upon Those who believe in Normative Sciences) chance conditions, which contents become the do not contest the facts which are gathered in duty of the man; but he is to do what his duty such sociological disciplines, and they do not

prescribes independent of his personal desires, underestimate their value. But they see in all

ready to sacrifice himself for that which he such empirical accounts only contributions to acknowledges as his duty; that is a norm of the history of civilization and they believe that

absolute value. The normative ethics, just as the conception of norms can be taken in a

the normative logic, thus are formal discideeper sense, independent of the advanced pre- plines. But just their independence of any spescriptions of a social organization. Norm

cial content makes those logical and moral means to them an absolute obligation, and only forms eternally valid. The same repeats itself the consequences of the absolute values con- finally in the field of art and religion where stitute for them a true Logic, Ethics and again the absolute form may be filled with the Æsthetics. Those sociological doctrines then

varying content which the history of civilization become merely empirical introductions to the offers, but where the form alone gives eternal true philosophical discipline of valuable acting,

meaning to the ought which is involved. feeling and thinking. The norm is then sharply

Hugo MÜNSTERBERG. to be separated from anything, which in prin- SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. Definiciple changes like fashions and tastes or legal tion.- The term scientific management charstatutes. The norm is that which is absolutely acterizes that form of organization and provaluable without any reference to any individual cedure in purposive collective effort which or to any social group of individuals, indepen

rests on principles or laws derived by the procdent alike of the chance obedience which indi- ess of scientific investigation, experiment and viduals offer to it and of the effects which may analysis, instead of on tradition or on policies result from its application. That two times two determined empirically and casually by the is four is a truth which is eternally valuable; process of trial and error. The principal phases that is, which remains valid without any refer- of scientific management are: (1) Exhaustive ence to the question whether we understand it investigation of the elements usable in collecor not. No one may think it truth, but every- tive effort – manual and machine processes, one who wants to think, ought to think so, if he materials, tools and equipment, physical and is to be acknowledged at all times as a logical psychological operating conditions - and their subject. It is of course meaningless to ask reactions in all possible relations, in order to for the reasons or for the causes of such an determine the combination which for any absolute value. It is the ultimate foothold for specific purpose is most economical in technical our thought. Whatever we might offer as an energy - human and material; the formulation explanation would have meaning only if we of the results of such investigation in principles again called it a truth, and if we had to give and laws, and the establishment on the basis of account of what we mean by that, it could such principles and laws of standards of proagain be only the acknowledgment that it is cedure and result; (2) the development and that thought which we ought to think. It is a maintenance of such precise and automatic cothought which we think without reference to ordination and control of the collective effort as our personal interests and without reference to to accomplish, in accordance with the estabany social demands but simply because we ac- lished standards of procedure and result, with

VOL. 24-27



economy of energy and time, any purpose of knew from his experience as a workman was the collective effort; (3) organization of the extremely low. There developed the anomalous personnel, processes, materials and equipment situation, not infrequent in industry of that in such functional co-operative relations as to day, of agreeable personal relations between bring to bear in the collective effort the highest foreman and individual workmen accompanied available and developable technical skill in by a bitter struggle concerning output between planning, supervision and execution.

foreman and the workers as a group. Taylor, A clear understanding of scientific manage- as foreman, attempted to apply the then cusment requires that management be not confused tomary foremen's method of suasion and force with administration. Management characterizes with the usual result of increasing the bitterthe organization and procedure through which ness of the struggle. Concluding that he could collective effort is effected; administration char- master the situation only by knowing more than acterizes those considerations and decisions the most skilled workman about the technique which establish the purposes which create the of production in the shop, and about what a need for management and those broad, govern- skilled workman should do, he applied his ining policies under which the management pro- vestigative and inventive mind (he came subceeds. Whether a railroad shall expend capital sequently to hold over 100 patents) to the in further development of a main line for better problem and began two lines of experiments service or in the acquisition of feeders for which he pursued through many years with larger traffic, whether a manufacturer shall dis- great thoroughness and at great expense. One tribute through the established trade channels related to the machine, the tool and the material or through branches and stores established by (metal cutting), and the other to the workman's himself, whether a department store shall sell method of handling the machine, the tool and trade mark merchandise or private brand the material (time and motion study). The merchandise, whether any institution shall former line of experiments, continued later operate in an extensive or a restricted area, at the Bethlehem Steel Company, led to the disserve a particular class of the public, estab- covery of high-speed steel, and revolutionized lish an open or closed shop or admit its workers the art of metal cutting ('Transactions Amerito some sort of participation in administration can Society of Mechanical Engineers,' XXVIII, and management, are administrative problems. 21, 1906); the latter line of experiments These problems once settled and policies relat- greatly broadened led to the development of a ing thereto determined by the administrative co-ordinated system of shop management and authority (which may overlap or even coincide ultimately, as an interpretation of that system, with the management authority), managerial to the formulation of the philosophy of manageproblems arise concerned with establishing an ment which came to be known as scientific organization and procedure, and the conduct management. The logical and approximately of such procedure, to carry out the adminis- the chronological steps of the development of trative policies. This distinction between ad- the system of management, essential to an ministration and management clearly in mind, understanding of the principles which came to it may be understood that administration is be formulated, were: (1) Experiments leading largely a process of forming judgments, may to dependable knowledge of how long a partichave serious social, political and other moral ular machine operated, or a particular manual aspects, must be largely empirical and can process performed, by a skilled workman would utilize in but a limited way principles and laws require to accomplish any specified result, with determined by the scientific method of investi- a given material, according to a specified most gation; whereas management on the other hand effective method of operation, and under is concerned with the relations and reactions specified working conditions. This knowledge, of particular forms of organization, routine, obtained principally by stop-watch studies of materials, equipment and physical and psychical unit-time performances, permitted the setting conditions, may proceed upon principles deter- of practicable standards per man-hour or mined by the scientific method of investigation

machine-hour higher than the average of curand is more or less mechanistic in its nature. It rent performance; (2) the establishment of a may be understood also how, through absence of routine of preparation and direction which a clear comprehension of the difference between would ensure maintenance of the conditions administration and management, and through a under which the standards were set, which led failure to distinguish between the nature and to the working out of such mechanisms as technical efficiency of scientific management per routing, order of work, instruction cards, purse and the administrative problems (social, chasing materials according to specifications, political and otherwise moral) arising from its central stores and controlled conditioning and use, confusion and controversy have appeared delivery of materials and tools; (3) the selecin the public's attempt to appraise scientific tion and assignment of personnel to machines management.

or operations on the basis of skill and the Early History: The System.- In 1878 further development of skill in workers; and Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856–1915) entered (4) the establishment of specialized skilled the employ of the Midvale Steel Company as a supervision of workmen to ensure maintenance laborer who had served his apprenticeship as of conditions and to provide instruction. These pattern-maker and machinist. He became suc- objects (3 and 4) were accomplished by funccessively time clerk, lathe gang boss, assistant tionalized foremanship, a gang boss having foreman, master mechanic of repairs and main- general supervision of the order of work in the tenance, chief draftsman, and in 1884, at the shop, a speed boss supervising the setting up of age of 28, chief engineer. From the beginning the machine and an inspector inspecting the of this period he was in continual struggle with product both at the beginning and at the comthe workmen to increase output, which he pletion of a job. (5) The constant and curren.

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