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SENAC - SENATE
curred, resulting in the formation of one body under the leadership of Sen and assuming the name of “Brahmo-Somaj of India.” After a visit to England in 1870 he put into effect, and with beneficent results, some philanthropic schemes based on the principles of those he had seen there. In 1878 dissensions arose among his followers owing to his frequent displays of ill temper and to his leaning toward mysticism, and the congregation split. The last few years of his life were full of controversy, disappointment and sorrow. He wrote Yoga, Objective and Subjective (1884). Consult Müller, Max, (Biographical Essays' (1884).
SENAC, Jean Baptiste, an eminent French physician: b. in the diocese of Lombec, Gascony, about 1693; d. 1770. He was graduated in physics at Rheims and later at Paris and in 1752 was appointed physician to Louis XV. He was a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris and of the Royal Society of Nancy. His greatest work and to which he owes his anatomical reputation was "Traite de la Structure du Caur, de son Action, et de ses Maladies? (2 vols., Paris 1749). He also published an edition of Heister's Anatomy (Paris 1724); Discours sur la Méthode de Franco, et sur celle de M. Rau touchant l'Operation de la Taille) (1727); Traite des Causes, des Accidens, et de la Cure de la Peste (1744), and Lettres sur la Choix des Saignées! (1730), written under the pseudonym of Julien Morison.
SÉNACOUR, Etienne Pivert de, French philosophic writer : b. Paris, November 1770; d. Saint Cloud, February 1846.
He was of a
SENATE, United States. The Constitu-
years and senators of the third class at the end
Regarding the qualifications of senators the
The Vice-President of the United States is
The Senate received its existing form as a
The proceedings of the Senate were held in secret until the session of 1793, when discussions as to Albert Gallatin's right to a seat therein were held with open doors. This publicity had been urged from the beginning, by those who argued that secret debates diminished the responsibility of the Senate and of its individual members to the people, and that publicity would inspire popular confidence in the Senate and its course. A resolution was passed that after the termination of the session then being held and as soon as suitable galleries
SENATORIAL COURTESY – SENECA
should be provided, the galleries, except on special occasions requiring secrecy, should remain open while the Senate was engaged in legislative business. Executive business is still disposed of in secret session.
The question of electing United States senators by direct vote of the people, instead of by the legislatures of the several States, has been agitated for many years. For this purpose an amendment to the National Constitution is necessary. In 1903 the legislatures of the several States passed resolutions asking Congress to call a convention for the purpose of considering an amendment to the Constitution providing for such election of United States senators. Resolutions to the same effect were presented in other legislatures, and finally in 1913 the matter culminated in the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution which specifies "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures."
Next to President of the United States, and hardly excepting the Vice-Presidency, the office of senator is more sought than any other under the national or State governments.
In the earlier period of the government, when the States still regarded themselves as almost independent sovereignties, the governorship of a State was looked up to as an office but little short of the Presidency. In the more recent years of the republic governors have often been eager aspirants for the senatorial office, and very willing to give up their places as chief magistrates of their respective States to sit in the so-called Upper House at Washington. Many of America's great statesmen have been members of the Senate, and no body of modern legislators has more august traditions or associations. Some of the States make it a rule to re-elect the same senators practically for life, and this is especially the case with the New England States and in certain Southern States. Senators are extremely jealous of their liberty of debate, and their prerogatives. The salary of senators is $7,500 per annum. The present full membership of the Senate is 96, but several seats are usually vacant through disputed elections or for other reasons.
SENATORIAL COURTESY, a custom in the United States Senate by which the procedure of that body is based on personal honor rather than on a code of rules. For instance, the Senate along this line of courtesy will not confirm a Presidential appointee in a State whose senators object to the person nominated.
SENATORIAL DISTRICT. See DisTRICT.
SENDAI, sěn-di', Japan, capital of the province Ken Mijagi, on the island Hondo, near the eastern coast, 190 miles northeast of Tokio. It is celebrated for its silk and lacquer manufactures, and carries on a considerable trade in fish and salt. It is on the railway running north from the capital.
SENEBIER, Jean, Swiss natural philosopher and historian : b. Geneva, 1742; d. 1809. After studying theology he was ordained a minister about 1762 and for several years
preached at Chancy. Philosophy and natural history, however, held more charm for him than divinity and in 1773 he left the ministry to become keeper of the public library at Geneva. In 1787 he also became one of the conductors of the Journal of Geneva. His most important works are 'Essai sur l’Art d'observer et de faire des Experiences (2 vols., 1775); Mémoires Physico Chimiques sur l’Influence de la Lumière Solaire sur les Trois Règnes de la Nature'; Rapports de l'Air avec les Etres organisés); Histoire Littéraire de Genève) 13 vols., 1808); besides which he also published (Catalogue des Manuscripts dans la Bibliothèque de la Ville de Genève.)
SENECA, Lucius Annæus, Roman philosopher, son of the rhetorician of the same name: b. Corduba (Cordova), Spain, about 4 B.C.; died in Rome by his own hand at the order of Nero, 65 A.D. As his family was wealthy and of equestrian rank, the boy was brought to Rome to be educated for the bar and an official career. He attended also with enthusiasm the lectures of several noted Pythagorean, Stoic and Cynic philosophers. He had gained great fame for eloquence and had entered the Senate through the quæstorship, when, in 41, at the instance of Messalina, who accused him of an intrigue with Julia Liyilla, sister of the late Emperor Caligula, he was banished to Corsica. From there he sent to his mother, Helvia, the charming
Consolatio,! but exhibited little fortitude in his exile. Finally, in 49, Agrippina, who, after the execution of Messalina, had married Claudius, and had prevailed upon him to make her son Nero the heir to the throne, secured Seneca's recall that he might act as tutor to the young prince, then 11 years of age. At Nero's accession in 54, he wrote the curious political satire (still extant) on the death of Claudius, commonly known as Apocolocyntosis, Pumpkinifi cation, a word formed upon the analogy of apotheosis deification.” During the first years of the new reign, Seneca, in conjunction with Burrus, prefect of the Prætorian guard, was, on the whole, successful in keeping Nero within the bounds of humanity. Agrippina, ambitious and cruel, was determined to rule the state through her son, and Seneca seems to have palliated the latter's excesses in order to destroy his mother's influence over him. Finally, when Poppæa Sabina, with whom Nero had become infatuated, induced him to order the assassination of his mother, Seneca wrote for the emperor a letter to the Senate, asserting that Agrippina had conspired against his life, and had committed suicide upon being discovered. The death of Burrus in 62 made Seneca's position quite insecure. Nero fell into the hands of men like the infamous Tigellinus; money was needed to meet his extravagant expenditures and Seneca had become enormously wealthy. Foreseeing his probable ruin, he offered to resign to Nero all that he had, and, upon receiving a declination, couched in terms of specious affection, retired into the country and lived with utmost simplicity: In 65 he was implicated in the conspiracy of Piso and was ordered to commit suicide. With his wife, Paulina, who insisted on dying with him (see the affecting account in Tacitus, Annals,' XV, 60-64), he opened the veins of his arms. Paulina's life was barely saved by her slaves; Seneca, after suffering prolonged
agony, during which he displayed the utmost daigua lakes and extended westward to Genesee serenity, was finally suffocated in a vapor bath. River. As a member of the League, the Senecas
"Nothing in life became him like the leaving were called Honěnninhohoñte, signifying, “They it.” He was undoubtedly an earnest seeker are fixed to a door or door-flap, denotive of the after truth and right. The Roman world was fact that the Seneca people were the political much his debtor for the wise and humane ad- doorkeepers of the League, not because, as comministration of the state during the “golden monly asserted they stood at the western fronquinquennium” of Nero; but he lacked real tier of the territory of the confederation, but bestrength of character, and in his connection with cause being at first averse to joining the League, Nero too often acquiesced in the doing of posi- they were finally persuaded to do so by having tive evil that a greater good might be accom- the honor of the office of doorkeeper and of offiplished. As a man of letters, he is incompar- cial executioner bestowed upon them. Their ably the most brilliant figure of his time. He last two League chiefs or rulers were charged was an extremely prolific writer, his subjects with the duty of ascertaining the good or evil are exceedingly varied, the ideas usually nobly designs of any alien who might seek to enter conceived and eloquently expressed. In strik- the jurisdiction of the confederation. In the ing contrast to the periodic style of Cicero, he American Revolution the Senecas espoused the loves short, epigrammatic sentences. He is an cause of Great Britain against the colonies. Toexpert in the use of every variety of rhetorical day the Senecas are represented by several difornamentation, which, in harmony with the pre- ferent bodies of people dwelling in diverse places vailing taste, he carries to excess. Though by and under various forms of government. no means a profound thinker, he is broad
About 553 are on the Tonawanda reservation, minded and sympathetic in his presentation of 1,262 on the Cattaraugus reservation, 1,006 on the ethical principles, Stoic in the main, by
the Allegany reservation, 10 on the Tuscarora which man's daily life should be guided. He reservation, and 6 on the Onondaga reservawas, indeed, by certain Fathers of the Church tion, all in New York State; 87 are on the believed to have been a Christian, and there are Cornplanter reservation in Pennsylvania, and still extant 14 letters, undoubtedly spurious, of 219 on the Grand River reservation in Ontario, a correspondence with Saint Paul. His moral
Canada; total, 3,143. In addition there are 337 essays embrace 12 so-called dialogues, On so-called “Senecas” in the Indian Territory, but Peace of Mind,' On Anger,' On the Short- these are not included with the foregoing, as it ness of Life,' etc.; 3 books (On Clemency, is doubtful whether they were ever true Senecas. addressed to Nero; 7 (On Benefits,' and 20 The earliest estimate of the numbers of the books of Letters to Lucilius. With these may Senecas, in 1660 and 1677, give them about 5,000. be grouped the seven books of Naturales Quæs- In 1825 those in New York were reported at tiones,' which handle physics as a basis for
2,325. Morgan, 25 years later, estimated them ethical reflections. We possess also nine trag- at 2,712 with over 200 more on the Grand River cdies, composed rather to be read aloud than to
reservation in Canada. About the same estimabe acted, and so rhetorical in substance that,
tion was given in 1909. Skaniadariio, or Handthough fine passages are not lacking, they are rather declamations than real poetry. They Iroquoian religion in vogue to-day among the
some Lake, the founder of the reformed pagan had, however, a great influence upon the drama of the 16th century.
various northern Iroquoian peoples, was
Seneca. On the migration, or probably expulBibliography.-- The þest text of the prose
sion, of the Awenrehronon from the headwaters works is by F. Haase in the Teubner series
of Genesee River, New York, in 1639, and on the (1893–95); of the tragedies, by F. Leo (Berlin 1878–79.) The Apocolocyntosis) has been edited
later defeat of the Neutral Nation, about 1649– by A. P. Ball (New York 1902). Consult also
50, and of the Eries about 1654–57, the Senecas
moved some of their settlements and colonies Merivale's History of the Romans under the
westward toward Lake Erie and along the AlleEmpire (cc. 50, 52–24); Zeller's Eclectics)
gheny River. In 1657 there were 11 different (London 1883); Farrar's (Seekers after God' (London 1886).
alien tribes or peoples represented among the Nelson G. McCrea,
Senecas, thus indicating how well they exerProfessor of Latin, Columbia University.
cised the right of adoption to replace their
great losses in the almost interminable wars of SENECA INDIANS, Mohegan "Sinne- the League, which had then lasted about 75 kens, “place of the stones, a tribe belonging to years. Of the several tribes formerly constitutthe Iroquois family. Their own name is Tson- ing the League of the Iroquois, the Senecas are ondowanenaka, or Tsonondowaka, "people of the most progressive in the arts and knowledge the great hill or mountain, probably referring of civilization. With incidental exceptions, the 10 the lofty eminence south of Canandaigua history of the Senecas previous to the American Lake. The term Seneca is a Mohawk rendering Revolution is virtually that of the League. See of this latter name, which has passed through IROQUOIS. Dutch to English hands. A member of the Bibliography.- Butterfield, C. W., "Hisfamous League of the Iroquois, founded about tory of Seneca County) (Sandusky 1848) ; Conthe year 1570. With the Mohawks and the over, G. S., (Seneca Villages' (Geneva, N. Y., Onondagas, the Senecas constituted the elder 1889); Doty, L. L., History of Livingston phratry of tribes in the social and political or- County, New York) (Geneseo 1876); Dutton ganization of the confederation, while the and Wentworth, Memorials of Seneca Indians junior phratry was composed of the Oneidas (Boston 1840); Gernier, J., Des missions de la and the Cayugas. The earliest known council Conception, etc. (Quebec 1858); Harris, G. H., fire of the Seneca people was established south (The Indian Bread Root of the Senecas? (New of Lake Canandaigua, while their territory com- York 1890); Hawley, C., Early Chapters of prised the region environing Seneca and Canan, Seneca History (Auburn, N. Y., 1884); Mar
shall, 0. H., The Niagara Frontier (Buffalo flattened or slightly convex receptacle. The in1885); Merrihew and Thompson, Seneca In- volucre surrounding each flower head is cylindians in the State of New York (Baltimore dric or campanulate, with its principal bracts in 1840); Phillips, J., Indians and Friends in one series, distinct or slightly united at the Pennsylvania in 1791 (London 1792); Turner, base, and encircled very often with a ring of 0., History of the Pioneer Settlements, etc.) shorter scales. The achenes are mostly terete (Rochester 1852); Wooddy, W., Revolution in or compressed, sometimes curiously papillose. the Government of the Senecas in 1848' (Balti- After wetting, these papilla put forth pairs of more 1875).
spiral hairs which secrete adhesive mucilage. SENECA LAKE, a lake west of the cen
The generic name has been derived from the tral part of New York State, about 25 miles
Latin senex, an old man, in reference to the south of Lake Ontario (q.v.), into which it dis
tuft of soft bristles surmounting the achene, charges its waters by the Seneca and Oswego
and mostly white. These parachutes have so rivers. It is about 37 miles long, from north to
well distributed the seeds of the common south; "and from one to four miles wide. Its
groundsel (S. vulgaris), originally European, depth is about 630 feet and it is 445 feet above
that it is found all about the civilized temperate sea-level. It is one of the group called the zone as a troublesome weed. It is a more or “Finger Lakes.)
less glabrate annual, about a foot high, with SENECA RIVER, a river of New York;
spatulate' pinnatified leaves and rayless yellowish flows east from the north end of Seneca Lake
heads in corymbs. It blooms at all seasons, and to the north end of Lake Cayuga, then turns
is often sold in English cities as food for cagenorth and is joined on the left by the outlet of
birds. At one time it was even regarded as Lake Canandaigua, then turns east, and re
a love charm, and was said to have formed a ceives in succession the drainage of the other
part of the Virgin's bed. It was also of old parallel "finger lakes,” Owasco, Skaneateles and repute for poulticing. S. aureus is a charmOnondaga, then turns northwest, taking the
ing, slender, American species, with cordate name of Oswego River (q.v.) and enters Lake basal leaves, called golden ragwort, and bloomOntario at Oswego. Length, including the
ing in the spring. Squaw-weeds are other Oswego, nearly 100 miles.
species of Senecio. SENECA, or SENEGA, ROOT. See
The plants known as Cinerarias, having dark-blue rays,- a
rare color among POLYGALA.
posites,- are greatly cultivated and hybridized, SENECA FALLS, N. Y., village in Seneca but not many other senecios are valued in County, on the Seneca River and Barge Canal, horticulture. Among these are the familiar near Cayuga Lakç, and on the New York Cen
German ivy (S. mikanioides), an easily proptral and Hudson River Railroad, about 160 miles
agated, rapidly growing, glabrous, twining vine, west by north of Albany, and 37 miles west by
with small yellow flowers in axillary or terminal south of Syracuse. Electric lines connect the
clusters, and glossy, deltoid-ovate leaves; and village with Cayuga Lake Park, three miles dis
the Cape ivy (S. macroglossus), a beautiful tant, and with Waterloo and other villages. A
greenhouse climber with golden flowers as large fall of 50 feet in the river affords extensive
as marguerites and ivy-like leaves. One of water power for manufacturing, and explains
the dusty millers” is S. cineraria, a tall perenthe name of the place. Seneca Falls is in an
nial, enveloped in white wool, and with small agricultural and fruit-growing region. The
compact corymbs of rayless flowers. The chief industrial establishments are machine
handsome S. pulcher, with reddish-purple shops, woolen factories, fire-engine and pump works, grist mill and furniture factory. The
rayed flowers, of strong growth and cobwebby shipments are chiefly farm products, fruit, dairy high, and extremely ornamental
, with its large
foliage; the great S. japonicus, over five feet products, pumps and fire-engines. There are Three banks; the national bank has a capital of
palmate leaves, and large yellow flowers; and
S. petasites, valuable for its large panicles of $100,000. The educational institutions are
big, yellow fragrant flowers, blooming in midhigh school, the Mynderese Academy, public and
winter, are also cultivated. parish elementary schools, private business schools and a public library. The government SENEFELDER, zā'ně-fěl-děr, Aloys, Bois vested in a village president and a board of hemian inventor of lithography: b. Prague, 6 trustees. Benevolent institutions include a hos- Nov. 1771; d. Munich, Bavaria, 26 Feb. 1834. pital and the Johnson Home for Indigent The son of an actor, in early life he tried unFemales. Seneca Falls was founded in 1791 and successfully to be both actor and dramatisi. received its charter of incorporation in 1831. Having learned something of printing he conPop. about 7,000.
ceived the idea of inventing a process of his SENECIO, sę-nē'si-7, one of the largest
own, and was finally led by accident to his known genera of plants, comprising about 1,000 great discovery of lithography (q.v.). Subsespecies; it belongs to the family Asteracea, and quently he made important improvements, conis universally distributed. It is, therefore, prac
trived a press, procured a patent and set up tically impossible to give a compact description
an establishment; which he carried on successof the generic characters; but it may be said that fully. In 1809 he was appointed inspector of these plants are annual or perennial herbs, the royal lithographing establishment. He pubshrubs, or even arborescent, have basal or lished the Elements of Lithography) (1819), alternate leaves, and solitary, corymbose or a curiously illustrated work, which he transpaniculate heads of Aowers, usually yellow in lated into English and French. Consult Nagler, hue. These are made up of both radiate and (Alòys Senefelder und der Geistliche Rath tubular flowers, the latter being five-toothed and Simon Schmidt (1832); Pfeilschmidt, E., perfect, or of the tubular ones alone, on a Aloys Senefelder) (Dresden 1877); Muller, d.
SENEFELDER - SENEGAL-NIGER, UPPER
W., Invention of Lithography) (New York one-half of them natives. The budget of the 1911).
directly administered territory in 1916 amounted SENEFELDER, Leopold, Austrian physi
to $1,280,909, and the local budget, $413,916. cian: b. Vienna, 25 Sept. 1864. He was edu
All towns having a sufficiently numerous Eurocated at the Preparatory Seminary of Maria
pean or assimilated native population have schein, the Mies Gymnasium, Bohemia, and
urban schools, giving the same instruction as the University of Vienna. In 1888–89 he served
the French primary schools, modified to suit as interne at the Garnisons-Spitale No. 1,
local requirements. At Dakar there is a suVienna, was physician to the reserves and as
perior technical school. At Saint Louis are sistant physician at Rudolf Hospital, Vienna,
a normal school for the training of native in 1889-91. He established a practice at Sankt
teachers, of interpreters, kaids (native judges) Pölten, Lower Austria, in 1892 and at Vienna
and chiefs' sons. There is a Mussulman sufrom 1893 to 1905. After 1908 he was lecturer perior school at Saint Louis with 20 pupils, on the history of medicine at the University of
and there is a large hospital for natives at Vienna. In 1902 Dr. Senefelder accompanied Dakar. Millet, maize and rice are cultivated Cardinal Gruscha to the Jubilee Celebration by the natives; the natural products include at Rome. He is librarian and archivist of the gums, castor-beans, earth-nuts, cocoanuts, rubVienna College of Physicians and has pub- ber and kola. A salt industry is being delished Anathema esto?) (1892); Die Kata- veloped. Cattle, sheep, goats and camels are komben bei St. Stephen (1902) ; Die kaiser- domesticated, and some weaving, pottery-makliche königliche Weiberstrafenstalt in Wiener- ing and other industries are carried on. In Neudorf (1903); Dispensatorium pro phar- 1913 the imports were valued at over $16,000,000, macopæis Viennensibus in Austria! (1907); and the exports, consisting chiefly of earth(Acta Facultatis medicæ universitatis Vindo- nuts, gums and rubber, at over $14,000,000, the bonensis (Vols., IV, V, VI, 1908-11). He col- trade being chiefly with France, although steamlaborated in Geschichte der Stadt Wien)
ers ply also to Liverpool and Hamburg. In 1916 (1904) and contributed to various periodicals. 751 miles of railway line were open, the chief SENEGAL, sěn-e-gal', West Africa, (1)
line being the coast line between Dakar, Rua river which flows into the Atlantic near Saint
fisque and Saint Louis. In the same year there Louis, the capital of the French colony of
were also 1,494 miles of telegraph and 100 Senegal, in lat. 15° 48' N. It is formed by the miles of telephone line in operation. A subunion of the Hafing and the Bakhoi, at Ba
marine cable connects Dakar with Brest. There fulabé, the former rising in the Futa-Jallon is a river service on the Senegal from Saint Mountains, southwest of Timbo, and the latter Louis to Kayes (490 miles). Dakar has regular near Wosebugu. From the opposite or western
communication with French ports by the steamside of the mountain in which the Bafing rises ers of four French lines, and also with Liversprings also the Falemé, another great branch pool and Hamburg. The French first settled of the Senegal, which runs north in a more di- Senegal in 1637. It was taken by the English rect course until it joins the united head streams in 1756, retaken by the French in 1779 and subabove Bakel. The Senegal is about 1,000 miles sequently held by the English until the peace long, and is navigable up to the cataracts of of 1814. The settlements did not flourish until Félou in Kassan, about 700 miles from its the appointment of General Faidherbe as govmouth. A river service from Saint Louis to ernor in 1854. He began a vigorous line of Kayes, 460 miles, is maintained during the action, subdued the Berber chiefs who preflood season, and a railway line has been vented the French advance inland and annexed built from Kayes to Bafulabé (82 miles), their territories. This policy was pursued in and is being extended Bamaku and the same spirit by subsequent governors; disTulimandis the Niger. The delta is tricts were annexed and protectorates promarked by numerous marigots or chan- claimed with extraordinary rapidity, though nels which disperse its waters through the the two powerful chiefs Ahmadou and Samory adjacent plains; and its mouth is dangerously occasioned a great deal of trouble, 1887-90. barred, so as to be accessible only for small
Pop. 1,282,566. Consult Lasnet et al., (Une
French West Africa. It is bounded on the north
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