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having been attacked, replied to Russia's mobil- is the enemy of the human race," wrote Prof. ization by sending an ultimatum to Saint Peters- Spenser Wilkinson over 20 years ago; "it is a burg, and on 31 July we declared war on the rule of bestial force, of corruption, of lies and Russians, although the tsar had pledged his of unrighteousness. The duty of Europe is to word that so long as negotiations continued not make an end of it, and to set up a civilized a man should march — so that we deliberately government in its place. But Europe has never destroyed the possibility of a peaceful settle- been able to do this because the Powers are ment

it is not surprising that the divided.” Within these few words lies half whole civilized world outside Germany. at- the history of Europe during the 19th century. tributes to us the sole guilt for the World Discussing Turkey with the British AmbasWar.” The oft-repeated question of «mobiliza- sador on 9 Feb. 1853, the tsar Nicholas I tion responsibility” - as to which state was the said, "we have on our hands a sick man, a first to mobilize — has been much canvassed. very sick man. I tell you frankly it would be At noon on 31 July 1914 there was proclaimed a very great misfortune if he should give us throughout Germany a state of danger of war) the slip some of these days, especially if it hap(Kriegsgefahrzustand), the preliminary step to pened before all the necessary arrangements mobilization. At 4 P.M., four hours later, the were made. Five days later he told the Amkaiser telegraphed to King George, a I bassador that he would not allow England to have just heard from the Chancellor that intelli- gain a foothold in Constantinople, but would gence has just reached him that Nicholas, this engage not to establish himself there, that is, as evening, has ordered the mobilization of his a proprietor, I do not say as a guardian. He entire army and fleet.” It will be observed that also hinted that he might be obliged by cirthere is a discrepancy of one day between the cumstances to occupy Constantinople. The account of the kaiser and that of his Ambas- Crimean War quickly followed, in which Great sador. An acute analysis of this subject may Britain, France and Sardinia fought on the be found in Current History) (Vol. XIII, p. side of the Turks against Russia. Nearly 50 496) from the pen of Dr. David Jayne Hill, years later Lord Salisbury confessed that in this former United States Ambassador to Germany. war Great Britain had "backed the wrong (See also ib., Vol. XII, pp. 473_475). Russian horse. At the close of the Russo-Turkish War foreign relations with certain powers are treated of 1877-78, England and Russia nearly came under separate heads. See ALLIANCES; Aus- to blows again over Constantinople, but once TRIA-HUNGARY AND THE WAR; BALKAN LEAGUE; more was the Turkish Empire saved from deBALKAN Wars; BERLIN CONGRESS; EASTERN struction. From 1863 dates the steady advance QUESTION; PERSIA; Russo-JAPANESE WAR; of Russia in central Asia; Afghanistan and Russo-TURKISH

WARS;
TRIPLE
ALLIANCE;

Persia became zones of friction with England; Triple ENTENTE; WAR, EUROPEAN : HISTORICAL in the Balkans, Russian aims clashed with those INTRODUCTION and DIPLOMATIC HISTORY.

of Austria, while in the Far East, Japan looked Throughout the period preceding the Crim- askance at the Russian approach through Manean War the relations between Russia and Great churia to the Sea of Japan. From 1872 to 1895 Britain had been of a friendly nature; such there were periodical wranglings between Ruscontroversies as arose from time to time were sia and England over the boundaries of Afghanalways amicably settled. That friendship dated istan; the arrival of a Russian army at Merv back to the middle of the 16th century, when in 1884 produced in England what the 8th Duke Ivan the Terrible concluded a

commercial

of Argyle facetiously described as "a violent treaty with Queen Elizabeth and even aspired attack of Mervousness.” More than perhaps to win her hand. In 1806 Alexander I instructed any other great European power, Russia folhis ambassador setting out for London that lowed a consistent foreign policy; with plod«Russia and England are the only powers in ding perseverance she aimed at securing an iceEurope which for many years to come cannot free outlet to the sea, in the Far East and on be jealous of one another or have conflicting the Persian Gulf. Her conquests in central interests." Two disturbing elements arose, Asia brought peace, order and security to that however, that were destined entirely to change region; she abolished slave-raiding, constructed the course of European history - Russian ex- railways and introduced modern industrialism. pansion in central Asia and the Turkish Em- While material progress was fostered, howpire. In time Russian opinion veered round to ever, education was not attempted. the view that Great Britain was the natural and In 1888 France lent Russia 500,000,000 implacable enemy of the Russian nation and its francs ($100,000,000), thus paving the way to vital interests, while in Great Britain there the Dual Alliance. Democratic France allied grew up a conviction that an attitude of jeal

herself with autocratic Russia chiefly because ousy, distrust and hostility was alone possible she feared a German attack. Year by year the toward Russia. A dread of a Russian invasion indebtedness of Russia increased, until of India seized the British imagination. This length economists began to ask whether Russia began about 1830, but already in Pitt's time was not paying the interest on her old loans England became alarmed at Russia's victories with the principal of her new borrowings. over the Turks and it was seriously proposed Russia began to enjoy the security of the reckto send a fleet to assist the latter. It is imma- less debtor: she could always ask for more, terial at this date to revive the question of because if more were refused France might lose whether the so-called «Testament) of Peter the all that she had embarked. After the accession Great or of Catherine !I provided for the of Tsar Nicholas II in 1894, the German emacquisition by Russia of the Bosporus and peror so successfully played upon the young Constantinople, but it may be asserted that the tsar and the French Foreign Minister, M. trend of Russian policy toward Turkey pointed Hanotaux, that Germany became a quasi-silent in that direction. «The Turkish government partner in the Dual Alliance. French diplomacy

at

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RUSSIA-RUSSIA AND THE WORLD WAR (16)

multiplied difficulties with England in Africa Delcassé, to whom fell the task of settling the and Asia. The Franco-German-Russian com- Fashoda incident with Great Britain. It was he bination directed its energies to isolate England. who realized the peril of a conflict between At the close of the China-Japanese War in 1895 those two countries and resolutely set himself the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki were to remove it. While Russia was being battered dictated by the European triumvirate to the by the Japanese, M. Delcassé concluded (8 detriment of Japan, who was compelled to evac- April 1904) the Anglo-French Agreement and uate Port Arthur, taken from the Chinese. established the Entente Cordiale. That move This proceeding drove Japan into the arms of stunned Germany, for the incredible had hapEngland and to prepare for her revenge. The pened. After the Japanese War, Russia seemed year 1898 stands out in bold relief as a momen- to have reached the limit of her borrowing tous epoch in world history. The Spanish- facilities. The French banks with the governAmerican War was in progress; a European ment behind them refused to assume the sole coalition against the United States loomed on responsibility for floating another Russian loan. the horizon; France was in the throes of a When Lord Lansdowne left the Foreign Office semi-civil war over the Dreyfus case; with in December 1905 he had already begun the England she stood on the verge of war over negotiations which were to end in the AngloFashoda; the Franco-Russian alliance was neu- Russian Agreement of 1907. Sir Edward Grey tralized, even paralyzed; Italy and France were pursued them and by the spring of 1906 the at daggers drawn; the United States annexed alliance was virtually concluded, though the Hawaii; Russia took Port Arthur and Talien- convention was not signed till 31 Aug. 1907. wan; England took Weihaiwei, and France ob- In March 1906 a great Russian loan was floated tained a 99 years' lease of the Bay of Kuang- in London and Paris - the first one in London Chau-Wan. But perhaps the climax of that since 1854. From this period, Russia drew libeventful year was the issue, in August, of the erally on British capital up to the European tsar's famous “Peace Rescript to the world, War. Thus were three quondam enemies calling for a general disarmament. France was brought into the same political orbit by an infuriated; her dream of revanche was shat- "understanding against the Triple Alliance, tered. In the same year, too, Austria and Rus- though there was not, as in the case of the sia arrived at a Balkan agreement, while the latter, any specific stipulations for mutual dekaiser landed in Palestine, dressed in the garb fense. Between Russia and England, Persia of a Crusader, and assigned to himself the pro- still remained the apple of discord. With Austection of the Holy Places, which the Pope had tria, Russia had once been on good terms. In refused him. At Damascus he declared him- the Revolution of 1848 it was Russian troops self to be at all times) the friend of the 300,- that had saved the throne and empire of Fran000,000 Mohammedans in the world.

cis Joseph. Austria repaid this obligation by For the time being Russia stood as dictator mobilizing on the Russian frontier during the of the world's affairs, backed by France and Crimean War, thus contributing to Russia's Germany. The territorial scramble in China defeat. For over a century the Dual Monarchy seemed to presage the break-up of the Celestial had opposed Russian ambitions on the BosEmpire. England stood isolated, helpless to phorus and had directed covetous eyes toward intervene on behalf of the Armenians or to pre- Salonika. Russia, to her credit be it rememvent the Greco-Turkish War. With the out- bered, had been the chief instrument in liberatbreak of the South African War in October ing the Balkan States from Turkish rule. She 1899 the tripartite coalition - or at least Ger- had also constituted herself the protector of the many — made strenuous efforts to bring about Slavic Balkan nationalities. But Austria had active intervention, but both Russia and France greater interests in the peninsula. The populadrew back. At the time of the Boxer Rebellion tions were her next-door neighbors and she had in 1900 Russia occupied Manchuria, promising millions of Slavs under her rule. Pan-Slavism to hand the territory back to China on 8 Oct. constituted a real danger to the state. Russia 1903. In 1902 came the Anglo-Japanese Alli- was further away; only Rumania, neither a ance. Russia failed to evacuate Manchuria on Slav nor strictly a Balkan state, touched her the stipulated time, and on 9 Feb. 1904 Japan borders. Slav and Teuton seem born enemies; commenced hostilities without a declaration of the evolution of the former is one of natural

On the battlefields of Mukden, Japan growth as opposed to that of forced developwiped out her score of Shimonoseki with Rus- ment; he has never bartered his individuality sia; by the Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia re- for any preconceived higher cult, and it was linquished Manchuria to China and made her just this Slay element within her gates that leasehold rights on the Liao-tung Peninsula contributed most effectively to the collapse of (which included Port Arthur), over to Japan. Austria in 1918. Her traditional policy of supThe Russian disaster changed the political situ- pressing rising nationalities necessitated the ation and profoundly disturbed the balance of procedure of keeping the Balkan Slavs weak power, for one partner of the Dual Alliance and divided among themselves and against was temporarily eliminated. Relations between themselves by promoting strife between them. Russia and England had been severely strained This policy of mischief-making was prompted during the war over the North Sea incident, by self-preservation and directed against Ruswhen the Baltic fleet had fired on British sia. The latter power was by no means guilttrawlers, believing them to be Japanese torpedo less of intrigue. She worked for the eliminaboats.

tion of the Turk from Europe and the strengthFrom 1898 onward a new under-current had ening of Serbia. Austria and Germany were been working under the troubled diplomatic interested in holding together the Turkish Emwaters. In that year M. Hanotaux had been pire, upon the assistance of which they reckoned replaced at the Quai d'Orsay by M. Théophile in a war with Russia. Austria had repeatedly

war.

threaiened Serbia and Montenegro with war, in enthusiasm with which the nation had re the full knowledge that Russia would immedi- sponded to the call to arms gradually cooled; ately intervene by force. As the Russian For- enemy agents sowing dissension completed the eign Minister informed the British Ambassador breakdown of Russia. on 25 July 1914, Austria's bellicose attitude So-called “Willy-Nicky” telegrams which had toward Serbia (was in reality directed against passed between the German emperor and the Russia. She aims at overthrowing the present tsar in 1904–07 (published in the New York status quo in the Balkans and establishing her Herald Aug. Sept. 1917), showed that the hegemony there."

kaiser had persuaded the tsar in 1905 to parRussian relations with Germany had been ticipate in a coalition against England. These more intimate than with any other country, negotiations, however, antedate the Anglophysically, if not spiritually. Since the days of Russian Agreement. The secret treaty between the early Muscovite tsårs Russia had been the two monarchs was shortly after torn up by overrun with German officials, originally in- Count Witte. The Allied diplomats who were vited to introduce Western methods. They sup- personally acquainted with the tsar have never planted the natives in administrative. positions doubted his loyalty. Russia's tremendous miliand were hated by the people over whom they tary efforts during the first two years of the ruled. The large number of German names war literally saved the Allied cause. borne by Russians to-day bear witness to this.

HENRI KLEIN, Frequent intermarriage between the nobility of

Editorial Staff of The Americana. the two countries brought it about that Russian society, from the court downward to the

17. RUSSIA, DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF

STATES bureaucracy, was permeated with German ideas

THE UNITED and influence. But while the Germans regarded

WITH. The United States and Russia, with Russia with contempt as art inferior race,

their many striking examples of similarities and they feared her on account of her strength in

contrasts, have had between them some curious man-power. Frederick the Great had suggested

and interesting sympathies but no important the partition of Poland between Russia, Prus

political relations. Their relations, although not sia and Austria; when that was accomplished,

intimate, have usually been friendly — and were all three were equally interested in preserving

especially so from 1861 to 1867. their Polish territory, thus forming a tacit

In the period of the Revolution, the ruling union between them. From that period every

empress, Catherine II, with all her professions revolt in western Europe was represented to

of neutrality, showed no acts of sympathy for Russia as a menace to all sovereigns, ever since

the revolting English colonists, although several the first French Revolution. The same policy

Russian Poles allied themselves with the Amer

ican cause. was energetically pursued by Bismarck. Russia had been largely instrumental in delivering

The traditional friendship between them Prussia from Napoleon I, and had again come

originated in various acts of Alexander I who to the aid of Prussia in 1870 by threatening

succeeded to the Russian throne in March 1801. Austria with immediate war if she came to the

President Jefferson, who since 1786 had been aid of France. But for this, the Franco-Ger

interested in Pacific trade, in 1803 (in connecman War might have been avoided. At the

tion with the Lewis and Clark expedition) Berlin Congress in 1878 Bismarck stood against

suggested plans for commercial communication Russia, and when he had formed the alliance between the United States and Asia via the with Austria against Russia and France, he

Northwest Coast. In November 1803, although concluded another pact — the "re-insurance

no treaty had been arranged with Russia, he treaty) — with Russia against Austria. Bis- sent a consul to Saint Petersburg. The Russian marck is credited with having pushed Russia Foreign Minister in May 1808 requested the into war with Turkey in 1877, and William II negotiation of a treaty regulating, trade with induced her to waste her strength against

Alaska which American vessels had visited for Japan in 1904.

trading purposes since the beginning of AmeriThe agreement with England in 1907 com- can nationality. He complained of American pleted the Triple Entente, the bond that held clandestine trade in arms and ammunition with solidly together despite outside efforts to shake the Indians, and soon thereafter he suggested it. Russia remained firmly with her allies a southern boundary limit which the United through a succession of shocks — the Bosnia- States rejected because it was far south of Herzegovina crisis of 1908, Agadir, the Balkan 55 degrees which the emperor had designated as wars and, finally, into the Great War. With the southern boundary in 1799. In June 1808, her inexhaustible man-power and her vast Russia appointed Daschkoff as consul-general natural resources, Russia was indeed an in- at Philadelphia and also chargé-d'affaires at valuable ally, but the weak points in her armor Washington where he presented his credentials were soon to be disclosed. She had entered on 11 July 1809. At the same time Jefferson the war heavily handicapped. Her factories and secretly sent William Short on a special mistransport services were deficient, and could sion to request Russia to protect American neither furnish nor distribute the supplies re- commerce against aggression of the European quired by the army and the civil population; belligerents, but after reaching Paris he waited it was only by a reckless sacrifice of life that for additional instructions and finally returned she won her early victories. Saon, owing to without going to Russia, his appointment having the shortage of shells, rifles and munitions, been rejected by the Senate just at the close of the army was left almost defenseless before Jefferson's administration. the enemy, and many of the troops had to John Quincy Adams who was commissioned fight with sticks and stones. As disaster suc- Minister Plenipotentiary to Russia on 27 June ceeded disaster in the field the undoubted 1809 remained in Saint Petersburg until April

56

RUSSIA — DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS (17)

mare

1814, when he took his leave. Although there fore the negotiation of the Webster-Ashburton had been difficulty in getting admission to Rus- Treaty. sian ports and in determining the limits of the Although connection between the United Russian settlements, he found a willingness to States and Russia was slight they continued adjust all causes of friction. The emperor took to remain on good terms and on several occaa lively interest in American affairs - showing sions before 1861 acted in harmony in the an "obstinate attachment” of which there were Far East where both secured advantages from frequent evidences in the decade that followed. English and French victories which opened In the War of 1812, doubtless inspired chiefly China to intercourse with the commercial by desire to strengthen Great Britain in contest powers. American relations with Russia at against Napoleon rather than by friendship for once became more important following the exthe United States, he offered mediation to tension of the American boundaries to the secure termination of hostilities in a war which Pacific in which consequent increase of Amerwas for the United States inglorious. Later he ican interests invited changes and enlargements was selected to arbitrate one of the difficulties re- of policy. Realizing this, Secretary Clayton sulting from the war and the Treaty of Ghent, in 1850 invited Russia to accede to the Clayand in 1822 decided that Americans were en- ton-Bulwer Treaty and Secretary Webster in titled to an indemnity, the amount of which 1851 declared to Russia the policy which the was fixed at $1,204,960 by a mixed commission. United States was disposed to pursue in re

By 1817 the importance of establishing a gard to the Sandwich Islands. In 1854, and defined southern limit to Russian settlement in throughout the Crimean War, certain influenAmerica was considered. In 1816 Russian tial American newspapers openly expressed traders from Alaska established a fort at sympathy for Russja. On 22 July 1854, SecreBodega Bay in what is now California, north tary Marcy negotiated with Russia a convention of San Francisco, and another at Atooi in the on rights of neutrals. At the same time, Russia Sandwich Islands. In 1821 the tsar by ukase was extending to the United States facilities gave to a Russian company exclusive right to in negotiating a commercial treaty with Persia. territory as far south as 51 degrees and threat- The diplomatic correspondence indicates a ened to make the northern Pacific a

good American understanding with Russia clausum by excluding foreigners from the seas from the close of the Crimean War to the within 100 miles from the coast.

opening of the Civil War. The Russian govAgainst this Russian policy the United ernment agreed to Marcy's doctrine as to the States co-operated with Great British in remon

Declaration of Paris and was ready to take the strance, and President Monroe incorporated a initiative in the effort to extend the principles manifesto in his famous declaratory announce- over Europe. There was a desire for increase ment of 2 Dec. 1823. Finally, Russia, refusing of intercourse between the two countries. Early the bribe of California which Mexico had in 1858 Stoeckl, the Russian chargé-d'affaires offered for a recognition of Mexican independ- at Washington, was raised to the rank of ence, yielded to the combined protest of the minister plenipotentiary, and in 1858-60 there United States and Great Britain, and on 17 was conference and friendly co-operation as April 1824 concluded her treaty with the United to joint interests in China and the opening of States fixing the parallel of 54° 40' as the south- the Amoor to free trade. It was seen that the ern boundary of Russia and also providing for friendly relations between the two countries freedom of trade for 10 years and granting the would favor the United States much in the deright to fish along the coasts of Russian velopment of the Pacific and Eastern trade, America, except in the rivers and harbors; which would increase with the growth of the but, after 10 years, believing that the privilege Frazer River settlement and extension of a had been abused, she refused to renew the railway to the Pacific. In December 1859, agreement for allowing either fishing or Russia was sounded on negotiations for the trading

cession of Alaska for $5,000,000 which the In the meantime Russia continued to main- Russian government regarded as inadequate tain a spirit of apparent goodwill toward the but as meriting deliberation. United States, co-operating with her in regard The continuous growth of Russo-Amerian to Spanish American affairs, taking an in- cordiality after the opening of the War of terest in a proposed arbitration between the Secession was significant. In 1861 the two govUnited States and England, and assisting the ernments agreed to co-operate in establishing United States in arranging contemplated nego- cable connections between Saint Petersburg and tiations with Turkey.

San Francisco by way of Bering Sea and Siberia. In 1832 the United States negotiated with Throughout the war which threatened the inRussia a treaty providing for reciprocal liberty tegrity and strength of the American Union, of commerce and navigation and also reciprocal Russia remained friendly to the government at liberty of sojourn and residence in order to Washington. In 1862 she refused to join in attend to their affairs and with the same se- Louis Napoleon's proposal of mediation or incurity and protection as the natives.

tervention in the American War; and, in 1863, After 1835, although the Van Buren ad- when a revolt in Poland caused apprehension ministration in 1839 complained of the Rus- of an Anglo-French diplomatic intervention sian pretension to exclusive dominion on the there as well as in America, she demonstrated northwest coast and a year later exhibited her goodwill toward the American government some anxiety in regard to a lease of the Rus- by sending a fleet on a friendly visit to Amersian American dominions by the Hudson's Bay ican waters causing various rumors and sugCompany, the continuation of good feeling was gestions of a possible Russo-American alliance. shown by the continued expression by the In 1866 the American Congress recognized the Russian government of a friendly interest in friendship of this international amenity by sendAmerican relations with Great Britain just be- ing Gustavis V. Fox, Assistant Secretary of the

Navy, with a formidable vessel of the navy on a special mission to Saint Petersburg to congratulate Emperor Alexander II on his escape from an attempted assassination. In return for this mission which was received with imposing ceremonies, Russia (a year later) planned to send the Grand Duke Alexis on a visit to America.

A fitting climax to this strange paradoxical friendship appeared in the negotiations resulting in a treaty of 1867 for the transfer of Alaska which, although it had been suggested as early as 1845 and contemplated again in 1854 and in 1859, surprised the diplomats of the Old World.

Although the absence of conflicting interests after the transfer of Alaska seemed a guarantee against serious dispute new sources of controversy arose, first, in connection with AngloAmerican negotiations for adjustment of serious questions, and later, from reactionary Russian policy after the death of the liberal Emperor Alexander II in 1881.

Near the close of 1870 when a series of events contributed to hasten the American negotiations with Great Britain for the adjustment of the Alabama claims, Constantin Catacazy, the Russian Minister who since his arrival in 1869 had interfered in questions not appropriately connected with his legation, suggested to Fish that the condition of European affairs indicated that it was an opportune time to press for an immediate settlement which he expected to result in the American annexation of Canada, but Secretary Fish proposed to the British Minister Thornton a basis of settlement which omitted any mention of Canada and resulted in the famous Treaty of 1871 for the peaceful settlement of Anglo-American difficulties doubtless much to the surprise of Russia. Catacazy continued to use methods at variance with diplomatic practice to defer or to prevent a peaceful adjustment with England. He did not hesitate to use the newspapers to influence the public on questions pending before the government. His continued methods of interference to prevent the successful execution of the provisions of the treaty whose negotiation he had unsuccessfully attempted to prejudice and defeat made him intolerable and finally induced the American government (in July 1871) to suggest his recall and later impatiently to urge it, notwithstanding the “intimate ties of amity) between the two governments. Secretary Fish acceded to a postponement of the recall only because Russia found his removal inconvenient and impracticable until after a prearranged visit of the Grand Duke Alexis.

Although after the close of the period of the entente cordiale" there appeared evidence of continued friendship such as resolutions unanimously adopted by the United States Senate in March 1881 denouncing the assassination of Emperor Alexander II and extending condolence, and the promotion of popular sympathy by American shipments of food to relieve the famine sufferers of Russia in 1892 — the chief subjects of correspondence in the last quarter of the 19th century were sources of friction and irritation.

An extradition treaty signed on 28 March 1887 met strong opposition in the United States from those who urged various objections against treating Russia with the same considera

tion as countries such as Great Britain or Switzerland, but after six years of delay its ratification was advised by the Senate (February 1893) and it was proclaimed by the President in June 1893. In 1894 an agreement for a modus vivendi in relation to seal fisheries was concluded. In September 1900, by exchange of notes, a claims protocol submitted to arbitration certain differences relating to American claims.

After 1890 earlier friendly relations gradually changed and after 1898 became increasingly unsatisfactory by the aggressiveness of Russian diplomacy and by repressive measures of Russian internal administration. Americans condemned the harshness of the Siberian exile system, published to the world by articles of George Kennan in 1888-89, and the increasingly reactionary spirit of government authorities shown in severe treatment of Poles and Jews - many of whom emigrated to the United States in increasing numbers, destitute and with their tales of woe to spread a hatred of the land from which they had fled. In 1903, following the horrible massacre of Kishinev which was believed to have been instigated by government authorities, the Washington government brought the subject into publicity by an unusual and unsuccessful inquiry whether the Russian government would receive a petition from American Jews. In 1904 President Roosevelt expressed the American nation's condemnation of the outrage at Kishinev.

Russian aggressiveness in diplomacy became a larger source of danger. Germany and Russia, who in 1895 were foremost in intervening to deny to Japan the legitimate fruits of her victory over China against the latter's exclusive policy, in 1897 seized strategic positions in China which, together with demands for vast concessions, threatened the complete exclusion of the United States. In the SpanishAmerican War, Russia favored Spain and participated in a movement to make a European question of Cuba.

Thus in connection with the revolution in international relations after 1898 a wider divergence of Russo-American interests resulted from events in the Far East. The threatened disintegration of China induced the American government to propose (6 Sept. 1899) a policy of open door," largely directed against the exclusive trade policies of Russia in Manchuria where the recently constructed trans-Siberian Railway gave her special advantages. Later (1900) the American government presented a courteous reminder of Russia's promise to evacuate Manchuria whose occupation appeared to menace American trade and manufacturing interests. A continuation of the controversy was a sequel of the peace-making in China following the Boxer troubles.

In the Russo-Japanese War, American public opinion favored Japan to a high point of enthusiasm, causing considerable astonishment and anger to many conservative Russians, but at the close of the war bitter feelings were softened by President Roosevelt's successful initiation in facilitating peaceful negotiations resulting in the Treaty of Portsmouth and by later American sympathy for reforms in Russia.

Although Russia showed gratitude for the peace, her subsequent acts in violating the open door principle in Manchuria resulted in a di

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