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22 July 1920. Graduated from the Northwestern published in 1810 with a memoir by Sir Walter University, Watertown, Wis., in 1866, and was

Scott. married to Theodore Lovett Sewall (d. 1895)

SEWARD, Clarence Armstrong, Ameriin 1880. She became prominently connected can lawyer and politician, nephew of W. H. with various suffrage associations,

Seward (q.v.): b. New York, 7 Oct. 1828; d. lectured extensively on woman suffrage, and

Geneva, N. Y., 24 July 1897. He was graduserved as delegate to numerous congresses in ated at Hobart College in 1848, studied law connection with that movement.

She was

and practised in New York after 1854. He identified as a manager of the Columbian Ex

was judge-advocate-general of New York State position at Chicago in 1893; was appointed by in 1856-60; and served as Acting Assistant SecPresident McKinley commissioner to the Paris retary of State of the United States after the Exposition and its congresses in 1900; and attempted assassination of Secretary of State was associated in 1915 with the Panama- Seward in 1865. He was active in the creation Pacific Exposition. She was principal of the of the State of West Virginia; and assisted Girls' Classical School founded in Indianapolis Judge Blatchford in preparing New York by her husband until she retired into private Civil and Criminal Justice (1850). life. She published various articles on literary and reform subjects, besides Historical Ré

SEWARD, Frederick William, American sumé of the World's Congress of Repre

lawyer, son of W. H. Seward (q.v.): b. Ausentative Women,' and Women, World War,

burn, N. Y., 8 July 1830; d. 1915. He was gradand Permanent Peace' (1916).

uated from Union College in 1849, admitted to

the bar in 1851 and for 10 years was one of SEWALL, Samuel, American jurist: b the editors and owners of the Albany Evening Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England, 28 March Journal. In 1861 he was sent to apprize Lincoln 1652; d. Boston, Mass., 1 Jan. 1730. He was of the plot to assassinate him in Baltimore, graduated from Harvard in 1671, was ordained served as Assistant Secretary of State in 1861to the ministry, but was diverted into a 69 and in 1877–8., and narrowly escaped death prosperous and benign secular career, started in defending his father from an assault, 14 a printing-press at Boston, and entered public April 1865. He went with Admiral Porter on life as a member of the board of assistants. the special mission to negotiate the treaties with In 1692 he was made a member of the council West Indies in 1867, assisted in the purchase of and judge of the Probate Court, and in the Alaska, and in the negotiations for Pago-Pago latter capacity joined in the sentence of con- Harbor, Samoa. He was a member of the New demnation against witches at the time of the York legislature in 1875, State commissioner at historic delusion. When he had realized his the Yorktown Centennial Celebration in 1881 error he made in 1697 a public confession in and in 1900 became president of the Sagaponack church, and afterward spent therefor one day Realty Company. He published Life and Letannually in fasting and prayer. He was ap

ters of William H. Seward? (1891); A West pointed judge of the Supreme Court of Massa- Indian Cruise? (1894), and numerous articles chusetts, and from 1718 until his retirement in

in reviews and magazines. 1728 was its chief justice. He was possibly the

SEWARD, George Frederick, American first in America to attack negro slavery, pub- diplomat, nephew of W. H. Seward (q.v.): b. lishing on the subject The Selling of Joseph'

Florida, N. Y., 8 Nov. 1840; d. 1910. He was (1700), a three-page tract of much eloquence. educated at Union College, and in 1861 was apBut he is best known for his diary, a garrulous pointed United States consul to Shanghai, detail of every sort of minutiæ, comparable in China, where he remained until 1876, serving this sort to Pepys or Evelyn, and extending as consul-general from 1863.' In 1876-80 he from 1674 to 1729. It naturally affords a was Minister to China, but was recalled in the most valuable source for the political and

last-named year in consequence of refusing to social history of the colony. In fact, we

undertake the negotiation of a treaty to restrict have (Chamberlain) no other book like it." Chinese immigration. During his residence in Tyler calls Sewall "great by almost every mea- China he was active in suppressing riots and in sure of greatness. The diary was printed in reducing piracy. He was vice-president of the volume V of the fifth series of the "Col- North China branch of the Royal Asiatic Solections of the Massachusetts Historical ciety after 1887, and after 1893 was president Society.

of the New York Fidelity and Casualty ComSEWARD, sū'ard, Anna, English poet: b.

pany. He published Chinese Immigration in Eyam, Derbyshire, 1747 ; d. Lichfield, 25 March

Its Social and Economic Aspects? (1881); Di1809. She was a daughter of Thomas Seward,

gest of System of Taxation of New York canon of Lichfield, and was known as “the

(1902), etc. swan of Lichfield.” Some of her earlier poeti- SEWARD, William Henry, American cal efforts were an Elegy on the Death of statesman: b. Florida, Orange County, N. Y., Mr. Garrick and an Ode on Ignorance. Her 16 May 1801; d. Auburn, Cayuga County, N. Y., literary aspirations were fostered by her fellow- 10 Oct. 1872. He was graduated from Union townsman, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, of whom she College (1820), and having studied for the law, later wrote a Memoir) (1804). Her greater began practising at Auburn in 1823, but soon success was achieved with a Monody on the indicated a decided bent for politics, which gradDeath of the Unfortunate Major André ually drew him away from the legal profession. (1781), and an elegiac poem on Captain Cook In 1830 he was elected as an anti-Masonic can(1807). Horace Walpole declared she had no didate to a seat in the New York senate, and imagination, no novelty," and Miss Mitford from that date he was, with few intervals, in spoke of her as "all tinkling and tinsel

one form or another, an effective and prominent of Dr. Darwin in petticoats." Her poems were leader in the councils that framed the policy

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both in his own State and of the nation. In 1838 he was elected first Whig governor of New York by a majority of 10,421. Though his administration was rendered peculiarly difficult by the internal dissensions of his party, it was marked by wise measures of reform, which definitely added to Whig strength in the State. During his term many of the disabilities of foreigners were removed, the anti-rent troubles were adjusted, the natural history and geological survey of the State was commenced, the State museum of natural history was established and a bill was passed securing for fugitive slaves a trial by jury with counsel furnished by the State. He was re-elected in 1840. From 1843 to 1849 he was occupied largely with professional practice, though he delivered several addresses on political and other topics, among them one on the life and character of O'Connell, which is accounted one of his happiest oratórical efforts. He was elected in 1849 to the Senate, and there attained great influence as both a party leader and an adviser of President Taylor. In a speech of 11 March 1850 in favor of the admission of California, he spoke of the exclusion of slavery from all new States as demanded by “the higher law,” a phrase which greatly offended Southern Democrats, and was made one of the baitle cries of Abolition. Upon Fillmore's accession, Seward strongly opposed that President's pro-slavery attitude, though this was accepted by many Whigs in Congress. Having been re-elected senator in 1855, he took a leading part in the discussion immediately antecedent to the Rebellion. In an address at Rochester, N. Y., in October 1858, he made reference to the rrepressible conflict” whose outcome must make the United States a nation either all of free labor or all of slave. In 1836 and again in 1860 he was the most prominent Republican candidate for the Presidential nomination, receiving on the first ballot at the Chicago convention in 1860 173/2 votes as against 102 for Lincoln, who was eventually chosen. Seward, however, spoke for Lincoln in the West and East, and was made Secretary of State. This post he filled with notable efficiency, particularly in connection with the foreign relations of the government. He reorganized the diplomatic service, and by his able dispatches and the instructions furnished to representatives abroad retained the confidence of Europe, which had been ready to grant recognition and support to the Confederacy. A famous incident of his secretaryship was the correspondence with Great Britain àpropos of the "Trent affair.” When the Confederate agents, Slidell and Mason, were removed from the British ship Trent, their restoration was peremptorily called for and war seemed certain. The answer, formulated by Seward and slightly amended by Lincoln, by its skill, closed the matter, Great Britain, it said, now recognized the principle of exemption from search, contended for in the War of 1812 by the United States, which now, therefore, willingly released the prisoners. Seward insisted on redress for American citizens for depredations by the Alabama (sce INTERNATIONAL CLAIMS). Secretary Seward firmly asserted the Monroe Doctrine in relation to the French invasion of Mexico, but, by avoiding a provocative attitude, which might have involved his government in a foreign war, was able

to defer the decision to a more favorable time. Before the close of the Civil War he intimated to the French government the irritation felt in the United States in regard to its armed intervention in Mexico. Many dispatches on this subject were sent during 1865 and 1866, which gradually became more urgent, until the French forces were withdrawn and the Mexican Empire fell. Seward supported Lincoln's proclamation liberating the slaves in all localities in rebellion, and three years later announced by proclamation the abolition of slavery throughout the Union by constitutional amendment. In the spring of 1865 Mr. Seward was thrown from his carriage, and his arm and jaw were fractured. While he was confined to his couch with these injuries President Lincoln was murdered and on the same evening, 14 April, one of the conspirators gained access to the chamber of the Secretary, inflicted severe wounds with a knife in his face and neck, and struck down his son, Frederick W., who came to his

He negotiated treaties for the purchase of the Danish West India Islands and the Bay of Samoa, which failed of approval by the Senate, and made a treaty with Colombia to secure American control of the Isthmus of Panama, which had a similar fate. Seward sustained the reconstruction policy of President Johnson, and thereby alienated the more powerful section of the Republican party and subjected himself to bitter censure and ungenerous imputations. He opposed the impeachment of the President in 1868, and supported General Grant for the Presidency in the same year. He retired in March 1869, afterward visited Alaska and made a tour of the world in 1870. He negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia. He published a Life of J. Q. Adams (1849). An edition of his Works appeared in 1853, including speeches, addresses and essays. His orations and speeches appeared in five volumes (New York 1890) and by order of Congress his official correspondence was published. Consult Bancroft, F., Life of W. H. Seward' (2 vols., New York 1899); Hale, E. E., William H. Seward (Philadelphia 1910); Lothrop, T. K., William Henry Seward' (in American Statesmen Series,' new ed., Boston 1899); Seward, Oliver, William H. Seward's Travels Around the World' (New York 1873); Welles, Gideon, Lincoln and Seward' (ib. 1874).

SEWARD, Alaska, town on Resurrection Bay, Kenai Peninsula, off the Gulf of Alaska, 340 miles south of Fairbanks, and the southern terminal of the Alaska Northern Railroad. It is important as a winter railroad headquarters. Pop. 1,100.

SEWARD, Neb., city, county-seat of Seward County, on the Big Blue River, and on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy and the Chicago and Northwestern railroads, about 26 miles west by north of Lincoln, the capital of the State. It is in an agricultural and stockraising region, in which wheat and corn are the chief farm products. The city has flour mills, grain elevators, stock yards and creameries. There is a large trade in grain and livestock Pop. (1920) 2,368.

SEWARD PENINSULA. See ALASKA.

SEWELL, Jonathan, Canadian jurist: b. Cambridge, Mass., 1706; d. 1839. He was edu

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cated at Bristol, England, and in 1785 he set- SEWICKLEY, Pa., borough in Allegheny tled in Canada. He studied law, was called to County, on the north bank of the Ohio River, the bar in 1789 and engaged in practice at 14 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, and on the Quebec. He was appointed solicitor-general in Pennsylvania Railroad. It is chiefly residential 1793, and in 1795 became attorney-general and in character as a suburb of Pittsburgh, and is judge of the Court of Vice-Admiralty. In 1808– patronized as a summer resort. There are 38 he was chief justice of Lower Canada. He natural gas and petroleum in the district. The made the decision concerning the disputed borough has a high school, library and hospital. boundaries of Ontario, in 1818. He was presi- Pop. (1920) 4,955. dent of the executive council in 1808–29; and SEWING MACHINES. On 17 July 1790 from 1809 he was speaker of the legislative Thomas Saint, an English cabinet-maker, secouncil. He is said to have made the original cured a patent on a machine to be used for proposal for the Canadian federation while in quilting, stitching and sewing, making shoes England in 1814. Author of Plan for the Gen- and other articles. The patent was for some eral Federal Union of the British Provinces in sort of a machine connected with boot-making, North America' (1815); Essay on the Judicial and the specifications and drawings of the History of French Law so far as it Relates patent comprised, among other things, a crude to the Law of the Province of Lower Canada' stitching device for forming a chain-stitch. (1824).

This patent was discovered few years ago by SEWELL, Robert van Vorst, American

a searcher among the ancient archives of the artist: b. New York, 1860. He was graduated

British Patent Office, where it had lain un

noticed for well-nigh a century, no attempt, so at Columbia University in 1883, and studied art under Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris. He

for as is known, having ever been made to in

troduce into practical use the mechanisms dewas awarded the Hallgarten prize of the Na

scribed in the patent. Between 1790 and 1841 tional Academy of Design in 1888. He specialized in mural decoration. Among his works

several parties obtained patents for stitching are the mural painting The Canterbury Pil

devices, making the tambour and chain-stitches,

none of which was commercially successful, one grims) in the great hall at Georgian Court,

of the fatal defects in each being the fact that Lakewood; and The Story of Psyche,' a series

the cloth had to be fed by hand. When, in of lunette decorations in the palmroom at

1841, Newton and Archbold patented in Engthe Saint Regis Hotel, New York.

land a needle with an eye near the point, in SEWELL, William Joyce,

Joyce, American connection with a glove-stitching machine and statesman: b. Castlebar, Ireland, 6 Dec. 1835; d. which is essentially the same needle now in Camden, N. J., 27 Dec. 1901. He came to the use by all sewing-machine manufacturers, one United States in 1851, served as a sailor for a of the greatest difficulties that had theretofore time and later engaged in business. He com- stood in the way of making the sewing machine manded a brigade at Chancellorsville, where he a practical success was overcome. In 1818 a led a brilliant charge and was badly wounded. sewing machine which made a back-stitch was He was wounded also at Gettysburg, and served invented by the Rev. John Adams Dodge, of creditably on other battlefields. At the close Monkton, Vt., but was neither patented nor of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general manufactured for sale. The first sewing maand major-general. He was interested in rail- chine put into operation was patented in France, road affairs after the war; was elected to the in 1830, by Barthlémy Thimonnier, and though New Jersey senate in 1872, and was president it was rudely made of wood, nearly 100 of of that body in 1876, 1879 and 1880. He was them were collected in a factory used in the United States Senator from New Jersey in manufacture of clothing for the French army. 1881-87 and 1895–1901. In 1899 he became The entire plant was later destroyed by a mob. major-general of the New Jersey National In 1848 Thimonnier put another machine on Guard.

the market and on 3 Sept. 1850 took out a SEWELLEL, a terrestrial rodent (Haplo

patent in the United States. These later ma

chines were made of metal. don rufus) which is formed into a family by it

A machine having a needle with an eye self, and regarded as a connecting link between beavers and squirrels. It is represented by a

ncar the point attached to the end of the vibratsingle species (1. rufus), restricted to a small

ing arm was invented and manufactured in area on the west coast of North America, in

1832–34, in New York, by a machinist named

The Washington, Oregon and Caliíornia.”

Walter Hunt. This machine was a lock-stitch aborigines called it “Showt'P or «Sewellel,” the

and used two continuous threads. Hunt sold trappers the "Boomer) or Mountain Beaver."

his idea to a blacksmith named Arrowsmith The animal is plump, with broad head, short

and through him the combination of the two limbs and hardly any tail; measures about a

threads and the needle with the eye near the foot in length; and has a brownish color. It

point became public property. In 1853 Hunt lives socially in colonies, burrows underground

endeavored to patent his idea, but it had been and lives on vegetable matter. It dwells in

covered by a patent to Elias Howe in 1846. wet places in which the vegetation is rank and

In 1842 a machine for sewing leather and dense. For its winter store it collects great

various other heavy materials was invented by quantities of woody plants and ferns, which it

J. J. Greenough but this did not become gen

erally used. In 1843 a machine somewhat dries thoroughly in the sun before putting in

similar to the Grecnough machine was instorage for the winter. . As a connecting link Haplodon is of much interest to naturalists,

vented by George H. Corliss. This had an

automatic feed and the needles, of which there while the Indians use its skin and also its flesh.

were two, were run horizontally through the SEWERAGE. See SANITARY ENGINEER- goods to be sewed. Numerous other invenING.

tions were made between the years 1849 to

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