Slike strani



self, hastened to the cave and found the sleep- SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD. ers still bearing the bloom of youth. They re- Within the sovereignty of Turkish soil, as it lated their story to the multitudes, gave them stood at the beginning of the European War their benediction and expired.

of 1914, were included six of the original SEVEN STARS. See PLEIADES.

Wonders of the World, about which so much

has been written, until it is hard to distinguish SEVEN-UP, a game of cards, sometimes called "all fours from the four points (high,

between history and fable. The exception was

the Colossus of Rhodes which stood on Greek low, jack and game) that are at stake.

territory. Of all these wonderful creations only SEVEN WEEKS' WAR, the Austro- two survive and in a more or less damaged Prussian War of 1866, which grew indirectly state - the vocal Memnon and the Pyramids. out of the long-continued rivalry of the Prus- The former term is applied to one of the two sian and Austrian nations and was finally pre- colossal statues, each nearly 70 feet high, of cipitated by the Schleswig-Holstein controversy. Amenophis III, near Thebes, two of which still Prussia's support came from the majority of remain. In the case of the more northerly of North German states and from Italy, while these, partly overthrown by an earthquake (27 the South German states and Nassau, Frank- E.C.), it was noticed that at early morn it gave fort, Hanover, etc., gave their assistance to forth a curious sound, resembling a cry, which Austria. Under Moltke the Prussians won vic

was supposed to be the response of Memnon, tories in rapid succession, and in an astonish- son of the Dawn or Eos, to his mother, and ingly short period had out fought the Austrians, formed the subject of varied interpretation who met their final defeat in the battle of

by ancient sages and modern writers in folkKöniggrätz or Sadowa, 3 July after only about

lore. But early travelers, who heard the sound, seven weeks of actual fighting. The negotia

never solved the mystery, which was simple tions at Nikolsburg, 26 July, were confirmed by

enough - it was merely the passage of air the Peace of Prague and other acts of formal through the pores of the broken reddish sandsettlement, and the prestige of Prussia, greatly stone, due to the change of temperature at increased, was made dominant in the Franco

sunrise. Not the first or last of ancient miracles German War which soon followed. See AUS

to be as easily solved after ages of wonderTRIA-HUNGARY; GERMANY; PRUSSIA.

ment. But the musical sounds are no longer SEVEN WISE MASTERS, a collection

hcard since Septimus Severus repaired the of tales which originated in the East. The plot

breach in the sandstone. More useful was the connecting the tales is the following: A king's

second wonder — the lighthouse or Pharos, son, who had been instructed in all branches built by Ptolemy Philadelphus (200 B.C.). It of knowledge by seven wise masters, finds by was erected on a long narrow rock in the the study of the stars that he is in danger of harbor of Alexandria, a mile off shore, and meeting his death if he utters a word within was inscribed "King Ptolemy to the gods, the seven days. At the very beginning of this saviors, for the benefit of sailors. Many traperiod his stepmother urges her husband to put ditional details of doubtful authenticity have his son to death, at the same time telling him come down to us as to its height, surpassing a story calculated to induce him to do so. the loftiest of pyramids, the mirrors employed The king is just about to act on this advice as reflectors, the fire kept burning nightly at its when one of the seven wise masters obtains a top, and the architect's scheme for immortalizday's respite for the prince by telling a tale, ing his name by cutting it in the structure and the moral of which counteracts that of the covering the huge letters with plaster. Long stepmother. On each of the following six before our modern school gardens, Nebuchaddays during which the prince's danger binds nezzar reared the Hanging Gardens of Babyhim to silence, the stepmother renews her lon for his wife's pleasure. They consisted of solicitations to the king to have the prince put a series of five terraces of sun-dried brick to death, on each occasion supporting her ad- and were raised each 50 feet above the other, vice by a fresh story, but the effect of the step- to the height of 250 feet. The labor of thoumother's tales is always counteracted by an- sands of slaves was conscripted in its conother told by one of the seven wise masters, struction. A winding stair led to the queen's until the expiration of the seven days enables paradise on top, the terraces were exquisite the prince to reveal the designs of his step- gardens with the rarest and most beautiful mother. The date and circumstances of the plants. There were flowery fountains, tame origin of this collection of tales are unknown. animals disported at ease through the meadows, The plot of the work is in fact found in Bud- and the structure became one of the ancient dhist literature, not as a fable but as a real world's wonders. Next comes the magnificent event, but no Indian original of the collection

Temple of Diana at Ephesus, scene of orgies of tales has been discovered. The tales were as well as of worship, and set on fire by without doubt introduced into the West through Erathosthenes, who sought thereby to gain rethe Crusades, since which the collection has

nown. Rebuilt by the Ephesians, after declinbeen translated into almost all Western lan- ing Alexander's aid, it surpassed the glories guages.

of the original fane, with its main altar by SEVEN WISE MEN, SEVEN Praxiteles, its columns of porticoes 60 feet in SAGES, OF GREECE, the collective designa- height, its length 405, its width 220 feet, all of tion of seven ancient philosophers and sages, white marble, elaborately adorned with gold namely, Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, and filled with statues and works of art. Pittacus of Mitylene, Bias of Priene, Chilon First despoiled by Nero, it was destroyed by of Sparta, Cleobulus of Lindus and Periander the Goths. A widow's tender thought of her of Corinth; they all lived between 620 and 548 husband supplied one of the wonders. Upon

the death of Mausolus, king of Caria, his



widow, who died of grief 350 B.C., built his France, as one of the guarantors of that treaty, tomb, which must have been of rare magnifi- now took part in the struggle. Sweden and cence to have given its name Mausoleum to Russia adopted a similar course. In the diet at ornate graves of the dead to our day.

Ratisbon, held in January 1757, war was also The pyramids of Egypt still survive as declared on the part of the empire against wonders. These tombs of the Pharaohs, marred Prussia. hy age and partly destroyed by earthquakes, Thus in 1757 Austria, Russia, France, Sweden arouse no less wonderment, while countless vol- and the German empire were in arms against umes have been written on their origin and Frederick, while he had no ally but England history, with curious speculation as to the uses and a few German states (Brunswick, Hessefor which they were designed. The masonry Cassel and Gotha, besides, of course, Hanover). of the great Pyramid of Cheops, as it is In order to be again beforehand with his enetermed, has been worn out at top by time, and mies, Frederick (April 1757) marched into the sides, which once were smoothly slanting, Bohemia, and on the 6th of May a bloody now form a series of steps, due also to time battle was fought at Prague, in which the and the elements. The legend of the Colossus Prussians conquered, but lost their distinguished straddling the harbor of Rhodes with its legs, general, Schwerin. The greatest part of the is very picturesque but it had no other þasis vanquished Austrian army threw itself into the than popular fancy. It was in reality a huge city of Prague, to which the king immediately bronze image of Apollo, about the height of laid siege. But the defeat of Frederick by the New York's Statue of Liberty, 105 feet. Austrians under Daun, at Kollin, in the followErected about 200 B.C. on the shore at the en

ing month, 18 June, deprived the former of all trance to the harbor of Rhodes, it was over- his advantages. He was forced to raise the thrown by an earthquake, its fragments in siege of Prague, and to retreat to Saxony and later decades being bought and carried away Lusatia. Little more than a month later, 26 on camels by traders of the time, ready as to- July, the Duke of Cumberland, commanding the day to barter in junk. How many modern German allies of Frederick, was defeated at wonders of art, science and invention are likely Hastenbeck on the Weser, in the south of Hanto survive a thousand years and more, when

over, by the more numerous army of the French; fame to-day is as rapidly lost as it is acquired whereupon the victors made preparations for and miracles of achievement occur so often

taking up winter quarters with the imperial that they have ceased to be miracles?

army in Saxony. The two armies had already SEVEN YEARS' WAR, a war between united and advanced as far as the Saale, the Prussia and other European powers (1756-63). French under the command of the incapable By the treaties of peace concluded at Breslau 28 Prince Soubise, a favorite of the Marquise de July 1742, and at Dresden 25 Dec. 1745, Maria Pompadour, when Frederick marched against Theresa of Austria ceded to King Frederick II them, and fought at Rossbach, a village between six principalities of Silesia and the county of Merseburg and Weissenfels, that memorable Glatz. In the hope of recovering them she con- battle, in which both the French and the impecluded an alliance with Elizabeth, empress of rial armies were defeated, and found safety only Russia, brought over to her cause the king of in a hasty flight 5 November. The defeated Poland and elector of Saxony, Augustus III, armies retired into winter quarters at a distance, and attempted to form a closer union with and the possession of Saxony was secured to France. Meanwhile a dispute had arisen be- the king. Upon this Frederick hurried back to tween Great Britain and France relating to their Silesia, which was now occupied by the AusAmerican boundary, and it broke out in 1755 trians. With a small army, fatigued with a long into open hostilities. The king of England march, he defeated at Leuthen a force twice as concluded an alliance with Prussia; and some great, under Daun, 5 December. By this victory months after France made a league with the Frederick recovered Silesia, and he was now court of Vienna. All the proceedings of the more formidable to his foes than ever; for not Russian, Austrian and Saxon courts were dis- only had he been victorious himself, but while covered to Frederick, who resolved to anticipate he had been thus occupied in the south and his enemies. In August 1736, he invaded Sax- west his general Lehwald had successfully reony, occupied the capital, which had been de- pelled the Swedes and Russians on the north serted by the court, Leipzig, Wittenberg and

and east. Dresden; took possession of the documents The third campaign was opened in February necessary to justify his conduct which he found

1758, by Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, who in the archives of the cabinet in the last city, was now at the head of the allied armies, in the and invested the Saxon army in their fortified place of the Duke of Cumberland, and opposed camp Pirna. Meanwhile Field-Marshal the French in Lower Saxony and Westphalia. Browne advanced from Bohemia with an army His nephew, the hereditary prince, afterward to liberate Saxony; but Frederick was able to Duke of Brunswick, Charles William Ferdicheck his advance, and the Saxons, 14,000 nand, commanded under him. Duke Ferdinand strong, were forced to surrender 15 October. made himself master of the Weser, expelled the The inferior officers and common soldiers were French, under Clermont, from Lower Saxony compelled to enter the Prussian service; but and Westphalia, and defeated them 23 June at they soon deserted, making their escape to Krefeld. He then returned over the Rhine to Poland, where the Saxon court resided during Hesse, where Soubise was stationed with a the whole war. Such was the end of the first French army, and whither Clermont followed campaign, and the Prussians remained through him. Ferdinand, in the meanwhile strengthened the winter in Saxony and Silesia. Frederick's by 12,000 British troops, forced the two hostile invasion of Saxony was pronounced to be a bodies to retire over the Main and the Rhine, violation of the Treaty of Westphalia, and where they went into winter quarters. Mean


[blocks in formation]

while the Russians, under Bestucheff, had advanced as far as the Oder; and subsequently Fermor, who superseded Bestucheff, occupied east Prussia, and then moved into Brandenburg, spreading devastation on his way. At this juncture Frederick made a masterly march to the Oder, and toward the end of August engaged the Russians at Zorndorf, in the north of Brandenburg, where he gained a sanguinary victory, which forced the Russians to retreat to Poland. After this he again turned his attention to Saxony, where his brother Prince Henry was no longer able to resist the Austrians. He encamped at Hochkirch, but here he was surprised by Daun in the night of 14 October and suffered a total defeat. He nevertheless succeeded with the remains of his army in effecting a junction with his brother, after which he again drove the enemy out of Silesia and Saxony. At the close of the campaign the king saw all his dominions except Prussia proper free from the enemy. In France there was a general wish for peace; but Louis XV and his mistress, the Marchioness de Pompadour, were bent on continuing the war. A new alliance was therefore concluded with Austria 30 Dec. 1758. Frederick, however, had also obtained a new treaty with Great Britain, which promised him a large yearly subsidy. Yet he determined in the coming campaign to act with his main army as much as possible on the defensive and to commit aggressive movements to detached corps.

The campaign was opened in March 1759, Prince Henry marching into Bohemia, where he dispersed the hostile forces, and captured immense quantities of military stores. He then entered Franconia, and put the inactive imperial forces to flight. At the same time the Prussian general Dohna drove back the Swedes once more to Stralsund, and managed to keep the Russians for a time in check. But when the Russians pressed forward in ever-increasing numbers under Soltikoff. Dohna found himself obliged to give way. Frederick then gave his command to General Wedel, who received orders to prevent the junction between the Russians and Austrians at all costs, and accordingly on 23 July attacked the Russians at Kay, near Züllichau, in the east of Brandenburg. His attack was unsuccessful, and the Russians after their victory advanced to Frankfort-on-theOder. Frederick now hastened in person to his electoral dominions, and on 12 August attacked the Russians at Kunersdorf, near Frankfort, and had already defeated them when the victory was snatched from him by the Austrians, under Laudon, who inflicted on him a defeat such as he had never before sustained. The Russians purchased their victory dearly, and they made no use of it. Yet Frederick's position was extremely dangerous; indeed, he began to apprehend an unfortunate issue of the war. The Russians were victorious in his hereditary states; Daun was in Lusatia with a large army, and Saxony was overrun by the imperial troops. The Austrians and Russians wished to unite, but Prince Henry deprived the former of their magazines, and thus obliged them to retreat; and Frederick anticipated the Russians in their march to Silesia, and compelled them to retire to Poland. In the west Frederick's allies had been more successful. They had, indeed, been able to do but little at the beginning of the campaign. The French had taken Frankfort-on

the-Main by surprise during the winter, and the plan for recovering the city was frustrated by the failure of the attack on Bergen 13 April. But 1 August, Ferdinand gained a decisive victory at Minden over the French troops under Contades and Broglio. On the same day the hereditary Prince of Brunswick likewise defeated the French at Gohfeld, and they were driven over the Lahn on one side and over the Rhine on the other. The Swedes also, who, after the battle of Kunersdorf, when Prussian Pomerania was destitute of troops, invaded that country, were driven by Manteuffel and Platen under the cannon of Stralsund. Thus, in spite of all his mishaps, Frederick's fortunes were still in the ascendant at the end of the campaign.

The campaign of 1760 seemed at first to forbode ill success to Frederick. While he himself was engaged in Saxony, the brave General Fouqué suffered a defeat in Silesia, in consequence of which the Austrians occupied the whole land. Frederick thereupon gave up Saxony in order to recover Silesia. With 30,000 Prussians he marched into that province, and intrenched himself at Liegnitz. Here on 15 August he defeated Laudon, and thereby effected his purpose of recovering Silesia, but he was unable to prevent Austrian and Russian troops from breaking into Brandenburg and laying waste his hereditary dominions. Frederick hastened thither to cut off the enemy, but not finding them there he returned to Saxony, where the imperial forces were stationed, and Daun and Lascy had united. At Torgau, on the Elbe, he attacked the enemy 3 November, defeated them in a bloody engagement, and then went into winter quarters in Saxony. The Russians we also forced to raise the siege of Colberg and to retire to Poland. The allied forces, under Ferdinand of Brunswick, defeated the French 31 July at Marburg; but the latter remained in Hesse.

In the opening of the next campaign 11 Feb. 1761 Ferdinand attacked the French in their quarters; they fled, losing many of their fortifications and magazines. A corps of French and Saxon troops was defeated 14 February at Langensalza : but the allies were obliged to raise the siege of Ziegenhain, Marburg and Cassel with loss, and the French once more became masters of all Hesse, and had an unobstructed passage to Hanover. The proposals of peace now made by Britain and Prussia were not accepted, and Frederick endeavored to protect Silesia against the Austrians and Russians, who had united in August at Striegau. He and his allies, however, met with reverses at Schweidnitz, Colberg and elsewhere, and despite some successes (as at Villingshausen) Frederick felt himself in a desperate condition. But at the very time when Frederick's distress was greatest, Elizabeth, the empress of Russia, died 5 Jan. 1762, and her successor, Peter III, concluded with him 5 May the Peace of Saint Petersburg; Sweden likewise made peace with Prussia, and the Russian emperor sent a body of troops to aid the Prussians. But the emperor's early death broke the alliance with Frederick, and his successor, Catharine II, recalled the Russian troops from the Prussian service. Frederick, however, was delivered from one dangerous enemy, and had gained an important preponderance of strength over the rest. After recovering Schweidnitz and providing for the defense of Silesia, he marched to Saxony. On 29 October an important victory was gained over the Austrian and imperial troops at Freiberg, and the king now concluded an armistice with the Austrians; but it related only to Saxony and Silesia. Under Duke Ferdinand and the hereditary prince of Brunswick the allies then began unsuccessfully, the campaign of 1762 against the French; but the latter were defeated 24 June at Wilhelmsthal, and driven from their fortified camp at Cassel. Cassel itself was besieged, and 1 November surrendered to the allies. Two days after this the preliminaries of peace between Britain and France were signed, and the peace itself was confirmed at Paris 10 Feb. 1763. After a short negotiation Frederick concluded a peace with Austria and Saxony at Hubertsburg, 15 February, by which each power received again all the territories it had possessed before the war. The simultaneous struggle between Great Britain and France in North America and India ended in favor of the former. See CANADA; FREDERICK II; MARIA THERESA; Pitt, William.

Bibliography.-Arneth, Maria Theresa und der siebenjaehrige Krieg) (Vienna 1876); Bernhardi, Friedrich der Grosse als Feldherr (Berlin 1881); Carlyle, T., Life of Frederick the Great? (New York 1899); Corbett, J. S., (England in the Seven Years' War) (2 vols., London 1907); Frederick II, Histoire de la Guerre de sept ans? (1794–1801); Lloyd, History of the Seven Years' War (1781-90); Longman, F. W., Frederick the Great and the Seven Years' War) (London 1888); Masslowski, Die Russische Armee im siebenjaehrigen Kriège (Berlin 1893) ; Schäfer, Geschichte des siebenjährigen Krieges ? (Berlin 1867-74); Von Ranke, Der Ursprung des siebenjährigen Krièges? (Leipzig 1871); Vast, Guerre de sept ans) with bibliography in Lavisse and Rambaud; Histoire générale du IVme siècle à nos jours) (Vol. VII; Paris 1893–1900).

SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST, or CI. CADA. This insect (Cicada septendecim) is black, marked with bright orange and a white spot on the head just behind the eyes. There are four glassy wings and the eyes are red. The length is about one and one-half inches. When the insect emerges from the ground after its 17 years' burial it ascends a tree trunk or other convenient object and works its body rapidly backward and forward, breaking the pupal skin, from which the winged imago emerges. The çicadas pair at once. They then congregate on the branches of the trees in sufficient numbers to bend and at times break them by their weight. The woods and orchards resound with the din of the drums from morning to night.

The females lay the eggs in the twigs and small branches of trees. They repeatedly thrust the ovipositor obliquely into the bark and wood in the direction of the fibres, at the same time putting in motion the lateral saws which detach little splinters of wood and make a fibrous lid over the whole. In each fissure made by the piercer the female deposits from 10 to 20 eggs in pairs. It takes her a quarter of an hour to prepare one nest and fill it with eggs, and she usually makes between 15 to 20 fissures in one limb. She lays between 400 and 500 eggs and then soon dies. Six weeks later the eggs

hatch. The young when it bursts the shell is grublike in form and has six legs, the first pair of which are large and claw-like, and the mouth is provided with a suctorial proboscis. After being hatched the young deliberately loosen their hold on the limb and fall to the earth. They instantly dig their way into the ground where they seck out the tender roots of plants. These they pierce with their beaks and draw out the vegetable juices which constitute their sole nourishment. They remain in the larval state for about 17 years, when they are full grown, pass into the pupal state, in which they remain but a few days, seck the surface of the ground and transform.

When a brood of cicadas is expected, no young trees should be set out for a year or two prior. The older trees are frequently able_by their strength to live through the attacks. Extremely valuable shrubs and trees may be saved by being completely covered with mosquito netting, thus preventing the deposit of eggs.

For a record of broods, see CICADA; and for the musical apparatus, etc., see ORTHOPIERA.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. This was a century of bitter political dissension, religious wars and ever-recurring tưrmoil of many kinds throughout Europe. The Huguenot wars in France during the first 30 years, the Thirty Years' War in Germany (1618-48), and the frequent wars of France with nearly all her neighbors under Louis XIV in the latter half of the century make it forever notorious. England put King Charles I to death (1649), was ruled by Cromwell for some 10 years, restored the Stuarts (1660) only to banish them in the person of James II (1688) when his Catholicity offended the realm, so as to place his Protestant daughter Mary, with her consort, Prince William of Orange, on the throne. This furnished the occasion for the drawing up of the Declaration of Rights, which the king and queen as all subsequent English sovereigns had to guarantee before their coronation, so that the Revolution of 1688 well deserves its title of "glorious) as a landmark in the progress of constitutional government.

The romantic career of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) closed tragically. As a favorite of Queen Elizabeth he went on expeditions to America, tried to found a colony in Virginia, named by him after the virgin queen, and was one of the gentlemen adventurers of the later 16th century, well known by everyone. He lost favor in King James' time, was accused of taking part in a conspiracy against the king, for which he was imprisoned in the Tower for some 13 years, and finally, having failed in an expedition to America, was beheaded. During his long confinement he relieved the tedium of prison life by writing a History of the World, of no value as history, but an interesting example of the prose and mode of thought of the time. Raleigh will always be remembered for having introduced the potato into Ireland and the use of tobacco into England. The use of tobacco was condemned by Church and State and bitterly denounced by King James I, who wrote a book against it, but spread all the faster, apparently, for that. It was supposed to be the secret of the health and vigor of the



Indians, the significance of their life in the open and their simple food being missed. Tobacco was destined to become the most popular of narcotics, almost universal in use. Only the American Indians used it in the 15th century; now it is used everywhere throughout civilization. This century saw also the introduction of coffee into Europe as well as of tea. Coffee houses became popular social centres, and tea was served in them in the latter half of the century with and without alcoholic additions. The two exotic plants and their products were destined to revolutionize social usages in many ways, and their use has gone on increasing in spite of medical and other warnings with regard to possible dangers.

The Jacobean period, named after James I (king 1603–28), who had been James VI of Scotland, the son of Mary Queen of Scots, contains Shakespeare's mature work — Hamlet,' the Roman plays, Lear, Macbeth and Henry VIII-a number of the plays of Ben Jonson, besides all of the dramatic product of Beaumont and Fletcher and Massinger, with most of the work of Shirley and Davenant. The latter part of the century had Dryden, Congreve and Wycherley. The Jacobean was followed by a period of Puritan literature, the supreme products of which are Milton's Paradise Lost, the greatest epic in English, and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress,' the greatest English allegory, both with a high place in world literature. Milton succeeded admirably in his revival of the classic drama in Samson Agonistes,' but it is his shorter poems that reveal his greatness as a poct. Bunyan, a wandering tinker, confined to Bedford jail for 12 years, found the time to write his allegory, a marvelous bit of English prose and of Puritanic philosophy. He was

so full of the Scriptures that his book breathes their very style. The subsequent reaction against Puritanism gave rise to the licentious Restoration drama. Even Dryden allowed his work to be tinged by the license of the time. His poetry is ihe greatest of the period and perhaps the greatest for two centuries after.

After Shakespeare's plays, the most important landmark in English literature of this century is the King James version of the Bible (1611). Done by a group of scholars into the virile English of the time, under the influence of the still living Elizabethan tradition, this translation fixed the language, prose and verse, for all the after time. It has had the strongest influence on nearly all the English writers, though more particularly writers of prose, and still remains what may be called the best English.

The man of the period most famous in the aftertime was Lord Bacon (Baron Verulam), Lord Chancellor of England. His Novum Organum' with its discussion of the inductive method brought him fame. It is recognized now that he was only one of a group of men about this time, many before him, who emphasized the value of induction in science. Some of the greatest discoveries of our modern sciences were made by the inductive method before and after Bacon's time by men who knew nothing of Bacon. Telesio stated fully the inductive method 100 years before Bacon ; his great namesake Roger Bacon, as well as Albertus Magnus, Nicholas of Cusa and many

others employed it before the Middle Ages closed, and Copernicus Versalius, Eustachius, Leonardo da Vinci, Cæsalpinus and many others had used the method of observation and experiment in the 16th century, and Gilbert and Galileo, Bacon's contemporaries, used it very successfully but quite independent of his influence. Bacon's modern fame is founded on the claim that he was the author of Shakespeare's plays. This Baconian theory, as it is called, owes its vogue to one Delia Bacon, who claimed to be a descendant of the Lord Chancellor, and who first made the claim for him some 250 years after Shakespeare's death. The year after she was adjudged insane and never afterward recovered her sanity. The theory was not an invention of hers, as the curious delusions of the insane seldom are, but the chance suggestion of a writer on travel in Mexico who threw out the hint that it must have been a learned man who wrote Shakespeare's plays.

The literature of the century opened with Shakespeare's Hamlet, (more written about than any man that ever lived” (Furness) and Don Quixote, incomparably the best novel ever written” (Macaulay). The Spanish promise was well fulfilled. Cervantes' short stories have been declared the best of their kind. Spain excelled, however, in dramatic literature. Calderon has been compared to Shakespeare (Russel Lowell). Lope de Vega (1560-1635), "a prodigy of nature, wrote more plays than any other man that ever lived. His plots at least deeply influenced writers in other countries. Alarcon, an American by birth, and Tirso de Molina, the creator of the world-type Don Juan, whose biography has been re-created in our day, for he wrote under a pseudonym, are other Spanish dramatic writers with a place in world literature. In history (Mariana), in philosophy (Suarez), in ascetics (Rodriguez) as well as in thcology, (Molina) and grammar (Alvarez), the Spanish writers of this period, are famous and their works have been republished many times.

The century contains the "Golden Period" of French literature. Richelieu founded the French Academy (1635), and this gave a great impetus to the cultivation of the French language. Louis XIV was most liberal in his patronage of Frenchmen of letters, and his was a real Augustan Age, with a great many of the literary men of the time ready to sing the praises of the king because of his generous patronage. The political glory of Louis' reign and the many French victories in war stimulated the French imagination with magnificent literary results. France's crowning prestige in this period made the French literature of very far-reaching influence. Latin gradually ceased at this time to be used as a common language in diplomatic and scientific circles. French replaced it, so that everyone in Europe who had any pretensions to education knew French besides his mother tongue, and was interested in French literature. It is not surprising, then, that under the stimulus of a world audience every mode of French literature developed in wonderful fashion. Corneille, Racine and Moliere are the great dramatic poets, worthy of a place beside the dramatists of any other time or country; Descartes and Pascal, the philosophical writers who have deeply in

« PrejšnjaNaprej »