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either toothed or entire, and the five-parted published works are Astronomy with an Opera flowers have delicate white petals and are Glass (1888); "The Conquest of Mars? solitary, or more usually in racemes, succeeded (1898); Other Worlds) (1902); «The Moon by fruits like tiny purplish apples or pears. The (1907); Astronomy with the Naked Eyel species are generally small shrubs, but the A. (1908); Curiosities of the Sky (1902); canadensis and A. botryapium, the shadbushes Round the Year with the Stars) (1910); The and juneberries of the eastern United States, Moon Maiden' (1915). occasionally arrive at the dignity of small trees, with hard brown wood. These are the first

SERVITES. See ORDERS, RELIGIOUS. shrubs to bloom in the East (while the shad SERVITUDE, the state or condition of a are running), and cover themselves with feathery serf, slave or bondman; state of voluntary or elongated tassels of fugacious petals, while involuntary subjection to a master or employer; the leaves are still folded. The haw-like fruits, service; slavery; bondage; position in life of a of somewhat insipid flavor, seldom reach ma- servant; - hence, a state or condition of slavish turity, as they should in June, for then the birds or helpless dependence; as, marriage with rich are too fond of them to wait for their ripening: and ugly old women is splendid servitude. In This circumstance militates against the proposed civil law, the right to the use of a thing, withcultivation of the juneberry.

out property in the same, for all or for some A. alnifolia is the well-known service-berry particular purposes.

It consists either in the of western America, frequently mentioned by right to do some act, as to gather fruit from explorers of the Rocky Mountain region. The the estate, or to prevent the owner of the proppurple, rich, although insipidly sweet, berries erty from doing certain acts, as building walls are about the size of a pea, with a large mucilag, beyond a certain height, blocking up a window, inous seeds. They form a favorite food of etc. the aborigines, who cook them or dry them, and add them to dried meat, to flavor pem

SERVIUS, Honoratus Maurus, Roman mican. They grow upon bushes 2 to 12 feet

grammarian. He lived at Rome toward the 4th high, with glabrous thick alder-like leaves,

century A.D., and wrote a commentary on the nearly orbicular and coarsely toothed. The

Grammar of Donatus; some lesser grammatical wood itself is very hard and tough and is used

brochures; and a commentary on the poems of by the Indians for arrows and pipe-stems.

Virgil which an unknown author enlarged and

enriched with notes of an antiquarian, hisThe fruit of the white beam-tree (Sorbus aria) is also called service-berry. See also

torical and mythological character. Consult AMELANCHIER.

Thilo and Hagen, (Servii Honorati Opera

(1878). SERVICE MEN OF THE SPANISHAMERICAN WAR, an association organized SERVIUS TULLIUS, sėr'vi-ŭs tủl'í-ús, at Lexington, Ky., 5 Nov. 1898. The founders sixth king of Rome: d. 534 B.C. He was the son of the society made choice of the designation

of a slave, but traditions of his descent vary, «service men as equally distinctive of the men

some declaring his mother to have been an orwho waited in vain for orders to go to the dinary slave, and others stating her to have been front, and the more favored ones who lived a noble captive of Tarquin. He was given to through the exciting scenes of actual conflict. the queen Tanaquil, and educated in the palace In the list of charter members are to be found of the monarch, where he became so great a the names of many of the most prominent offi- favorite as to receive the daughter of Tarquin cers in the army during the war with Spain.

in marriage. On the death of Tarquin in They represent all sections of the United States 578 B.C., Servius, who was immensely popular and all shades of political belief, and constitute with both populace and soldiery, was raised to a guarantee of the permanence of the organ- the throne. His reign is singularly free from ization.

wars, Livy mentioning but one, and that SERVICE-TREE, a round-headed, slow

against the Veii, brought to a speedy terminagrowing European tree (Sorbus domestica) of

tion. His greatness lay in the establishment of the Rosacea, attaining a height of perhaps 60

civil rights and institutions. He established feet. When without flowers or fruit, it is

the census, extended and beautified the city, takeasily confounded with the ash, having pinnate ing within its limits the hills Quirinalis, leaves; but the glutinous winter buds help to

Viminalis and Esquilinus, and building around identify it. The small whitish flowers are

the city a stone wall which bore his name. numerous, and gathered in panicles at the end He greatly improved the condition of the comof the branches, being succeeded by small

mon people, thereby gaining the enmity of the rounded or pear-shaped fruit, which is only patricians, whose long-accustomed privileges edible when in a state of incipient decay, being

were thus encroached upon, and in 534 Servius astringent while unripe. The wood is hard,

was killed as the result of a patrician consolid and fine-grained, and takes a high polish.

spiracy. Another tradition makes him the vicIt is much in demand for fine cabinet making,

tim of an ambitious daughter, Tullia, who for turning and especially for the screws of

caused the death of her husband, sister and wine presses; and is very dear. The service- father in order to pave her way to the throne tree is occasionally cultivated.

as the wife of Tarquin, son of the former king. SERVISS, Garrett Putnam, American au

Consult Niebuhr, Roman History and Critical thor and journalist : b. Sharon Springs, N. Y., 24

Examinations of the History of Tarquin and

Servius. See also RomE, HISTORY OF. March 1851. He was graduated from Cornell University in 1872, and from Columbia Law SERVUS SERVORUM DEI (servant of School in 1874. He was editorial writer on the the servants of God), a title which the popes New York Sun until 1892, and has since lec- give themselves. It was used by the Roman tured upon history and astronomy. Among his pontiffs at an early period, although Paulus

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Diaconus states that Gregory the Great (590- 1hc 3d dynasty is called Sesostris by Aristotle. 604) was the first to adopt it.

The identification of Sesostris with Rameses II SESAME, a rough-hairy, gummy annual

has the support of Champollion, Salvolini and plant (Sesamum indicum) about two feet high, others, but is combated by Bunsen on the with petiolate, ovate-lanceolate leaves, opposite

ground that some of the most striking achievebelow and alternate above, slightly toothed, and

ments attributed by Herodotus and Diodorus to mucilaginous. The flowers are solitary in the Sesostris do not belong to that Rameses. Such axils, pale or rose-colored, five-parted, with are the victorious expeditions into Nubia and irregular-lipped corolla, having the tube curved Thrace, the immense development under him downward and dilated above the oblique base. of the Egyptian navy, the division of the land Sesame has been known from ancient times,

and its subjection to heavy burdens. But it is originating in the East, where it is cultivated for generally admitted, as before stated, that the exthe sake of its black or white seeds. It is ploits of various monarchs were united by the easily grown, does not object to poor soil and

Greeks in their accounts of the reign of Sesoshas even been introduced to gardens in Amer

tris, which contain a number of fables in addiica, for the sake of the leaves, which in infusion tion, so that it is needless to seek for complete are employed as a demulcent medicine for in- correspondence between these accounts and the fantile dysentery. The plant has run wild in monumental records of any single reign. Many the Southern States.

of the most remarkable deeds of Sesostris The seeds are very tiny, but are sweet and may be assigned with great probability to oleaginous, and are much used for food by Ori- Rameses III, the founder of the 20th dynasty ental peoples, and are imported into Europe for and the restorer of the power and glory of crushing. They will yield half of their weight Egypt. He triumphed over the confederations in oil, which is yellow, limpid, inodorous and

formed against him by various Libyan tribes; keeps for years without becoming rancid. It is

annihilated by a great victory gained in northof great economic value, second only to cocoanut ern Syria a league of Hittites, Philistines and oil in the variety of its uses, and can be em

other Canaanitish peoples, and of tribes inployed instead of olive oil in very many ways,

habiting the isles of the Mediterranean, in as for culinary purposes, food, medicine (having

which sea he maintained a large fleet to supa laxative effect), cosmetic, illumination, lubri- port his operations on land. Consult Bridge, cation, soap-making, etc. It is also employed as

E. A. T. W., A History of Egypt (New an adulterant for olive-oil, but is itself alul

York 1902); Sethe, (Sesostris) (Leipzig 1900). terated with peanut-oil. It is known as bene or

SESSIONS, Court of. See Court. benne and as gingil-oil. The cake left after the oil has been expressed forms a food for the SESSUMS, Davis, American Protestant poorer classes, and is a good food for cattle. Episcopal bishop: b. Houston, Tex., 7 July

1858. He was educated at the University of the SESAMOID BONES, certain rounded

South, Sewanee, Tenn., took orders in 1882, and bodies, at first cartilaginous and then bony,

became rector of Grace Church, Galveston, found in the tendons of muscles. They derive

Tex. He was assistant and rector of Calvary their name from their resemblance to sesame.

Church, Memphis, Tenn., in 1883–87; rector at The patella or knee-cap is a sesamoid bone.

Christ Church, New Orleans, La., in 1887-91, Another is developed in the upper joint of the

and in the latter year was consecrated bishop thumb, and at the corresponding joint of the

of Louisiana. great toe, these increasing the leverage of the short flexor muscles of the thumb and great toe

SESTERTIUS, an ancient Roman silver respectively. In the great majority of mam

coin worth 21/2 asses (hence the name sesquimals sesamoid bones are much more numerous

tertius, the third a half). The sestertius was than in man.

the fourth part of a denarius, and when in SESHA, să'sha, an imaginary

later times the weight of the ass was reduced, imaginary serpent

and 16 asses were reckoned to a denarius, the which, when coiled up, is the Hindu emblem

sestertius still retained the same proportion to for immortality. It is represented in Hindu

the latter coin, and thus became equal to four mythology as having 1,000 heads, on one of which the world rests, and Vishnu reclines on

The value of the sestertius, therefore, this immense reptile in the primæval waters.

varied with that of the denarius. About the

close of the republic, when the denarius is calSESOSTRIS, sě-sõs'trìs, the name given culated to have been worth about 17 cents, the by Greek writers to a king of Egypt, about sestertius would be worth 5 cents. The seswhose identity there is much controversy, while tertius was the unit most commonly employed it seems certain that the achievements attributed by the Romans in reckoning large sums of by the Greeks to Sesostris were the deeds of a money. For sums below 1,000,000 sestertia, the number of Egyptian rulers. By many Sesostris ordinary cardinal numerals were used with is believed to be identical with Rameses II, the sestertii or sestertia, the case might son of Seti (the Sethos of Manetho), and the be; but if the sum amounted to 1,000,000 third king of the 19th dynasty. The name of

a numeral in ies, after which Sesostris is explained as a corruption of Ses- centena millia (100,000) had to be understood, tesura, the popular appellation of this Rameses, was connected with sestertium (for example, or of Sethosis (written by Pliny Sesothis), quadragies sestertium is 4,000,000 of sestertii, meaning son of Sethos, by which name the that is, quadragies centena millia sestertiorum same monarch is designated in Manetho. Others nummorum). Sometimes the numeral adverb think that the Greek Sesotris may be a corrup- was used alone, and decies ei dedil signifies tion of Secortesen or some similar form, which decies sestertium, that is, decies centena millia is the name of one king of the 3d dynasty and sestertiorum, or 1,000,000. The sestertius was three others of the 12th, The Sesortesen of often expressed by the symbol HS, which is

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Woodcraft Boys (1917); Sign Talk) (1918).

explained as a corruption cither of IIS, that is, effected. In 1846 the New York community beII, the numeral two, and S for semis, half came independent of the original American orof LLS, or libra libra semis, and as having ganization. For statistics, consult the article on been originally equivalent to libra or pound. the society. Consult de Barbary, Vie (1868); SESTINI, sās-tē'nē, Domenico, Italian nu

O'Gorman, A History of the Catholic Church mismatist: b. Florence, 1750; d. there, 1832. He

in the United States) (1895). was educated at the school of San Marco. In SETON, Ernest Thompson, American au1774 he left his native city and went to Sicily, thor, for some time known as SETON-THOMPwhere he received from Prince Biscari the com- SON: b. South Shields, Durham, England, 14 mission to arrange his museum at Catania, and Aug. 1860. After a brief course at the Royal from this time he applied himself exclusively to Academy, London, he spent three years in numismatic studies. He published numerous zoological study on the Assiniboine in Manitoba, books, chief among which was his Systema published works on the Birds of Manitoba) and Geographicum Numismatum) in 13 folio vol- Mammals of Manitoba,' was made government umes.

naturalist of the province and executed for the SESTO, sās'to, Cesare da (CESARE DA

(Century Dictionary more than 1,000 drawings MILANO), Italian painter: b. Sesto, near Milan,

of animals and birds. In 1890 he became a about 1480; d. Milan, about 1524. He was prob

pupil of Mosler in Paris, whither he returned in ably a pupil, certainly an imitator, of Leonardo, 1894 to study with Ferrier, Bougereau and and a picture of his in the Prado, Madrid, is

Gérôme. He exhibited at the Salon several put down by Madrazo as a copy of that master's drawings and paintings of wolves, his particular Virgin and Child.' La Vierge aux Balances

subjects. Among his much-read books are in the Louvre and a Holy Family in the col

Wild Animals I Have Known (1898); (The letion of Lord Monson, formerly thought to Trail of the Sandhill Stag? (1899); The be by da Vinci, are now attributed to Cesare.

Biography of a Grizzly) (1900); Lives of the He was

on friendly terms with Raphael at Hunted' (1901); Two Little Savages? (1903); Rome, and reproduced some of the qualities of

Woodmyth and Fable! (1904); Animal Hethat master's style. The mingled influence of da

roes) (1905); Life Histories of Northern AniVinci and Raphael is apparent in his Adora

mals) (1909); Rolf in the Woods' (1911); tion of the Kings) at the Naples Museum.

Arctic Prairies (1911); Book of WoodOther pictures of his are Baptism of Christ,

craft (1911); (Wild Animals at Home Seotti Gallery, Milan; Madonna with St. John,

"Wild Animals' Ways
(

) (1916); Melzi Collection, Milan; and a Madonna) in

) the Brera.

In 1902 he founded the Woodcraft League

which was the precursor and in many respects SETCHELL, William Albert, American

the father of all the present scouting organizabotanist: b. Norwich, Conn., 15 April 1864. He

tions. It is now confined chiefly to America was graduated at Yale University in 1887 and took his Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1890.

but is of great and growing extent. He was instructor in biology at Yale in 1891-95

SETON, Robert, American Roman Cathand instructor in botany at the Marine Biologi- olic archbishop: b. New York, 28 Aug. 1839, a cal Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass., in 1890–

member and later head of the ancient Scottish 95. Since 1895 he has been professor of botany

family of Setons of Parbroath. He was graduat the University of California. Author of

ated from the Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome Laboratory Practice for Beginners in Botany)

in 1867, and having previously been raised to (1897).

the rank of private chamberlain to Pope Pius SETHITES, a sect in the 2d century that

IX, was the same year made prothonotary

apostolic, later becoming dean of all the monworshipped Seth, the son of Adam, as the son of God, and maintained that he had reappeared

signori in the United States. He was rector of on earth in the person of Jesus Christ.

Saint Joseph's Church, Jersey City, N. J., from

1876-1902, in the latter year leaving for Rome. SETHOS I, sē'thos, or SETI, se'ti, Egyp- He was a lecturer at the Catholic University in tian king, the second Pharaoh of the 19th dy- Washington and at Seton Hall College, New nasty; which lasted from 1462 to 1288 B.C. He Jersey, and in 1903 was created archbishop of was one of the shepherd race or Hyksos in the Heliopolis. Under the pen-name of "Fyvie” he eastern part of the Delta. Distinguished for was for some time Rome correspondent for the inagnificence, he built the temples of Osiris at New York Times. He is the author of MemAbydos, and the hall of columns at Karnak. oir, Letters and Journal of Elizabeth Seton He established by arms the power of Egypt (1869); Roman Essays) (1882); (The Dignity over a large part of western Asia.

of Labor) 1893) ; An Old Family) (1899). SETON, sē'tón, Eliza Ann Bayley, Ameri- SETON, a skein of silk, cotton, etc., passed can philanthropist, founder of the order of Sis- under the true skin and the cellular tissue beters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul in the neath, in order to maintain an artificial issue. United States : b. New York, 28 Aug. 1774; d. The name, which is derived from the Latin Emmittsburg, Md., 4 Jan. 1821. She was mar- sæta, a bristle, stiff coarse hair, because hair ried to William Seton about 1794 and after his was originally used for the purpose, is also death in 1804 she was received into the Roman given to the issue itself. To insert a seton the Catholic Church the next year, and on 22 June surgeon takes a fold of the skin between his 1809 established at Emmittsburg, Md., a com- fingers and makes an incision at the base either munity called by her Saint Joseph's Sisterhood. with a knife or with a seton needle. In the In 1810 the rules of the French sisters were former case the seton must be inserted by adopted, with modifications suited to American means of a probe, but when a seton-needle is conditions. The society grew and prospered, used that instrument carries the seton along and in 1850 a union with the Paris society was with it. When the seton is inserted the wound

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is not very tightly bandaged and allowed to remain untouched until suppuration has set in, usually the third or fourth day. After that the wound is dressed with fresh linen regularly once or twice a day, and when the seton has became hard and stiff a new one is inserted by attaching one end of the new one to one end of the old, and then extracting the latter, so that the fresh one is dragged into its place.

SETON HALL COLLEGE, in South Orange, N. J., founded in 1836 by James Roosevelt Bayley (q.v.), then bishop of Newark. It was originally in Madison, N. J., but was removed to South Orange in 1860. In 1861 it was incorporated by the legislature of New Jersey. It was named in memory of Ann Elizabeth Seton (q.v.). The first president was Bernard J. McQuaid, later bishop of Rochester, and the second Michael A. Corrigan (q.v.), afterward archbishop of New York. In 1865 the college building was enlarged, and on 27 Jan. 1866 the beautiful marble edifice was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt and ready for occupancy in 1867. The college grounds contain 75 acres and the number of buildings is nine. The government is vested in a board of 13 trustees, of which the bishop of Newark is a member and president ex-officio. There are two courses of study, the classical and scientific. The classical course leads to the degree of bachelor of arts; the scientific course to bachelor of science. The courses of study are registered by the board of regents of the University of New York State, hence the students graduating may have entrance to the professional schools of New York. A high school, preparatory for the college, is maintained in connection with the college. Courses of lectures on literary and scientific subjects are established for the pupils, and the public is admitted free of charge. The library, which is in a building of its own, contains approximately 40,000 volumes. The college offers three full scholarships in the classical course, granted to worthy applicants by a competitive examination; they entitle the holders to board and tuition until graduated, and there is a fund to assist worthy students. The annual income is over $90,000. The faculty numbers 20 instructors and the average annual attendance of students reaches nearly 300.

SETTER, a breed of dogs, named from their former habit of crouching or setting," on observing the game which they are trained to hunt. In modern days, however, these dogs remain erect on coming up with the quarry, and point their nose at it as does the pointer. For ihe “points of the various kinds of American setters, see Dog.

SETTIGNANO, sāt-tēn-ya'no, Desiderio da. See DESIDERIO DA SETTIGNANO.

SETTLEMENTS, Social. See SOCIAL AND UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENTS.

SETTLERS AND DEFENDERS OF AMERICA, The, an association organized in 1899 to stimulate geographical, biographical and historical research, to publish patriotic manuscripts and records and to collect colonial and Revolutionary relics. The general offices of the society are in New York.

SEVANGA, syě-vän'gą. See Gokcha, a lake.

SEVEN, a number regarded by many nations as especially sacred, mystical and symbolical. In the Bible the work of creation having been completed in six days, the Creator rested on the seventh. The three Regalim or pilgrim festival of the Hebrews (the Passover, the Festival of Weeks and the Feast of the Tabernacles) lasted each seven days, and between Passover and the Festival of Weeks was an interval of seven weeks. Egypt's seven years of plenty are succeeded by seven years of dearth; for seven days the waters of Egypt were turned into blood. The seventh year was a sabbatical year and the year following seven weeks of years was the year of jubilee. The golden candlestick in Solomon's temple had seven lamps. In the New Testament occur many groups of seven, as, the seven churches of Asia, seven stars, seven trumpets, seven spirits, the seven horns and seven eyes of the lamb; all these in the Apocalypse. Among the Greeks the number seven was sacred to Apollo and to Dionysos; and it held a conspicuous place in the teaching of Pythagoras, who gave it many distinctive appellations. The sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church are seven, and also the orders of the ministry in the same church, namely, four minor and three major or sacred orders. Various reasons have been given for the peculiar regard had for this number, such as that seven is a symbol of completeness, being compounded of three and four, perfect numbers, they being representable in space by the triangle and the square.

SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRISTENDOM, The, a romance of chivalry, by Richard Johnson, entered on the Stationers' Register) in 1596. A second part appeared in 1608 and a third in 1616. In it are recounted the exploits of Saint George of England, Saint Denis of France, Saint James of Spain, Saint Anthony of Italy, Saint Andrew of Scotland, Saint Patrick of Ireland and Saint David of Wales.

SEVEN CHURCHES OF ASIA, The, a collective name applied to the churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea (Rev. i, 11).

SEVEN CITIES, The, a name applied to Egypt, Jerusalem, Babylon, Athens, Rome, Constantinople and either London or Paris. They are often grouped under this title, as embodying wealth, antiquity, greatness and magnificence.

SEVEN DAYS' BATTLES, a series of battles which began 25 June 1862 by the advance of a part of General McClellan's army, with a view to securing a more advantageous position for a general advance upon Richmond. McClellan's army, numbering 92,500 men, was within a few miles of the city, which was defended by General Lee with an army, including Jackson's command, of 80,762 men. The advance brought on the battle of Oak Grove (q.v.), in which the loss was moderate and with no particular advantage to either side. On the next day McClellan was thrown upon the defensive by the approach of (Stonewall” Jackson toward his right flank beyond the Chickahominy and by Lee's movement upon it. Lee threw the three strong divisions of A. P. Hill, Longstreet and D. H. Hill across the Chickahominy to co-operate with Jackson, but,

without waiting for him to get up, attacked General McCall's division of Pennsylvania Reserves at Mechanicville and Beaver Dam Creek, and was finally repulsed with great loss. On the 27th McCall was withdrawn, Jackson made conection with Lee and the combined Confederate forces attacked Fitz-John Porter's corps, and McCall's division, later reinforced by Slocum's division, at Gaines' Mill (q.v.), the result being a bad defeat for the Union forces, Lee's losses, however, in killed and wounded, being about double that of Porter. Porter retreated across the Chickahominy and McClellan started on his retreat or change of base to James River. Lee pursued, and on the 29th fought the two battles of Peach Orchard and Savage Station (qq.v.), both of which were drawn battles, although in both cases the Union troops withdrew from the field to continue the retreat which they had successfully covered. On the 30th, part of the Union army and nearly all Lee's army fought the bloody battle of Glendale (q.v.), the Union army holding the ground until after dark, covering the passage of the trains and defeating all of Lee's persistent efforts to break and destroy it. The last of the seven days' battles was fought at Malvern Hill (q.v.) 1 July, resulting in a bloody repulse for Lee, and that night the Army of the Potomac withdrew to Harrison's Landing on James River. "General Lee's plans in the Seven Days' fight,” says General Longstreet, «were excellent, but were poorly executed. In an official report General Lee says: “Under ordinary circumstances the Federal army should have been destroyed." That it was not destroyed is due to the skill of McClellan in conducting the retreat, but more to the fighting quality of his subordinate officers and their men. The Union loss (25 June to 1 July) was 1,734 killed, 8,062 wounded and 6,053 captured or missing. The Confederate loss was 3,478 killed, 16,261 wounded and 875 captured or missing. See PENINSULA CAMPAIGN OF 1862.

SEVEN GIFTS OF THE HOLY GHOST: Wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety and the fear of the Lord. They are enumerated in Isaiah xi, 2, as rendered in the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate and their versions: in the Douai English version the passage reads: «The Spirit of the Lord will rest upon him; the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and sirength, the spirit of knowledge and piety, and the spirit of the fear of the Lord will fill him.” With this the Authorized Version agrees save that after “knowledge, this only follows (and of the fear of the Lord”; and the Hebrew, too, has nothing answering to "piety.”

SEVEN-HILLED CITY, a name applied to Rome.

SEVEN HUNTERS, The. See FLANNAN ISLANDS.

SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE, The, a treatise on architecture by John Ruskin, published in 1847. In this book architecture is regarded as the revealing medium or lamp, through which flame a people's passions and which embodies their life, history and religious faith, in temple, palace and home. The first lamp is "Sacrifice," next comes the "Lamp of Truth, the third and fourth lamps are those of "Power” and “Beauty.” The fifth the

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"Lamp of Life, and the last two lamps are those of Memory” and “Obedience.” Ruskin affirms that “the architecture of a nation is great only when it is universal and established in its language, and when provincial differences in siyle are nothing more than so many dialects.”

SEVEN PINES, Battle of. See Fair OAKS, BATTLE OF.

SEVEN SAGES. See' SEVEN WISE MEN.

SEVEN SEAS, The, by Rudyard Kipling, a collection of verse containing several of the author's most vigorous and characteristic poems, was originally published as a separate volume in November 1896. It has also been included, under the same name as a subtitle, in a larger and more comprehensive collection, entitled (Verses. While (The Seven Seas) is not limited in range, containing, as it does, poems on many themes — virile songs in stirring rhythms, such as "The Last Chantey,' striking character portraits like that of the grim old shipowner of The Mary Gloster and of the dour Scots engineer' of McAndrew's Hymn and The Last Rhyme of True Thomas and other lyrics and ballads of a high order - still, the dominant note, sounded especially in A Song of the English, is a fervent, almost religious belief in Britain's world supremacy what Paul Elmer More calls the poet's "earnest conviction that the English race, the Sons of the Blood, are destined to sweep over the earth and fulfill the law of order and civilization.” It was this note that caused the poet to be hailed the unofficial laureate of the British Empire. Kipling's frequent use of colloquialisms and slang, however appropriate when his speakers are such careless folk as soldiers and sailors, have led some critics to disparage his claims to the laurel. Yet his eager revelation of the charm and beauty inherent in things as they are,” is precisely what endears him the most. As Charles Eliot Norton says: "The poet finds to-day as entertaining as any day that ever dawned, and man's life as interesting and as romantic as it ever was in old times. It is enough now gratefully to recognize that he continues the succession of royal English poets, and to pay him the homage which is his due."

ARTHUR GUITERMAN. SEVEN SLEEPERS, a Christian legend dating from the times of persecution under the empire. According to the story, in the reign of Emperor Decius, when the Christians were persecuted, it is said that seven noble youths of Ephesus concealed themselves in a neighboring cavern, the entrance of which was closed by order of the emperor. The persecuted youths immediately fell into a deep slumber, from which they were accidentally awakened in the reign of Theodosius II, after the lapse of about two centuries. Pressed with hunger after their long fast, they sent one of their number to the city to purchase bread. He was astonished to see crosses erected all over the city and his own antiquated dress and obsolete language confounded the baker, to whom he offered an old medal in payment for bread. Suspected of having found a secret treasure, he was carried before the judge, to whom he related his miraculous story. The bishop of Ephesus, the magistrates and the emperor him

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