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1851, the most important of these being the machine for the manufacture of clothing made by Lerow and Blodgett. This had a curved shuttle, ajustable feed and automatic tension and the baster-plate consisted of a circular hoop studded with pins. The next invention patented that covers a fundamental and important feature was that of John Bachelder, patented 8 May 1849. Bachelder's machine was the first to embody the horizontal table with a continuous feeding device that would sew any length of seam. His invention consisted of an endless leather belt set with small steel points projecting through the horizontal table and penetrating the material to be sewed, carrying it along intermittently at a proper time to meet the action of the needle.
Elias Howe, Jr., began his experiments in 1843 and secured his first patents 10 Sept. 1846. Howe's principal improvements were the shuttle, producing the lock-stitch, and the feed motion. Later, Howe made other improvements, but the machine bearing his name patented until 1857. Howe's invention consisted of the combination of the eye-pointed needle with a shuttle for forming a stitch and an intermittent feed for holding and carrying the material forward as each stitch is formed. The mechanical device for the feed was called the "baster-plate, and the length of the seam sewed at one operation was determined by the length of this plate. The material to be sewed was hung by pins to the baster-plate) in an upright position and if the scam to be sewed was of greater length than the plate it was necessary to rehang it on the plate, which was moved back to position in the same manner as a log is carried back and forth in a saw-mill.
In 1847 Allen B. Wilson, then working as a journeyman cabinet-maker in Adrian, Mich., conceived the idea of a sewing machine, although he had never heard of one. He did not complete full drawings of his machine until the latter part of 1848. Early in 1849 he determined to build a model, and began, on 3 Feb. 1849, the construction of his first machine, which he completed in about 60 days. Having been compelled, by lack of means, to construct every part of the machine himself, the iron and steel as well as the wood, although he was not a practical machinist and lacked suitable tools for the metal work, the machine was consequently of imperfect construction and could not illustrate in the best manner the principles of his invention. It worked, however, and with it were made dress waists and other articles that severely tested its capacity. This inachine made the lock-stitch, the lower thread being carried by a double-ended shuttle. The machine contained the first automatic feed movement ever produced and was the first that could sew curved seams or turn a sharp angle. Without such a device, the machine would have been a practical failure, as Howe's really was, and as well all others until Mr. Wilson's inventions. His first device was what is known as the "two-motion feed, to distinguish it from his four-motion feed," a still more effective device afterward invented by him. The "twomotion feed” consisted of a horizontally reciprocating tooth surface (the pitch of the teeth being forward) engaging the material at all times, and while the needle was in the material moving back to take a new stroke. A patent
on this machine was granted Mr. Wilson on 12 Nov. 1850. Wilson had, while in New York, come into contact with a Mr. Wheeler who had invented the revolving hook for handling the upper thread below the plate and forming the stitch. He constructed a model of a machine containing a rotary hook and reciprocating bobbin, gave all his energies to perfecting the new machine and obtained a patent for it 12 Aug. 1851. Joined by Newton the three men formed the firm of Wheeler and Wilson.
It is a remarkable coincidence that on the same day a patent was granted to Isaac M. Singer for his first machine. The main features of the Singer machine
were its straight needle, working at the extremity of a stationary overhanging arm, and its feed, consisting of a roughened wheel. A straight shaft in the overhanging arm imparted the motion to the needle, and the shuttle was driven in its race below the feed table by a mechanism deriving its motion from the shaft by means of toothed gearing. The feed consisted of an iron wheel with a corrugated surface, the top of which was slightly elevated above the level surface of the table. By an intermittent motion the feed carried the cloth forward between stitches without injury to the fabric. This device permitted the cloth to be turned in any direction by the operator while sewing, which was impossible with the styles of feed which perforated the goods. The material was held in place by a presser foot along, side the needle. This presser foot embraced an important feature possessed by no other sewing machine up to that time-the yielding spring, which would permit of passage over seams, and adjust itself automatically to any thickness of cloth. It was claimed that this was an improvement over Mr. Wilson's first feed, in that there was no backward motion while in contact with the cloth. It had, however, the disadvantage of touching the cloth only on a small portion of its periphery - theoretically at only a point, and practically only a little
It was claimed by Messrs. Wheeler and Wilson to be really an infringement of Wilson's patent, the principle of which was the holding of the cloth between a roughened or toothed surface on the under side and a smooth surface touching it with an intermittent motion, permitting the turning of the cloth in either direction while the machine was in motion; and this claim was sustained by the court.
On 19 Dec. 1854, a patent was issued for Mr. Wilson's celebrated "four-motion feed, so called from the peculiarity of the device by which the flat-toothed surface of the feed, being in contact with the cloth, is moved forward, carrying the cloth with it; then drops out of contact with the cloth, is moved backward and then rises up against the cloth and is again ready for the first motion. This device solved the problem of a thoroughly practical and effective feed, and was soon generally adopted and has become the feed motion of all makes of sewing machines. This feed motion, although it was not patented until this late date, had been long previously invented by Mr. Wilson, and was described in his application for a patent in 1851, but the claim was not pursued for the reason that he believed at the time that he had been anticipated by W. O. Grover, of the firm of Grover and Baker. It
SEX IN PLANTS -- SEXTANT
was ascertained afterward, however, that Mr. quantity. They are run by individual dynamos. Wilson was really prior in the invention, and, Many of the machines may be used for several without contest on the part of Mr. Grover, the different purposes by simply changing the style patent was granted to Mr. Wilson. This ma- of feed motion, presser foot, needle, etc., while chine was invented by Grover and Baker on the other parts of the mechanism remain sub11 Feb. 1851 and had a double-loop stitch stantially the same. There have been several made by a combination of a circular recipro- thousand patents granted on sewing machine cating under needle and a curved upper needle appliances and attachments. with an eye near the point. This eliminated The production of sewing machines has beboth shuttle and bobbin and rendered it possi- come a wonderful industry in the United States, ble for the upper and under threads to be which leads the world in their manufacture. taken from commercial spools. These ma- In 1914 there were 46 concerns engaged in the chines, though once popular, are not now manu- industry, capitalized at $34,446,624; employing factured.
14,308 wage-earners, with wages of $8,860,843; In 1855 litigation arose involving the three cost of material used, $7,359,664; and the value principal sewing-machine companies then in of their production was $21,391,917. Besides existence, each claiming that the others were these there were 4 establishments making sewinfringing upon certain of their patent rights, ing-machines cases, with an invested capital of and numerous suits were instituted, more par- $6,425,153 and employing 3,699 hands; producticularly by Howe, whose patents were so skil- ing goods annually to the value of $5,815,663. fully drawn that he claimed all others were In the same year the exports of sewing mainfringements.
chines with and without cases amounted to In 1856 the three principal sewing-machine $8,658,762. Consult Hasluck, P. N., Sewing companies -- Wheeler and Wilson, Singer and Machines: Their Construction, Adjustment and the Grover and Baker - formed a combination. Repair) (London 1905). It was contracted by the three companies and
SEX IN PLANTS. See Plants, Sex In. Mr. Howe that they would stop their litigation, and, with a fair payment to each other and to
SEXAGESIMA (seks-a-jěs'i-ma) SUNMr. Howe for special rights, would carry on
DAY, the second Sunday before Lent. See the business with only honorable competition.
QUINQUAGESIMA. They finally agreed to license any responsible
SEXTANT, a portable instrument for person who should propose to engage in the measuring the altitudes of the heavenly bodies manufacture of a good machine on the pay- above the horizon, or their angular distance as ment of a royalty, which for several years was seen in the sky. It was invented independently $3 on a machine.
by Thomas Godfrey, of Philadelphia, and CapThe next machine to be put on the market tain Hadley of the British navy, about 1730. was the Willcox and Gibbs. This machine, The principles on which it works will be seen which had a rotating hook for using a single by a study of Fig. 1. C is a plain flat mirror, thread to make the twisted loop-stitch, was
of which the polished side is turned downward first patented in June 1857 by James E. H. Gibbs, a farmer of Millpoint, Va. Later James Willcox, of Philadelphia, added some further improvements, and the machine then became known as the Willcox and Gibbs. Several years afterward an automatic tension was placed on
03 this machine by Charles H. Willcox.
While the manufacture of machines for the home has been developing and progressing, those for manufacturing purposes have in no less a degree been brought to a state bordering on perfection. The most recent development is the oscillating shuttle machine of the Singer Company which makes up to 50 stitches per second with scarcely any apparent friction. The
E single thread chain-stitch machine is faster than the double thread lock-stitch, making up to
Fig. 1. 4,000 stitches per minute. There are machines for making – or which have special and toward the left. H is a flat plate of polattachments for making - every conceivable ished glass through which an eye placed at E article of clothing, upholstery, embroidery, may view a distant object in the direction K by leather goods, etc. We have the button-hole, light coming through it in the direction of the the button-sewer, the French-knot, the faggot- dotted lines. Light emanating from another ing, feather-stitching, hemstitch, side and box- object ( or P and falling on the mirror C will, plaiters, corset machines; the cylinder for seam where the mirror is properly directed, be rework on sleeves, trousers, bootlegs, leather flected along the line CH and, in striking the buckets, etc.; machines for embroidery, smock, glass plate H, a certain portion of it will be ing, carpet, awnings, tents, etc.; the single and reflected in the direction HE, so that the obdouble-needle machines and those with four, server with his eye at E will see both the six and eight needles for glove work, special objects K and O or P in coincidence. If the machines for overalls, sail-making, flag-making mirror C is set parallel to H as in the figure, and a host of others too numerous to mention. the rays KE and OC will be parallel, and may, A special class known as high-speed machines is therefore, be considered as emanating from the used in factories where clothing is made in same object at an infinite distance.
Thus the eye will see two images in the mirror as if together. But if the mirror C be moved into a different direction, that shown by the dotted line AB for example, the direction of the ray, the direction of the line PC, the rays along which are reflected to H, will deviate from OC by double the angle through which the mirror has turned. This doubling is caused by the fact that the angles of incidence and reflection are both changed by the motion of C. It follows that if the observer measure the angle between the mirror C and H, doubling this angle will give him the difference of direction between the rays coming from K and from P.
The sextant is used to measure this angle. The essential parts of it are shown in Fig. 2. The part ABC consists of the arc AB round C as a centre and firmly fastened by the radii CB and CA which are again firmly connected by a framework not shown in the figure. To this framework is attached the fixed plate of glass H, of which the lower half is silver while the upper half is transparent. T is a telescope, also firmly fixed to the frame, through which the eye looking in at E may see a distant object through the transparent portion of the mirror, and at the same time see any other object by the light reflected from the silvered part. The arc AB is graduated to degrees and fractions as shown by the figures. Owing to the doubling of the angle, the measures on the arc BA are also double. That is to say, this are is only 60 degrees in length, but is divided into 120 degrees, so as to show the actual altitude of the object observed.
observer facing in the vertical plane of the sun or other object then turns the arm RM around the centre C until he brings the sun into sight, through its rays being reflected first from C and then from H. When the limb of the sun is thus made to coincide with the horizon, the angle through which the arm RM has moved from parallelism is shown by the position of the index on the graduated arc BA, which is then determined by the vernier.
In ordinary use the navigator never has to measure angles exceeding 90 degrees. In this case the arc BA need only to be 45 degrees in actual length. The instrument is then called a quadrant. This was the original form used by Hadley.
For very accurate use the arc is extended down so as to form a complete circle. cial device is employed to bring about the proper reflection of the light; but the reflecting circle, as the instrument is called, is too complicated to admit of common use by the navigator.
SIMON NEWCOMB. SEXTET (from Lat. sextus, sixth). In music, a composition for six voices or instruments, or for voices with instrumental accompaniment. Instrumental sextets are generally compositions in sonata form.
SEXTON, Alexander Humboldt, English metallurgist: b. London, 11 Sept. 1853. He was educated at the Royal School of Mines, London, the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. He was lecturer on chemistry and metallurgy at the Manchester Technical School in 1882-84; and from 1884 until 1909, when he retired, he was professor of metallurgy at the University of Glasgow and at the West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute. Author of Elementary Chemistry); Fuel and Refractory Materials', Alloys'; Chemistry of the Materials of Engineering, etc.
SEXTON, Frederick Henry, Canadian engineer and educator: b. New Boston, N, H., 9 June 1879. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was professor of metallurgy there in 1901-02. He was assistant professor of mining and metallurgy at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1903–07; and since 1907 has been president of the Nova Scotia Technical College. Since 1916 he has also had charge of the vocational training school for returned soldiers of the Quebec and Maritime provinces. He is author of many technical papers.
SEXTON, a church officer whose duties consist in taking care of the church generally, to which used to be added the duty of digging and filling up graves in the churchyard, when the church had a cemetery attached to it. In the United States the sexton is also very often an undertaker, and thus continues in a form different from the old-time sexton, to attend to the interment of church members. The term sacristan, of which sexton is a corruption, applies more particularly to an official in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, wh? has charge of the sacristy and its contents, and of the vestments worn during the service. He occupies a considerably higher rank than the
RM is a movable arm carrying a mirror C called the index glass, fixed to it perpendicularly at its upper end. The arm revolves around Ć as a centre. At its lower end there is an index mark and vernier by which the position of the arm with respect to the graduations on the arc may be determined.
The altitude of a heavenly body at C is then measured by the observer taking the instrument in his hand and holding it in a vertical position, with the telescope ET horizontal, so that the sea horizon may be seen through the transparent part of the horizon glass H. The
SEXTUS - SEXUAL SELECTION
ordinary sexton, and in English cathedrals is often a minor canon
SEXTUS (surnamed EMPIRICUS, from his belonging to the empiric school of medicine) was a sceptic who Hourished in the first half of the 3d century. He was a Greek by birth, and lived at Alexandria and Rome. Scepticism appears in his writings in the most perfect state which it reached in ancient times. (See SceTICISM). We have two works by him, written in the Greek language, and they are the source of our knowledge of the Greek sceptical philosophy. One of them entitled Outlines of Pyrrhonism in three books, explains the method of Pyrrho; the other, entitled Against the Mathematicians,' is an attempt to apply that method to all the prevailing philosophical systems and other branches of knowledge. Consult the edition of his works by J. A. Fabricius (Leipzig 1718) and by Bekker (Berlin 1842); also Brochard, Les sceptiques grecs? (Paris 1887); Christ-Schmid, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur? (Vol. II, pt. 2, Munich 1913) and Pattrick, Sextus Empiricus and the Greek Sceptics (Cambridge 1899.).
SEXUAL SELECTION, a term invented by Darwin to denote a special phase of natural selection, depending on a competition between rival males, in which a premium is set on those qualities which favor their possessors in securing mates. This competition takes two forms: On the one hand, rival mates, for instance, stags or gamecocks, fight with one another and the conquerors have naturally the preference in mating; on the other hand, rival males sometimes seem to vie with one another in displaying their attractive qualities before their desired mates, who, according to Darwin, choose those that please them best. Darwin gives the following summary of his theory:
“ It has been shown that the largest number of vigorous offsprings will be reared from the pairing of the strongest and best-formed males, victorious in contests over other males, with the most vigorous and best-nourished females, which are the first to breed in the spring. If such fernales select the more attractive and, at the same time, vigorous males, they will rear a larger number of offspring than the retarded females, which must pair with the less vigorous and less attractive males. So it will be if the more vigorous males select the more attractive and, at the same time, healthy and vigorous females; and this will especially hold good if the male defends the female, and airls in providing food for the young. The advantage thus gained by the niore vigorous pairs in rearing a larger number of offspring has apparently sufficed to render sexual selection efficient.
In regard to the second aspect of sexual selection, in which the females are believed to exercise some choice, giving the preference to those suitors which have brighter colors, more graceful forms, sweeter voices or greater charms of some kind, there is no little difference of opinion. Darwin indeed believed strongly in the female's choice and referred to this process of selection many of the qualities which distinguish male animals. The females "have by a long selection of the more attractive males added to their beauty or other attractive qualities,” On the other hand, Alfred Russel Wallace maintains a very different position. "There is,” he says, "a total absence of any evidence that the females admire or even notice the display of the males. Among butterflies there is literally not one particle of evidence that the female is influenced by color or even that she has any power of choice, while there is much
direct evidence to the contrary” Against this, G. W. and E. G. Peckham, in their careful essay on sexual selection in spiders, state that they have in the Attide "conclusive evidence that the females pay close attention to the love dances of the males and also that they have not only the power, but the will, to exercise a choice among the suitors for their favor.” Some observers of birds are also confident that the females choose the more musical or otherwise attractive males. But again Wallace maintains that the fact that every male bird finds a mate "would almost or quite neutralize any effect of sexual selection of color or ornament; since the less highly colored birds would be at no disadvantage as regards leaving healthy offspring;
The theory of sexual selection is of considerable importance in a general theory of evolution. This may be illustrated in reference to the bright plumage of many birds.
If we postulate successive crops of variations (which cannot at present be completely rationalized), if we acknowledge that there is really “preferential mating” among birds (which is not readily proved or disproved), if we believe that the females are sensitive to the slight excellences which distinguish one suitor from another and that their choice of mates is determined by these excellences (which Wallace emphatically denies), then we may say that the greater brightness of male birds may have been evolved by sexual selection. This was Darwin's opinion. The brighter males succeeded better than their rivals in the art of courtship; the variations which gave them success were transmitted to the offspring; gradually the qualities were established and enhanced as secondary sexual characters of the species. But Wallace interpreted the facts quite otherwise. The relatively plain plumage of the female birds was due to natural selection, eliminating those whose conspicuousness during incubation was fatal, fostering those whose coloring was protective. Just as Daines Barrington, a naturalist, still remembered as the correspondent of Gilbert White, suggested (1773) that singing birds were small and hen birds mute for safety's sake, so Wallace maintained that female birds had forfeited brightness as a ransom for life.
The doubts and difficulties arouse scepticism as to the thoroughness of the explanations of secondary sexual characters suggested either by Darwin or by Wallace. It is not surprising, therefore, to find Mivart's explanation of the beauty of males as the direct expression of an internal force, or Mantegazza's hints as to physiological explanation of the sexual divergence, or Brook's reference to "something within the animal which determines that the male should lead and the female follow in the evolution of new breeds.) Geddes advanced further, endeavoring to interpret the secondary sexual characters as outcrops of the relative preponderance of anabolism and katabolism characteristic of females and males respectively. Gay coloring — sometimes at least due to pigmented waste products - is regarded as a characteristic expression of the predominantly katabolic or male sex and quiet plainness is equally natural to the more anabolic females. But this theory, which seeks to rationalize the variations which Darwin simplu postulated, is by no means inconsistent with a recognition of sexual selection as an accelerant directive process in the evolu
tion of male brightness, or of natural selection is inhabited. The white sandy beaches are enas a retardative directive process eliminating closed by coral reefs. The soil is fertile, the disadvantageously conspicuous females.
climate temperate. There are many brooks and Wallace in his later works advanced toward streams. The islands are covered with verdure a rational interpretation of the variations which (enormous ferns, sensitive plants and palms he was previously content to postulate as facts. grow) and valuable woods, adapted to cabinet For he says that ornament is the natural out- work or shipbuilding. Vanilla, coffee, cocoa, come and direct product of superabundant spices, tobacco, corn, tropical fruits and vegehealth and vigor, and is due to the general tables are grown. The exports are the fibres, laws of growth and development.” It seems to nuts and oil of the cocoanut palm; vanilla, some that this mode of interpreting charac- soap, tobacco, tortoise-shell and vacoa bags. ters is of far-reaching importance and that it The imports are cotton, coal, wine, coffee and affects not only the theory of sexual selection cotton goods. Coco-de-mer (q.v.) is peculiar but that of natural selection as well.
to Praslin. Enormous tortoises of the edible To sum up, the problems involved in sexual sort are common. The adjacent seas contain selection are (1) what physiological conditions numerous fish, some of gorgeous colors. The cxplain the secondary sexual characters which inhabitants construct their homes of a species so often distinguish males and females; (2) to of coral which glistens like marble and is hewn what extent and in what degree of refinement into massive blocks. The chief harbor is Port does preferential mating occur; and (3) to what Victoria, on Mahé Island. There is much land extent has sexual selection guided the differen- suitable to, but not as yet under, cultivation. tiation of the sexes alike in distinctive qualities The Seychelles were discovered by the Portuand in æsthetic sensitiveness? Before these guese and first colonized by the French (1743), problems can be adequately solved many more of whom the present inhabitants are descendfacts must be accumulated.
ants. The British captured the islands in 1794 Bibliography.- Bateson, W., (Mendel's and at the peace of 1814 they were ceded to Principles of Heredity (London 1909); Cope, them. Pop. about 24,000. Consult Belcher, E., E. D., Origin of the Fittest? (London 1887); Account of the Seychelles'; Fauvel, A. A. Cunningham, J. T., Sexual Dimorphism (Lon- Bibliographies des Seychelles (1908); Gardidon 1900); Darwin, C., Origin of Species) ner, J. S., (The Seychelles? ; Hartman, Mad(new ed., London 1906); id., Descent of Man agascar und die Inseln Seschellen (Leipzig and Selection in Relation to Sex' (new ed., 1886). New York 190G); Dewer and Finn, «The Mak
SEYCHELLES COCOANUT, a palm ing of Species (New York 1909); Geddes, P., and Thomson, J. A., The Evolution of the
(Lodoicea sechellarum), peculiar to the Sey
chelles Islands, sometimes 100 feet high, Sex) (2d ed., London 1901); Lock, R. H., (Re
crowned by immense palmate leaves, which cent Progress in the Study of Variation, Hered- make good material for hat plaiting and ity and Evolution (London 1906); Osborn,
basketry, and when mature are used for house H. F., From the Greeks to Darwin' (New York 1894); Peckham, G. W. and E. G., Sex
partitions and for thatching. The fruits are ual Selection in Spiders? (Milwaukee 1890);
gigantic in size, sometimes weighing as much Poulton, E. B., Charles Darwin and the Theory
as 50 pounds and were anciently supposed to of Natural Selection) (London 1896); id., Es
grow on submarine palms, since they were found says on Evolution (Oxford 1908); Seward, only when washed ashore on Asiatic coasts. A. C., Darwin and Modern Science) (Cam
This circumstance caused many superstitions to bridge 1909); Vernon, H. M., Variations in
arise, especially that they were a powerful cure Animals and Plants) (London 1903); Vries,
for snake poison, and they, therefore, com
manded high prices in the East and were called H. de, Species and Varieties, Their Origin by Mutation? (Chicago 1905); id., The Muta
coco-der-mer, sea, double or Maldive cocoanuts.
There are from one to four stony nuts in a tion Theory? (London 1910); Wallace, A. R., Darwinism' (2d ed., London 1890); Weis
husk, each being deeply lobed at each end. This mann, A., 'The Evolution Theory) (London
floating apparently double nut may have given 1904); Wilson, E. B., Recent Researches on
rise to the types of twin boats. The unripe
fruit is edible and the hard black shell of the the Determination and Heredity of Sex) (London 1909).
nuts is carved into ornaments and fakers' drink
ing cups. See Palms. SEYCHELLES, sã-shěl',
of islands in the Indian Ocean, belonging to Great
SEYFFARTH, zi'färt', Gustave, AmeriBritain. Their formation is peculiar, as they can educator and Egyptologist: b. Uebigau, are the only tropical islands of granite struc- Saxony, 13 July 1796; d. New York, 17 Nov. ture. The archipelago comprises 80 islands, 1885. He was educated at the University of rising precipitously from the water to a height Leipzig and under Champollion in Paris. He of 2,998 feet in the largest of the group, Mahé, was professor of Oriental archæology at the which has an area of 551/2 square miles. Smaller University of Leipzig in 1825–55, afterward islands of the group are Praslin, Silhouette, La emigrating to the United States. He was proDigue, Curiense and Felicité. Formerly the fessor of archæology and exegesis at the Congroup was administered from Mauritius but in cordia Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saint 1888 the office of administrator was created, an Louis, in 1855-71. He then retired and lived executive council of two ex officio members in New York. He was a lifelong student of and one nominated member was appointed and Eygptology and made many translations. Aua legislative council of six members. In 1915 thor of "De Sonis literarum græcarum tum the revenue was $127,000, the expenditure $155,- genuinis tum adoptivis libri duo! (1823); 500 and the debt $60,000. Exports in 1915 were Systema Astronomiæ Ægyptiaccæ (1833) : valued at $462,340 and imports at $280,000. (Theologische Schriften der Alten Aegypter Mahé is central and, with a few of the others, (1855); Summary of Recent Discoveries in