« PrejšnjaNaprej »
constitutional authority at the time, organized a coalition cabinet. The
government, which modestly called itself "provisional," was fairly representative of the leading parties composing the last Duma and the elements that hastened the Revolution. It was headed by Prince Lvov a libera! Octobrist, elected to ,
the premiership conjointly by the Duma and the labor elements (subsequently succeeded by the famous Kerensky), and included such other popular leaders as Paul Milyukov, Constitutional Democrat; Tereshtchenko, a many-sided liberal of truest color; and the above-mentioned Kerensky, a revolutionary Socialist representing the workmen and soldiers, who soon dominated the whole Provisional Government. Under stress of factional criticism, the coalition ministry was repeatedly reformed, becoming every time more and more representative. Five new departments were created to cope with the exigencies of war and peace – departments of Labor, Public Relief, Food Supplies, Posts and Telegraphs, and a department for the Affairs of the Constituent Assembly:
The new government at once declared itself in favor of immediate and numerous radical reforms along every line (including such matters as social, religious and racial equality, and universal suffrage). But the execution of its ambitious program, difficult enough in itself, was rendered well-nigh impossible by the everincreasing interference with the affairs of government on the part of an emergency organization called into being during the Revolution and known as "the Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Deputies.” Such were the power and popularity of this council that its wishes and they commonly took the form of mandates could not well be ignored. From the very first, the provisional government had to reckon with this new influential factor in Russian politics, and such constant reckoning inevitably clogged the wheels of government machinery. Hence the Kerensky government spent most of its short career in finding its bearings and in trying to reconcile the various discordant factions, which lacked both the temper and the tradition of democratic citizenship.
But, little as the first revolutionary government actually accomplished, it gave Russia her first taste of real Democracy, which she is never likely to forget. The spirit, the machinery of administration and the reforms proposed were thoroughly democratic. Seemingly, time and administrative experience were all that was needed for the completion of the colossal task of Russian democratization, but these were denied by the Bolshevik coup d'état that soon followed.
Ostensibly, the Bolshevik government was placed in the hands of the Council of Workmen's, Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies, the popular organization already alluded to but somewhat enlarged to appease the peasant element. This mixed organization, called in Russian simply the Soviet, has numerous branches and acts through innumerable agents styled «People's Kommissars) (a term borrowed from the French revolutionists), backed by the force of well-armed soldiers called Red Guards. All these executive officers are supposedly carrying out the will of The Central Executive Committee of the Federal Soviets, which is a longer name for the Bolshevik government.
The central figures and guiding spirits of the «Soviet Republic, as the Bolshevik rulers themselves style their form of government, have been and still are Nikolai Lenine, Premier, and Leon Trotzky, Minister of War and formerly Minister of Foreign Affairs. The rest of the cabinet has been changed frequently, but probably still includes Tchitcherin as “People's Commissioner) for Foreign Affairs, Lunacharsky as People's Commissioner for Public Instruction, and a few others fairly well known for their revolutionary sympathies.
The rule of a single class, the proletariat, is the ideal of this ultra-revolutionary government, which has been aptly characterized as a «Proletarian Dictatorship. If the first transitional government may be said to have been a “Democracy in the Making,” then, surely, the second is a democracy in the unmaking.
Political Parties.- Russia had no political parties in the Western sense before the constitutional era, which is quite natural in view of the notorious want of free political discussion in that country in strictly monarchial times. Such organizations as existed in absolutist Russia were secret debating societies advocating and frequently indulging in terrorism, with revolution as their battle-cry. With the convocation of the first Duma, however - or, rather, with the promulgation of «The Fundamental Laws of 1905” granting the right of free political discussion – regular political parties became for the first time possible in Russia, and the vital factor of political struggle commenced to stir that country's otherwise sluggish life.
Historically the first political party to come into prominence in Russia was that of the "Octobrists,” a conservative organization which received its name from the unbounded enthusiasm with which it hailed the famous Manifesto of 30 Oct. 1905. It was this party organized by Milyutin and Shipov, that dominated the Third Duma (1907–12).
A more liberal and more important political party was that of The Constitutional Democrats, formed, also under the influence of the manifesto above mentioned, by radical and independent elements and led by Paul Milyukov, a statesman of international fame. Its membership has included many of the most prominent leaders of Russian thought, and the first to frame a definite political program. This party, nicknamed from its initials (K. D.) the "Kadets) has long dominated Russian politics, being both well organized and well directed. It had its own newspaper, Ryatch, which was so well edited (by Milyukov) that it soon became one of the leading Russian dailies.
The most radical and aggressive political parties in Russia — and the only ones except the party of Constitutional Democrats to have survived the first Revolution -- are, naturally, the various Socialist organizations. There was The Group of Toil, a Socialist labor party represented in the Duma by Alexander Kerensky himself; the Party of Democratic Reform, which was mildly socialistic; the Party of Peaceful Revolution, which believed in Parliamentary reform; the Peasants' Union which stood for the nationalization of land; and numerous other more or less radical parties.
The principal parties advocating revolu
RUSSIA – RUSSIAN INDUSTRY (12)
tionary socialism do not properly concern us lurgical mills. British capital was invested here, since they are not political parties in the mostly in oil and gold mining, and plaved a less accepted sense of the term. Owing to the cur- important role in the development of Russian rent prominence, however, of some of these, industry than French and Belgian capital. mention might be made of the Social Revolu- It must be noted, in this connection, that the tionists, a Marxist organization led by Cher
government itself was the largest industrial esnov; the Social Democratic party, which in tablishment. It owned metallurgical mills, the 1903 branched out into the Bolshevik (Maxi
greatest part of the railroad mileage, the greatmalist) and the Menshevik (Minimalist) wings. est land area and was the largest purchaser of The bitter struggle between these two factions
the products of the Russian mining and metalcannot be entered into here (see Russia lurgical industry. The imperialistic policy of History), except to say that the former, the. the government determined the direction of extremist wing, represented by the present Russian railway construction, and of the whole ruling régime in the greater part of Rus- Russian industry. sia, aspires to eliminate entirely every class Russia's share in the world's trade amounted but the proletariat, while the latter, the in 1911-13 to 3.6 per cent. Her exports for more moderate wing, seeks only to place 1909–13 averaged 1,501,400,000 roubles annually. the laborer on a political and economic level
Her imports for the with all other classes of society. There are
same years averaged
1,136,900,000 roubles. During the last decade of course other essential differences in both
preceding the World War the total of Russian principles and policies, but this single instance
foreign trade was gradually increasing, but the will serve as an illustration.
imports were increasing faster than the exDAVID A. MODELL, ports. This was due to the fact that during
Specialist in Russian Subjects. the years preceding the war Russia was going 12. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY. Introduc- through a period of intensive industrial detory:- The total national wealth of the Russian velopment which caused a substantial increase Empire, including Poland and Finland, in 1914, in the imports of machinery. was estimated at about $60,000,000,000, and the I. Agriculture and Forestry. 1. Agriculture, total population may be estimated at about 160,- - The part played by agriculture in Russia's 000,000, the average wealth thus being about economics appears from the following figures: $375 per capita whereas in the United States in 1910 the total value of the agricultural prodthe per capita wealth is about $2,200. The ucts of Russia was about 9,500,000,000 roubles national income was estimated at $7,500,000,000 in gold (1 rouble in gold=51/2 cents); the of which agriculture furnished about $4,900,- total value of manufactured products, 4,900,000,000,000. These figures are a striking illustra- 000 roubles. Thus, in 1910, agriculture furtion of the low stage of Russia's economic de- nished two-thirds of Russia's total national invelopment. Though occupying nearly one-sixth come. According to the census of 1897, 70 per of the total land area of the earth, Russia, ow- cent of the population of the Russian Empire ing to her geographical situation, as well as to were supported wholly or partly by agriculture. unfavorable historical conditions, has been Only about one-twentieth of Russia's terrivery backward, economically and industrially. tory is under cultivation. This proportion
The transportation system of a country may varies considerably throughout the vast area of be taken as the best index of its industrial de- the empire, viz.: Russia in Europe, 17.5 per velopment. The total length of all the inland
cent; the Caucasus, 20.3 per cent; western waters of Russia reaches about 200,000 miles,
Siberia, 1 per cent; eastern Siberia, 0.1 per yet the length of all Russian canals and im
cent; the Steppe region (of central Asia), 1.3 proved rivers totals only 1,100 miles, of which
per cent; Turkestan, 1.9 per cent. The total the canals represent about 550 miles. The total
area of the principal crops in 1910–12 is shown length of Russian railroads is 46,600 miles, i.e.,
in the following table: 0.28 mile per 1,000 inhabitants. In the United
Dessiatines States the respective figures are 261,000, and
(1. dessiаtine = 2.66 miles. Tsarism had a very unfavorable in
2.705 acres) fluence upon the development of civilization in
Wheat, rye, and barley.
67,518,000 Russia, generally, and particularly upon its Oats, buckwheat, peas, potatoes and lentils 28, 342,000
Corn. economic development. Innumerable legal re
18, 742.000 Flax and hemp.
20, 312,000 strictions prevented the development of initia- Cotton.
4,409,000 tive and enterprise. In Russia in 1913 the total number of joint-stock companies was less than 2,000 and their total capital stock amounted to
The average yield is very low, owing to
lack of fertilizers. Artificial fertilizers are alless than $2,000,000,000. The total number of wage-earners employed in factories and mines most unknown in Russia. The annual yield of was about 3,500,000. The total amount of wheat averaged in Russia in 1907-13 10.0 horse power used in manufacturing industries bushels per acre, whereas in the United States of Russia in 1914 was 2,500,000, as against 22,
it averaged 14.4 bushels, in Canada 19.2 bushels. 500,000 in the United States. The total foreign Modern improved agricultural machinery is capital invested in Russia before the
scarcely used, yet despite these handicaps Rusamounted to about $4,300,000,000. The largest sia contributed a large share to the world's investors were the French French capital was production of grains. During the years 1907invested in government and municipal bonds, 12 Russia produced 48.1 per cent of the world's and in coal and metallurgical enterprises in supply of rye; 31.6 per cent of the total supply South Russia (the Donetz Basin). Next to the of barley; 24.3 per cent of the supply of oats; French came Belgian capital, invested in street and 19.0 per cent of the supply of wheat. , The railways, electric plants, coal mines and metal- export of grains played the most important
part in Russia's foreign trade. The average tions and cold storage plants first made their annual exports for 1910–13 amounted to
appearance shortly before the World War. 11,791,800 short tons, valued at 639,900,000 III. Mineral Resources and Mining:- The roubles ($329,300,000).
mineral resources of Russia have scarcely been 2. Forestry. - The Russian forests cover explored, yet from the available sources of about 3,150,000,000 acres, or nearly thrice as
information it can be stated as a fact that Rusgreat an area as the combined forests of the sia is very rich in all kinds of minerals. As United States and Canada. Most of these for- far as iron ore is concerned, Russia doubtless ests are in Siberia. In European Russia there holds the first place in the world, although not are about 383,000,000 acres, of which 40.7 per all iron ore deposits have been explored or surcent are in the province of Archangel, 27.1 per veyed. The iron ore deposits of the Ural cent in the province of Vologda, 8.5 per cent Mountains occupy the first place, not only in in the province of Perm and 6.2 per cent in
Russia, but in the whole world. The mountain the province of Olonetz, in all 82.5 per cent in Blagodat alone contains over 100,000,000 tons northern Russia. Of the Siberian forests 30.9 of iron ore; the mountain Magnitnaya over per cent are situated in the province of Tobolsk, 100,000,000 tons. The surveyed deposits of the 17 per cent in the Maritime province, 16.9 per Ural Mountains contain more than 500,000,000 cent in the province of Tomsk, 16 per cent in
tons of iron ore. The Ural iron ore is of a the Amur region and 8.8 per cent in the Trans- very high quality, containing no less than 65 Baikal region. The forests cover an area of per cent of pure iron and a very small quantity about 54,000,000 acres in central Asia and of sulphur. In the Donetz Basin, in southern about 13,500,000 acres in the Caucasus. Rus- Russia, there are two deposits of iron ore of sian forests furnish excellent timber and rep- high quality; in Krivoi Rog and the Kerch resent one of Russia's greatest resources.
Peninsula the total_surveyed deposits exceed Nevertheless the lumber industry in Russia is
1,000,000,000 tons. There are also several destill in its infancy. A very large part of Rus
posits of iron ore in central Russia, but these sia's forests, especially in Siberia, has not been
are of a lower grade and the ore itself is of a surveyed at all. Under the old régime no seri
lower quality. The iron ore deposits of Sibeous attention was paid to conservation of the ria have not been explored at all, but several forests. In some places, as in the Ural_Moun
deposits are known in the Minusinsk district, tains, forests were being destroyed. The in
in the Trans-Baikal province in the Amur discome from them was extremely low. Before
trict, in the Ussuri province, in the Bay of Saint the World War the net income of the govern
Olga, near Vladivostok, etc. ment from the state-owned forests did not ex
The coal deposits are not as plentiful. The ceed 12 cents per acre, and in Asiatic Russia it greatest coal deposits in European Russia are was as low as one mill per acre. The total
situated in the Donetz Basin. Large deposits
of bituminous coal exist in the western and value of exports of lumber and timber from Russia for the calendar year 1913 was $84,
central parts of the basin and anthracite in the 850,000. It may be safely anticipated, however,
eastern part. The bituminous coal is of very that the lumber industry has a splendid future
high quality, and good coke for metallurgical and will play a very important part in the na
purposes is produced, but the geological conditional economy of the country.
tions are not as favorable as in England or in
the United States. The anthracite of the eastII. Cattle, and Meat Industry.- Russia possesses vast prairies, suitable for extensive
ern part of the Donetz Basin (Grushevskaya cattle breeding. Nevertheless the number of
Mooida) ranks as the best in_the world. The cattle per capita of population in Russia is one
second place in the Russian Empire was held fourteenth that of Argentina and less than
by the Dombrowo Basin, in Poland, which has one-half of the per capita of the United States.
now been detached from Russia. The coal deTaking eight sheep or three hogs as equivalent
posits of central Russia are of a low grade
(brown coal and lignite). The Ural Mountains to one head of cattle we find in Russia 390 heads
contain no deposits of good coal suitable for of cattle to every 1,000 of population, whereas
coking. The deposits of coal in the northern the respective figure for Argentina is 5,320, and
and central parts of the Ural Mountains conthat for the United States 860. It must further
tain only brown coal and lignite. In the be borne in mind that the livestock of Russia's
southern part of the Ural Mountains (the peasantry is of an inferior quality compared
Orenburg region), deposits of anthracite are to that of Argentina and the United States. found. In the Caucasus there are some deThe number of heads of animals by geo
posits of coal containing a large supply of graphical divisions in 1912 is shown in the fol
high grade coal. In Siberia there are very lowing table:
rich coal beds. The best coal deposit is that of (000 omitted)
Kuznetsk (in the Tomsk province), whose geoSheep and
logical conditions are much more favorable European Russia and Horses
than those of the Donetz Basin. Coal beds are 22,337 32,842 37,531 11,132 1,892 5,627 10, 781 1,174
found all along the Siberian Railroad at short 4,506 5,306 5,141 1,092
distances from one another, also in the MariCentral Asia.
time and Yakutsk provinces, and in the Fergan Total for the empire. 33.170 48.796 74.066 13,509
province in central Asia. Good beds worked in the Augersky (Tomsk province) and
Cheremkhovsky (Irkutsk province) mines. The meat industry in Russia is still predom- There are very rich deposits of excellent coal inantly a small scale industry. Centralization on the island of Sakhalien, in the northern part, is practically unknown. Prior to the Revolu- belonging to Russia. Although the coal' detion there were no packing concerns like those posits of Siberia have not been explored and in the United States. Refrigerating installa- surveyed, yet from all indications it may be
Poland. Caucasus. Siberia
RUSSIA – RUSSIAN INDUSTRY (12)
5 3 3.8 2.9 0.9 0.4
safely assumed that the reserves of coal there dustry in Russia is shown by the following are very large.
figures : The oil fields of Russia are likewise unex
Long tons plored. The best-known fields are found in the
24,600,000 Caucasus. The fields of Balakhani, Sou
28,100,000 5,900,000 1912.
30,700,000 rakhani, Sviatoy and Grozny furnish about 85
15,900,000 per cent of Russia's total oil production. Oil The principal sources of the output of coal is also found on the Taman Peninsula, in the
previous to the war were the Donetz Basin, region of the Pechora River (Oukhta in north
which produced 68.6 per cent of the total for the ern Russia), in the Transcaucasian region, be
empire in 1912, and the Dombrowo Basin, in tween the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains,
Poland, which produced 20.7 per cent of the in the province of Fergan (central Asia) and total. All other regions produced only 10.7 on Sakhalien Island.
per cent of the domestic supply. The geographiCopper ore deposits are situated mainly in
cal distribution of the production of coal in the Asia, viz., in the Ural Mountains, in Siberia,
empire, exclusive of Poland, in the year 1912, Minusinsk, Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, in Tur
is shown in the following table: kestan, in Fergana and in the Caucasus, but also
Per cent of total in the provinces of northern Russia. The
for the empire
Donetz Basin. richest manganese ore deposits are situated in
Eastern Siberia the Caucasus (Chiaturi) and next in southern Ural..... Russia. There are known, also, manganese ore
Western Siberia. deposits in the Ural Mountains. The richest
Turkestan. gold ore and placer deposits are located in
0.3 Siberia, the Lena deposits in the province of
Total.. Yakutsk, along the river Vitim, in the Nerchinsk and Barguzin districts, in the Amur region, in the Maritime region and in the Altai
In addition to her domestic production of Mountains. Next follow the Ural Mountains.
coal, Russia, previous to the war, depended Gold is also known to exist in Kamchatka,
for over one-fifth of her supply upon imports, Sakhalien and in the Caucasus. Platinum de
mostly from Great Britain, and partly from
Germany. posits, the richest in the world, are located in the Ural Mountains. Silver and lead ore de
Iron. - The development of the iron inposits are located in Siberia — in the Altai
dustry of the Russian Empire and its geographi
cal distribution appear from the following Mountains, in the Ural Mountains and in the Caucasus.
Iron ore There are large deposits of phosphates,
GEOGRAPHICAL pyrites, asbestos, graphite, marble, very exten
Long tons Per cent Long tons Per cent
South Russia. sive peat fields, deposits of mica, mercury and
5,700,000 70.3 2,800,000 67.7
Ural Mountains. .1,800,000 22.5 800,000 nickel. There are also deposits of precious and Central Russia.. 300,000
100,000 semi-precious stones, of rare metals, such as Poland.
400,000 tungsten, osmium, vanadium, molybdenum,
Total. .8,100,000 100.0 4,100,000 100.0 iridium, etc.
The development of the Russian mining in- The relatively small production of pig iron dustry is at a very low stage, especially if con- in the Ural Mountain region is due to the fact trasted with the country's rich mineral re- that it has no coking coal and uses charcoal sources. The leading part in Russian mining is
for producing pig iron. Therefore the Ural played by the Donetz Basin in South Russia, region produces the finest kind of sheet iron, which appears from the following comparative its only competitor being Sweden, which also figures of production of the principal minerals uses charcoal for smelting iron ore. in the Russian Empire and the Donetz Basin: Oil.— The production of crude oil (naph
tha) in 1913 amounted to 9,000,000 long tons, of AVERAGE ANNUAL PRODUCTION 1912 AND 1913. which 97 per cent was produced in the Cau
In the Donetz Basin casus and the rest mostly in central Asia.
Gold.— The production of gold in the Rus-
sian Empire in 1910–12 averaged 1,350,000 Coal. 34,000,000 23,000,000
ounces Troy, of which 80 per cent was proCoke. 4,200,000 4,200,000
duced in Siberia and 20 per cent in the Ural Iron ore. 8,900,000 6,300.000
Mountains. Pig iron.
4,400,000 3,000,000 Cast iron and steel. 3,900,000
Platinum.-— Russia is the chief source of
2,200,000 Salt. 610,000 190,000
the world's supply of platinum. The world's Manganese ore. 1,000,000 270.000
production in 1912-14 averaged 280,000 ounces
Troy, of which the Ural Mountains contributed The Donetz Basin is also important as a
263,700 ounces, i.e., 94.1 per cent, British Co
lumbia, 4,800 ounces, i.e., 5.3 per cent and other producer of heavy oils, coal tar and other chemical by-products of the coke industry.
countries 0.6 per cent. The second place in the mining industry
Copper.- The production of copper has belongs to the Caucasus. In 1913 it supplied
rapidly grown since the beginning of the present 85 per cent of the total of oil, 70 per cent of the century, as appears from the following table: total of manganese ore, 56 per cent of the total
Pounds of silver and lead ore, 96 per cent of the total
50,000.000 output of lead, 30 per cent of that of copper
57,500,000 and 24 per cent of the total of silver.
75,600,000 Coal.- The growth of the coal mining in
19.8 3.2 9.3
68 56 31 27
About one-half of the output of copper Next in importance after the textile induscomes from the Ural Mountains. In 1913 the tries were the metallurgical mills, including geographical distribution of the production of metal working and machine factories. In gencopper was as follows: Ural Mountans, 50 eral this industry was far behind its rivals in per cent; the Caucasus, 29 per cent; Siberia, 16 the more advanced industrial countries, both in per cent; all other sections, 5 per cent. The equipment and efficiency. Still there were a few domestic production of copper in Russia was large plants with modern machinery. The insufficient to supply its demand. About 20 largest factories were owned by the governper cent of Russia's consumption of copper in ment and produced chiefly munitions of war. 1908–12 was supplied by imports from foreign These establishments were mostly centred in countries.
and around the seat of the Imperial governManganese.-- The production of
ment, which accounts for the industrial growth ganese ore in 1913 reached 1,130,000 long tons, of Saint Petersburg. of which 77 per cent was produced in the Cau- Of the privately owned enterprises, those casus and 21 per cent in southern Russia. located near the sources of coal and iron were Previous to the war the Russian Empire held largely controlled by French capital, which also the foremost place in the world's market of controlled metallurgical works and coal mines manganese gre. The annual exports from in that section. Russia in 1911-13 averaged 924,000 long tons, The domestic production of machinery in as against 706,000 long tons from British India Russia was considerably short of the demand and 168,000 tons from Brazil. Notwithstanding for it and the imports of machinery from her rich deposits of high grade manganese ore, abroad were the most important items of RusRussia produced no high grade ferro-man- sia's import trade. ganese and imported it from abroad.
The chemical industry was Salt, etc.— Among other mineral products rapidly growing industries of Russia. Accordof Russia must be mentioned salt, of which ing to the census of manufactures of 1908 there 1,900,000 long tons were produced in 1912; also were 466 factories with 64,645 wage-earners, silver and lead, zinc, pyrites and asbestos. and an annual production of 177,279,400 roubles.
Wage-Earners in the Industries.- The The value of products had increased since 1900 number of wage-earners employed in the prin- by 91 per cent. cipal mining industries in 1908 is given in the Among the most favored industries was the following table:
beet sugar industry, which enjoyed an export Number of premium from the government. In truth the
exports of sugar from Russia were made posCoal.
sible only by the poverty of the mass of the Gold and platinum. Oil wells and refineries.
peasantry which regarded sugar as a luxury. Iron ore.
The total number of sugar factories in 1911 Copper mines and smelters.
was 299, with 142,630 wage-earners and with Salt. Silver, lead and zinc mines and smelters.
a total production of 1,853,000 long tons of Manganese ore.
sugar. The area of sugar beet plantations con
nected with sugar mills and refineries was Total...
V. Effects of the War and of the RevoluIV. Manufactures.- An index of the development of manufactures in Russia is furnished
tion.-- The preceding statistical figures have at by the statistics of establishments subject to
present only a historical value. The abnormal
conditions brought about in Russia. by the factory inspection, which comprise all manu
World War, the Revolution and the civil war facturing establishments with mechanical power, employing not less than 16 wage-earners. The
have resulted in a complete breakdown of principal results of the census of such factories,
Russian industries. Industry in Russia had betaken in 1908, are presented in the following
come totally disabled_even prior to the over
throw of the Tsar. The official publication of table:
the National Manufacturers' Association of Russia, Promishlennost i Torgovlya (Industry and Commerce), discussing this problem in its
issue of 28 Nov. 1917, notes the fact that the
Horse depression which had manifested itself during products
the prerevolutionary period was growing during the first five months of the revolution, and became very marked toward the fall.”
(«The Industrial Breakdown,” by P. Samoylov, 823, 3001,384,600,000 549, 700 Metallurgical.
761,900,000 590, 200 p. 280). The author holds that this abnormal Food products 386,400 1,576,500,000
condition "was due primarily to lack of fuel All others... 492,400 929, 300,000 549,400
and raw material and other economic causes.” Total.. 20,010 2,254,500 4,652,700,000 2,076,200 According to official data collected by the
Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the
first Russian provisional government, during The first place among Russian manufactures the five months following the overthrow of the was held by the textile industries, of which the Tsar, 568 industrial establishments were forced cotton factories were the most important. The to shut down, and 104,300 employees were number of spindles in the cotton factories of thereby thrown out of employment. These the Russian Empire and Finland in 1913 was figures do not include those establishments 9,213,000, which represented 6.4 per cent of the which managed to go on with a reduced force. total for the world.
The principal cause of the shutdown of the