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introducing Aristotle into Spain, but Isidore better perhaps than it had ever been governed had done ihat long before. He wrote the first before. She had roads constructed to facilitate summa of knowledge, and his work was used intercourse and commerce, was a patroness of as a textbook during most of the Middle Ages, education and the arts, and destroyed whatever and was printed no less than 10 times between remained of idolatry among the people. She 1470 and 1529, some thousand years after his built a number of monasteries, partly for edutime. It contains information almost in the cational reasons and partly for the facilities they same form as the modern encyclopedia. There provided for the solution of social problems in is much more insistence on religious questions country places. To her is attributed the founthan in our time. Isidore quotes 154 authors, dation of one of the very early French hospiChristian and pagan. His information is well tals at Hautonne. Dagobert, in the first half ordered, so that no wonder it attracted atten- of the 7th century, is said to have founded a tion. Many editions of portions of the work hospital in Paris. Haeser places the foundation were issued in the 19th century. Mommsen of the Hotel Dieu shortly after the middle of edited the historical writings of Saint Isidore

this century.

Brunehilde's ambition, however, among the German Monuments of History) finally overreached itself and brought her to an (Berlin 1894). The eighth Council of Toledo ignominious fall. Pope Gregory I, the Great, showed its critical appreciation by declaring him had written to congratulate her on all that she “the extraordinary doctor, the latest ornament was doing for Christian civilization, but when of the Church, the most learned man of the she endeavored to maintain her position as latter ages, always to be named with reverence.” ruler by encouraging her grandson in licenIsidore's works are the touchstone by which the tiousness so that she might have more power human interests of this century may be judged. over him, Saint Columbanus reproached her

A great educator of the time was Colum- with it, and though he was driven from his banus, the Irish abbot of Bobbio in Italy, who monastery of Luxeuil on pretense of heretical died there in 615. At the end of the 6th cen- tendencies, the clergy became exasperated, and tury he had come over to France (probably finally the whole kingdom became disaffected, 585) with 12 companions, three of whom, Saint and offered to recognize Lothair II, if he Attala, Saint Gall and Columbanus the Younger would relieve them of Brunehilde's rule. He are well known in history. He established the marched against her and she was abandoned by celebrated abbey of Luxeuil, after having her army on the banks of the Aisne where with founded the abbey of Annegray in the Vosges, her four grandsons she fell into the hands of but even two monasteries did not suffice for the Lothair, who had the four princes put to death numbers who came to join him and a third had and bound Brunehilde at the age of 80 to the to be established at Fountains. He deprecated tail of a wild horse who dashed her to pieces the conduct of Queen Brunehilde, who strove to as he ran away (613). counteract his influence by introducing religious The climax of Merovingian power was elements into their differences. The question of reached in the reign of Dagobert I (602-638), the Celtic observance of Easter and of the Celtic, who secured the Franks a preponderance in that is the anterior instead of the poll tonsure western Europe. Dagobert put down the Wens, was brought up. To avoid contention that organized the Saxons to resist the encroachmight give scandal, Columbanus thought it bet- ment of the Slavs on Thuringia and delivered ter to leave France for Italy. On his way he Bavaria from the Bulgarians who were ravagleft Saint Gall to found the monastery called ing that country. Finally he became the master after him in Switzerland, while he himself, of practically all Gaul, and strengthened his having been given by the king of the Lombardi position as ruler by restraining the nobles, prea tract of land known as Bobbio between Milan venting abuses and violence, and going through and Genoa, erected early in the 7th century the the

country give audience

great celebrated abbey which for centuries was a and small. He improved the laws, favored stronghold of orthodoxy in northern Italy. commerce home and abroad, formed

The beginning of the century saw the climax alliance with the Lombards of Italy and sad end of the career of a great woman, and the Visigoths of Spain and sent ambassaBrunehilde or

Brunehaut (the brunette), dors to Heraclius the Eastern Emperor. He daughter of Athanagild, king of the Visigoths, encouraged art and the arts and crafts, and who married Sigebert, king of Austrasia (561). some of the jewelry of the Merovingian times She was intensely ambitious, both for her hus- recently excavated show us how high was the band and herself, and of indomitable energy. taste of the period. She did great good by introducing the prin- The great master in the industrial arts was ciples of Roman law which had ruled at the the famous Saint Elois or Eligius (588–659) court of her father among the Austrasians. who was a goldsmith but afterward became the Unfortunately her ambition incited a series of bishop of Noyon. He was a favorite of Dagowars between her husband and his brother, in bert, who went to him for counsel in the founthe midst of which her husband was treacher- dation of churches and monasteries and in the ously killed. She became regent for her minor distribution of alms to the poor. Around Saint son, but her reign was the beginning of the Eligius' name a 19th century controversy dedownfall of the Merovingian dynasty, for veloped because Mosheim, the German church mayors of the palace are now mentioned for historian (18th century), had quoted from one the first time as exercising power, and the of his sermons expressions which seemed tu growth of their influence in succeeding reigns indicate that the essence of Christianity at that finally brought about an end of the ruling house time consisted in the paying of church fees. As toward the end of the century. Brunehilde was a matter of fact, the sermon from which the learned as well as ambitious, and deeply intent quotation was taken shows that Saint Eligius in. on securing for her people all the benefits of sisted on all the highest virtues of Christianity. civilization. She ruled over two-thirds of Gaul He is himself a fine type of the sincere church

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man, devoting himself and all his faculties to Two immortal names are associated with the benefit of Christianity.

the abbey of Whitby as it has come to be The great struggle in France between the known, though its original name was Streonkings and the higher nobility, which was to shalh (Saxon), founded in this century. (The continue for so many centuries to hamper existing remains date from the 12th century). national progress, may be traced in its begin- Hilda or Hild, the abbess, and Cædmon, the nings to this time. The question of the limita- poet, were here in the second half of the tion of land grants to the length of the life century. Hilda (614–680) is noteworthy as the of the grantee so that each king on his acces- foundress and, after the Celtic tradition, the sion might revoke such grants except on as- head of a monastery in which there were both surance of the continued loyalty of the possess

men and women. She was of royal descent ors of the land, was one of the factors which and had been abbess of Hartlepool (649). made for the establishment of feudalism some- Cædmon was a stableman at Whitby, who, what later in history, though its earliest mani- ashamed of the fact that he could not respond festations can be noted at this time. The weak- to the request for a song which was customary ness of the Merovingian monarchs only com- at the abbey dinners on high festival days — plicated the problem and gave the nobles oppor- the custom of thus entertaining themselves at tunity to entrench themselves in their pos- this time is noteworthy - retired to the stable sessions.

and there was commanded in a dream to sing The great ruler of this century is Heraclius, the beginning of created things" (Bede). In the Eastern Emperor (575-641). He was the the morning he remembered his dream and his son of Heraclius, governor of Africa, and suc- poctical gift was fostered by Hilda until he ceeded to the imperial throne through a con- produced his great poem of Creation,' a metrispiracy between his father and Crispus, the cal paraphrase of the Old Testament, the first son-in-law of the Emperor Phocas. He proved monument of English literature. It is said for many years just the ruler that was needed to have influenced Milton deeply. Another for the Eastern empire. Under Justinian the great abbey, that of Glastonbury, was armies of that emperor had succeeded in re- founded in this century. It became a centre conquering Italy and Africa, and re-establish- of the intellectual and spiritual life of the ing the empire in something of its old-time time. Around it gathered the legends of the prestige. Barbarous nations had been encroach- visit of Joseph of Arimathca to England, whose ing more and more on the frontiers of the em- staff planted became the famous Glastonbury pire, and the Avars from the North and the thorn which blooms every Christmas eve, as Persians made serious inroads. Heraclius set well as of the legends connected with King up the Croats and Serbs in Illyricum as a bar- Arthur who is supposed to be buried here on rier against the Avars, but he himself led his the Isle of Avalon (Isle of Souls or Land of armies against the Persians, and after many

the Blessed). Glastonbury and Whitby continstrenuous campaigns in the third decade of the ued to be important religious and educational incentury he annihilated Persian power and re- stitutions until the time of Henry VIII. There established the Imperial dominion. This hard are very old traditions which would place the task had only just been completed, however, foundations of Cambridge and Oxford in this when the Mohammedans began their inroads, century, especially the former, and while false and Heraclius had to see his recent Eastern in formal fact, there is an element of truth in conquests fall under the dominion of this new them because of the great interest which this power in the East, which was to prove so century evinced in educational foundations of serious an enemy to the Eastern empire and

various kinds and which seems to have touched finally bring about its fall.

also the immediate neighborhoods where are All during this century the existence of the now the great English universities. Exarchate of Ravenna (instituted 568, ended

JAMES J. Walsh, by the Lombards 752) acted as a conservative Author of "The Thirteenth Greatest of element in Western civilization. The beauti- Centuričs.? sul architecture and interior decoration of the PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY. churches and palaces in Ravenna preserved a 602. Dagobert began his reign in western Europe. taste for the beautiful and an appreciation of 610. Mohammed began to preach at Mecca. art. Its presence kept alive the imperial idea

613. Brunchilde, queen of Austrasia, was brutally put to

death by Lothair II. and principle in the minds of Westerners who 614. Persians captured Damascus and Jerusalem. would probably have lost sight of it if they 626, Persians besieged Constantinople. had only Constantinople in the East to think

627. Li-Chimin, son of the founder of the Tang dynasty,

ascended the throne of China and assumed the name of. It conserved the idea of a Roman empire of Tait-ning: and so prepared the way for Charlemagne's 631. Nestorian Christian missionaries visited China. dominion and for the feeling of solidarity to

632. Death of Mohammed.

634. The Arabs occupied Damascus. some extent among the Western nations. The

636. The victory of Yermuk completed the Arab conquest presence of the Exarch at Vienna accom

of Syria. plished much for peace in Italy and gave some

637. Jerusalem surrendered to the Arabs.

638. Persian power was overthrown at the battle of Kadesia. opportunity at least for the cultivation of the 639. The Arabs in vaded Egypt. arts of civilization instead of utter devotion to 641. Death of Heraclius, the Eastern Emperor. the art of war. Under a great ruler like

643. Theodosius, emperor of Constantinople, and the king

of Persia, sent envoys to the emperor of China with Heraclius the influence of the Greek or Byzan

gifts of rubies and emeralds. Chinese civilization tine empire in the West was deeply felt. The

reached its climax, maintenance of a strong Greek imperial out

646. Arabs captured and occupied Alexandria.

672. Arabs began a seven years' siege of Constantinople. post at Ravenna warded off to a great extent

Their first attacks were foiled by Greek fire which deihe Slavic races of eastern Europe from in

stroyed their ships. vading the South until Christianity had come

680. Cadmon, the Anglo-Saxon poet-author of the 'Crea

tion,' died. to moi!' fx i. some respects their barbarism. 692. Arabs destroyed Carthage.

622

SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS - SEVIER

SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS. Sce Bap- the head of a powerful army, by which he also TISTS, SEVENTH DAY.

had been called to the purple. Getting rid of SEVERINUS, sěv-ér-ē'nūs, Saint, the the rivalry of Albinus by conferring upon him Apostle of Norica: b. either in northern Africa the title of Cæsar, Severus at once directed his or southern Italy; d. Jan. 482. After the death arms against this eastern competitor. On the of Attiia in the 5th century he journeyed

plains of Issus, Niger was totally ruined by through the territory along the Danube, preach- the loss of 20,000 men (194). After devastating ing Christianity, and through his courage and some territory beyond the Euphrates, Severus good work gained great influence over the took Byzantium, which had shut her gates people and made many converts. After his

against him, but only after a protracted siege death his body was taken into Italy by Lucillus,

(196); and he then returned to Rome, resolved one of his followers, and found its final rest- to destroy Albinus. He attempted to assassiing place on a small island near Naples.

nate him by his emissaries, but when this failed,

Severus had recourse to arms, and defeated SEVERN, sěv'ern, Joseph, English artist : Albinus near Lyons (197). After returning to b. Hoxton, 7 Dec. 1793; d. Rome, Italy, 3 Aug. Rome Severus marched into the East to repel 1879. He was self-taught and won, after great an invasion of the Parthians; made himself struggles, the Royal Academy historical paint- master of Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, and ing prize in 1818. Early in life he formed a advanced far into the Parthian territories. friendship for the poet Keats, for which he is From Parthia he marched toward the more chiefly noted; in 1820 accompanying the poet to southern provinces of Asia and entered AlexItaly, and caring for him there until Keats' death andria. A rebellion in northern Britain called the following year. He painted several portraits him away again in 208. After penetrating to of Keats. In 1821 Severn exhibited (The Death the far north of Caledonia, and losing a vast of Alcibiades) at the Royal Academy and won number of men, he returned southward and a traveling pension. He subsequently served as rebuilt or repaired the wall of Hadrian across British and as Italian consul at Rome, where the island from the Tyne to the Solway Firth. he lived until his death, devoting his time The jurist, Paprianus, flourished during his chiefly to the painting of miniatures. He wrote reign and introduced improvements in the some, but his literary work is of no importance. administration of justice. Consult Platnauer, He was buried near his poct-friend. His best- M., The Life and Reign of the Emperor known pictures are the Roman Beggar'; Lucius Septimius Severus' (Oxford 1918).

Specter Ship, and his work on the altar of
Saint Paul's Church, Rome. Consult Sharp,

SEVERUS, Wall of. See HADRIAN'S

WALL.
Life, Friendships and Letters of Joseph
Severn) (1892).

SEVIER, sě-vēr', John, American pioneer: SEVERN, England, the second river in b. Rockingham County, Va., 23 Sept. 1745; d. size and most important in the country, rises at near Fort Decatur, Ga., 24 Sept. 1815. HavMaes Hafren in Montgomery County, and after ing founded the town of Newmarket, Shenana wiriding course of about 200 miles falls into doah County, Va., and there become a celethe Bristol Channel. The Vyrnwy enters the biated Indian fighter, he served as captain in Severn on the Shropshire borders, the Wye, the Virginia line during Lord Dunmore's War below Chepstow and the Lower Avon about (1774; see COLONIAL WARS IN AMERICA). He eight miles below Bristol. At Welshpool the

had removed in 1772 to the Watauga colony on Severn begins to be navigable, about 178 miles the western slope of the Alleghanies and been, above its mouth. Near Gloucester it branches next to John Robertson (q.v.), the most promforming the Isle of Alney. It is a great tidal

inent of the settlers. Now, at the beginning of river, with a remarkable eager or bore; ves- the Revolution, he drafted a memorial to the sels of 400 tons can ascend as far as Worcester. legislature of North Carolina, requesting anBelow Gloucester navigation is impeded, and

nexation to that colony, and as a result all of its low banks at this point cause frequent the present Tennessee was made a county of inundations. A railway tunnel (four and one

North Carolina and known as Washington dishalf miles) passes under the estuary near the

trict. He served in the North Carolina legisWye.

lature and was appointed district judge at WaSEVERO, sā-vā'rő, NORTHEAST

lauga. Elected colonel of the trans-Alleghany CAPE. See CUELYUSKIN, CAPE.

forces, he commanded in many Indian fights, SEVERUS, sç-vē'růs, Alexander.

distinguishing himself at Boyd's Creek (1779) See

and King's Mountain (1780). After the war, ALEXANDER SEVERUS.

North Carolina found that the retention of the SEVERUS, Lucius Septimius, Roman em- large section now known as Tennessee would perer: b. near Leptis, Magna, Africa, 146 A.D.; entail obligations for a corresponding portion d. York, Britain, 211 A.D. After the murder of of the Federal debt and, therefore, the tract Pertinax, in March 193 he was proclaimed em- was made over to the central government. The peror by his troops at Carnuntum. Thereupon settlers then determined to organize an indehe marched to Rome to crush the partisans of pendent State and regularly apply for admisDidius Julianus, who had meanwhile purchased sion to the Union. At a convention held 23 the imperial purple from the Prætorians. On Aug. 1781 Sevier was elected governor of the his approach Julian was deserted and assassi- new State of Franklin, as it was called. North nated by his own soldiers. In professing that Carolina

recognized its mistake and he had assumed the purple only to revenge the granted Watauga a Superior Court, besides ordeath of the virtuous Pertinax, Severus gained ganizing the militia troops into a brigade with many adheroits and was enabled to banish the Sevier as brigadier. But Sevier entered office Prætorians. But while he was victorious at as governor 1 March 1785, reorganized the miliRome, Pescennius Niger was in the East at tary, established a Superior Court and con

or

now

cluded treaties with the Cherokees. In 1787 from her daughter, who died in 1694. The corGovernor Caswall of North Carolina declared respondence abounds in delightful gossip, witty the Franklin government a revolt, subdued it anecdote, clever remarks on men and topics of by force of arms, imprisoned Sevier and ceded the day, and graceful delineation of the pleasihe region to the Federal government. Sevier ures and gaieties of Parisian society. They was afterward made brigadier-general of forces mirror the life of the woman who was in turn in the territory south of the Ohio, in 1790 the noted beauty of the court, the brilliant wit elected as first representative of Congress from of the Hôtel Rambouillet, the religious devotee, the Mississippi Valley, and in 1796 was elected the woman of business, endeavoring to make governor of the new State of Tennessee, sery- her income meet the demands placed upon it by ing three successive terms. In 1803 he was re- her extravagant son, the appreciative student of elected and again served three terms consecu- Virgil, Montaigne, Molière, Pascal, Arnauld, tively. He was chosen to Congress in 1811 and Quintilian, Tacitus and Corneille, and always returned for a third term. Consult Gilmore, the devoted mother, deploring the enforced sepRear-Guard of the Revolution,' and Life! aration from her daughter. They fill 14 large (1887).

volumes, and were first published in 1726. Suc

cessive editions have appeared at intervals, the SEVIER, a salt lake in Millard County, in

best being that of Monmerqué in the Grands Utah, just west of the Beaver River Range,

Ecrivains' series (14 vols., 1862–66), completed in lat. 30° N., long. 130° 10' W., and at an

by the Lettres Inédites of Capmas (2 vols., altitude of 4,000 feet. Sevier River enters it on

1872). Consult Walckenaer, Mémoires touchthe north and it has no apparent outlet. The

ant la Vie et les Ecrits de Madame de Séwater lines of the valley surrounding the lake

vigné! (1842); Combes, Madame de Sévigné show that at one time it was of considerable

historienne! (1885); Saporta, La famille de extent and was a part of Lake Bonneville

Madame de Sévigné en province (1889). (q.v.), together with Great Salt Lake, Lake Lakeshore and other bodies of salt water in the

SEVILLE, sěv'il or sě-vil', or SEVILLA, vicinity. In 1872 Sevier Lake was 28 miles long,

sā-vēl'yä, Spain, (1) capital of the province of 10 miles wide and had a surface area of 188

the same name, on the east bank of the square miles. For over 30 years the waters of

Guadalquivir, 62 miles northeast of Cadiz. The Sevier River have been used for irrigation, principal buildings are grouped around or near

the Plaza del Triunfo. The and so great is the quantity now used for this

Gothic

great

cathedral, which ranks next to Saint Peter's at purpose that during the summer months the bed of the lake is almost dry and the salts have

Rome, was built (1401-1519) on the site of a

Moorish mosque, and comprises a profusion of been precipitated so as to form a crust over the lake bottom. This crust is composed of about

works of art and historical treasure, paintings three-fourths sodium chloride and the other

by Murillo, De Vargas, etc., gilt and colored fourth is nearly all magnesium sulphate and

wood carvings by Dancart (1482), fine sculpsodium sulphate. The crust is estimated to be

tures and superb metal work, costly and curious about 1,500,000,000 tons. The only animal life

statues and reliquaries, a large organ, and above

all the delicate Moorish stone and marble found in the lake are Artemia, a species of brown shrimp and the larvæ of some insects.

tracery which decorates the interior. In the Fishes entering the lake from the river are poi

nave are the tombs of Fredinand III and of soned by the strong brine.

Ferdinand, the son of Columbus. The approach

is made by a high flight of steps, and the catheSÉVIGNÉ, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, dral is surrounded by the shafts of 100 antique mä-rē dě rä-bü-tán shän-täl sā-vēn-yā, Mar- columns. The east and north portals contain QUISE DE, French writer: b. Paris, France, 5

respectively some fine sculpture and bronze Feb. 1626; d. Grignan, Drôme, France, 17 April doorways. The immense clustered pillars, the 1696. She was the daughier of Baron de magnificent stained glass by Flemish artists, and Chantal, was left an orphan in 1633, and brought the Giralda (q.v.) or Bell Tower (the finest in up by her maternal grandparents, and by her Europe) are interesting features. North of the uncle, the Abbé of Livry. She was married in cathedral is the Patro de los Naranjos, with the 1644 to the Marquis Henri de Sévigné, who was library of Columbus --- containing some valuable killed in a duel in 1651, leaving her the works and manuscripts -- and the original mother of a son and a daughter. Though Moorish fountain. The Alcázar is the chief gifted with wealth, beauty, talent and high specimen of Moorish arthitecture in Seville, and social position, she made no second marriage, only second to the Alhambra in beauty and inbut devoted herself to the education of her terest. It was founded in 1181, was the Arabian children, and to reading, meanwhile moving as royal palace and was surrounded by walls and one of the most brilliant members of the towers. Its most conspicuous features are the literary circle of the Hotel Rambouillet. She façade, the hall of ambassadors, and the patro was devotedly attached to her daughter, who de las muñecas. In the rear are beautiful garwas married in 1669 to the Comte de Grignan, dens. The Exchange contains many historical and shortly afterward accompanied him to documents. The Ayuntamiento or city hall is a Provence, where he had been appointed lieu- fine specimen of the Renaissance, between the tenant-governor. This separation resulted in Plaza de la Constitucion and the Palaz de San the voluminous correspondence, which, while Fernando. Adjoining is the Audiencia or Court not intended for publication, has since een of Justice. The other noteworthy buildings are given to the world, and has made the writer the Casa de Pilatos (15th century), with a fine famous, the letters being models of literary colonnade and courtyard and the Casa de las style and of great historical value. They cover Dueñas, with numerous courtyards and nine a period of only about seven years, as after fountains. The remarkable churches include 1687 Madame de Sévigné was rarely separated Omnium Sanctorum, San Marcos, Santa Maria

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la Blanca (an ancient synagogue), and La SÉVRES, sãvr, France, in the department Caribad (the latter containing several chef of Seine-et-Oise, on the Seine, lies about 10 d'auvres by Murillo and J. de Valdes Leal. miles southwest of Paris, and an equal distance Many of the churches, in themselves uninterest- from Versailles. Its celebrated porcelain manuing, contain masterpieces of sculpture and paint- factory, founded at Vincennes in 1745 and reing. The Museum contains works of art of ines- moved to Sèvres in 1756, was purchased by timable value, representing the School of Seville Louis XV, 1760. In 1876 the old and dilapidated (16th and 17th centuries). Other notable build- buildings were replaced by a new structure, ings include the University (1254) (1567), for- erected in the park of Saint Cloud. The merly a convent; the archbishop's palace; the Porcelain Museum contains numerous articles royal cigar factory, Fabrica de Tabacos, an of china collected from all over the world, enormous and palatial building, with many which represent every age and clime. A techcourts, fountains, and tropical plants; the palace nical School of Mosaics was established here of San Telmo and the picture gallery. The in 1875. Besides the celebrated Sèvres vases, chief squares not mentioned are the Plaza painted glass and mosaics are made. In the Nueva, the Plaza del Duque, the large bull-ring, artistic pottery the pâte-sur-pâte (or layers) which ranks next to that at Madrid, and the method is used - original to this manufactory. Quemadero, the former scene of the Autos- The general effect is that of a cameo, though da-. Las Delicias is a charming promenade possessing greater delicacy and rich coloring. along the river bank. The suburb of Triana is (See CERAMICS; PORCELAIN). Sèvres has inhabited by gypsies and the poorer class. The other manufactures of shawls, cordage, leather Guadalquivir is a tidal river and navigable for and chemicals. It was occupied by the German large vessels into the city itself. Seville has troops in 1870, bombarded by the French a few always been an important commercial port. The weeks later, and attacked by the troops of the exports include lead, quicksilver, iron ore, Commune in 1871. Pop. about 8,500. olives, oranges, cork and copper pyrites; the SÉVRES PORCELAIN. See PORCELAIN. imports timber, drugs, chemicals, coal, coke, machinery, petroleum and coffee. The principal

SEWAGE. See SANITARY ENGINEERING; manufactures are tobacco, porcelain, hardware, Wastes, City, DISPOSAL OF; GARBAGE. soap, leather goods, chocolate, corks, etc. The

SEWALL, sū'al, Frank, American SwedenPickman tile factory at Cartuja is an old and borgian clergyman: b. Bath, Me., 24. Sept. noted porcelain manufactory. A railway con- 1837; d. 7 Dec. 1915. He was graduated from nects the city with Cadiz and Cordova, and an Bowdoin in 1858, studied at the universities of iron bridge and two other bridges (one belong- Tübingen and Berlin, and afterward engaged ing to the railway) connect it with Triana

in pastoral work in Ohio. He was president (where typical peasant games and costumes are

of Urbana University, Ohio, for 16 years, was scen). Seville was first colonized by the engaged as a pastor in Glasgow, Scotland, for Phænicians, from whom it passed in turn to some time, and after 1890 was engaged at Romans, Vandals, Visigoths and Arabs and was Washington, D. C. He wrote many books of a finally taken by Ferdinand of Castile (1248), denominational and religious character, and 300,000 Moors voluntarily seeking exile. It translated with much success from French and suffered many revolutions prior to this period,

Italian poetry.

His works include (The and later was depopulated by a yellow_fever Christian Hymnal (1867); Moody Mike' scourge. Under Soult (1810) the French (1869); The New Metaphysics (1888); transrobbed the city of her riches. The discoverylations, Poems of Giosue Carducci (1892); of America gave the town considerable com- and Sonnets of J. M. de Heredia? (1900); mercial importance as the seat of American (Swedenborg and Modern Idealism' (1902); trade. It is the birthplace of Velasquez Reason in Belief? (1906), etc. Murillo and other celebrities. Pop. about

SEWALL, Jonathan Mitchell, American 158,300. Consult Calvert, A. F., (Seville (Lon

poet: b. Salem, Mass., 1748; d. Portsmouth, don 1907); Gallichan, W. M.,' (The Story of

N. H., 29 March 1808. He studied at Harvard, Seville) (London 1903).

was for a time in trade, but took up the law, (2) The province has an area of 5,428 square practised in Grafton County, N. H., and bemiles, and forms a part of Andalusia. The

came register of probate there in 1774. His summits of the Sierra Morina rise at the north

songs and verses appeared widely in American to a high elevation; south, the surface is low

newspapers in the Revolutionary time, War and fertile. The Guadalquivir is the principal and Washington being among those familiar river, and its affluents are the Genil, the Guadira, to the army. Probably a good share of his and the Guadalimar. The province is exceed- poetry was, like (On Independence,' of the ingly fertile and produces all cereals and vege

"pompous, rhetorical, and truly ligneous variety.” tables. The exports include tobacco, leather, But he wrote for a performance of Addison's paper, chocolate, silk and woolen goods, glass, Cato' at Portsmouth (1788), an epilogue, the soap and pottery. The chief European domes

concluding two lines of which are frequently tic animals are abundant, and in the higher dis- quoted: tricts occur copper, silver, lead, iron, coal, and salt mines, besides chalk and marble. Trade

"No pent-up Utica contracts your powers;

But the whole boundless continent is yours!" has developed rapidly by the building of railways in recent times. Four senators and twelve

Sewall was a Federalist, and a "wit of the

time. deputies represent the province in the Cortes.

A volume of his Poems) containing The chief towns are Seville (q.v.), Carmona, paraphrases of Ossian and of Washington's Constantina, Ecija, Lebrija, Marchena, Morón

Farewell Address' appeared in 1801. de la Frontera, Osuna and Utrera. Pop. about SEWALL, May Wright, American eduOil,00.

cator: b. Milwaukee, Wis., 27 May 1844; d.

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