Slike strani

Bible Chronology) (1857); Chronologia Vet- Idea of the Family) (1899); (Sacraments and erum? (1871), etc.

Principles of the Church' (1903), etc. SEYMOUR, sē'mör, a noble English family

SEYMOUR, Horatio, American statesman: of Norman origin. Their name is corrupted

b. Pompey Hill, Onondaga County, N. Y., 31 from Saint Maur, their seat in Normandy.

May 1810; d. Utica, N. Y., 12 Feb. 1886. He They acquired lands in Monmouthshire in the was educated at Geneva Academy (now Hobart beginning of the 13th century and early in the

College) and at a military school at Middle15th century added to these estates others in

town, Conn.; studied law at Utica and was adSomersetshire. The first member to become

mitted to the bar in 1832. In 1833 he became conspicuous was Sir John Seymour, the father military secretary to Governor Marcy and held of the third wife of Henry VIII and of Edward

the position six years. He was elected to the Seymour, protector of the realm of England

State assembly by the Democrats of Oneida during the minority of Edward VI, whose uncle

County in 1841; was mayor of Utica in 1842; he was. He commanded in a maritime expedi

re-entered the assembly in 1843 where, as chairtion against the Scots in 1544, when he landed

man of the committee on canals, he outlined a body of troops at Leith and set fire to the

the policy subsequently followed by the State. city of Edinburgh. By the will of Henry he

He was chosen speaker in 1845 and nominated was nominated one of the council of regency

for governor in 1850, was defeated by Washduring the minority of Edward VI; but, not

ington Hunt, but in 1852 was elected by a large content with his share of power, he procured

majority. During his term a prohibition law himself to be appointed governor of the king

was passed by the legislature and was vetoed and protector of the kingdom (January 1547).

by him as unconstitutional. The strong temperIn the month following he obtained the post

ance sentiment prevalent at the time made his of lord-treasurer, was created first Duke of

act very unpopular. During the term of his Somerset and made earl-marshal. The same

successor the vetoed law was again passed by year he headed an army, with which he in

the legislature, but was declared unconstitutional

by the Court of Appeals. He was again eiected vaded Scotland, and after having gained the victory of Musselburgh returned in triumph to

governor in 1862 and made an unequivocal

declaration in favor of the supremacy of the England. His success excited the jealousy of

Constitution and the restoration of the Union, the Earl of Warwick and others, who procured

though he denied that the war was the unavoidhis confinement in the Tower. Six months

able result of slavery, or that slavery should be after he obtained a full pardon from the king

abolished in order to restore the Union. In and was ostensibly reconciled to his adversary, Lord Warwick. The reconciliation was prob

July 1863 serious riots broke out in New York,

involving loss of life and destruction of propably insincere, as Warwick caused Somerset to

erty. These were caused by the draft-law which be again arrested, in October 1551, on the

discriminated against New York City in the charge of treasonable designs. He was tried,

allotment of quotas. The governor's complaint found guilty, attainted and beheaded on Tower

to the President secured an investigation which Hill in January 1552. His eldest sonby his

resulted in procuring a correction of the errors second wife was created by Elizabeth, Earl of of the enrolment. In 1868 he was nominated Hertford. The Earl of Hertford under Charles

for the Presidency, but was defeated by Ulysses Il having distinguished himself in support of S. Grant, receiving 80 electoral votes to the the royal cause during the Parliamentary war 214 cast for Grant. Consult Croly, Seymour obtained in his favor the revival of the title of

and Blair: Their Lives and Services) (New Duke of Somerset and took his seat in the York 1868); Hartley, (Horatio Seymour House of Lords as second duke in 1660. On the

(Utica 1886). extinction of his line the descendants of the first Duke of Somerset by his first wife claimed

SEYMOUR, Lady Jane, queen of Engthe title and on the advice of the attorney-gen

land: b. England, about 1509; d. Hampton, 24

Oct. 1537. She was the eldest child of Sir eral that claim was pronounced good by the House of Lords, in which body the descendants

John Seymour and sister of Edward, Duke of

Somerset and Protector of England. She beof that claimant still hold a place. Consult Locke, A. A., The Seymour Family? (Lon

came the third wife of Henry VIII (q.v.) and don 1911) and St. Maur, R. H., Annals of the

the mother of Edward VI (q.v.). She was

the first maid of honor to Anne Boleyn, whom Seymours) (ib. 1902).

she supplanted in 1536, and favored the ProtSEYMOUR, George Franklin, American estant Reformation. Consult Hume, Martin, Protestant Episcopal bishop: b. New York, 5

(The Wives of Henry the Eighth and the Parts Jan. 1829; d. Springfield, 111., 8 Dec. 1906. He They Played in History) (Edinburgh 1905). was graduated from Columbia in 1850, from the

SEYMOUR, Thomas Day, American clasGeneral Theological Seminary in 1854 and

sical scholar: b. Hudson, Ohio, 1 April 1848; d. ordained in the priesthood in 1855. He held 31 Dec. 1907. He was graduated at the Westvarious charges in New York State, founded ern Reserve College in 1870 and later studied Saint Stephen's College at Annandale, N. Y.,

at the Universities of Leipzig and Berlin. He in 1855 and was its warden until 1861. In

was professor of Greek at Western Reserve 1865–79 he was professor of ecclesiastical his- College in 1872–80; and chairman of the mantory at the General Theological Seminary, of aging committee of the American School of which he was also dean in 1875–79, and in 1878 Classical Studies, Athens, Greece, in 1887-1901. he was consecrated first bishop of Springfield. He edited the College Series of Greek auIn 1897 he represented his church at the Con- thors and was American coeditor of Classical gress of Old Catholics at Vienna. He pub- Revicws. Author of (Selected Odes of Pindar) lished What is Modern Romanism (1885); (1882); Introduction to the Language and Marriage and Divorce (1893); The Church Verse of Homer' (1885); Introduction and

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Vocabulary to School Odyssey, Eight Books) (1897); School Iliad, Six Books) (1889–1901), etc.

SEYMOUR, Thomas Hart, American legislator and diplomat: b. Hartford, Conn., 1808; d. there, 3 Sept. 1868. He was educated at a military academy at Middletown, Conn., became a lawyer at Hartford and was editor of The Jeffersonian Democrat in 1837. He was a member of Congress in 1843–45, served through the Mexican War, rising to the rank of colonel, and in 1850–53 was governor of Connecticut. He was Presidential elector in 1852; was United States Minister to Russia in 1853–57 and during the Civil War acted as leader of the Connecticut Peace Democrats, in which connection he lost much of his popularity. In 1862 the State senate voted that his portrait, with that of Isaac Toucey, should be removed from the chamber till the comptroller should be satisfied of his loyalty. In 1863 he was again a candidate for governor but was defcated by W. A. Buckingham after an exciting contest.

SEYMOUR, Truman, American soldier: b. Burlington, Vt., 25 Sept. 1824; d. Florence, Italy, 30 Oct. 1891.

He was graduated from West Point in 1846, fought in the Mexican War and was brevetted captain. In 1850–53 he was assistant instructor at West Point, served in the Seminole War of 1856-58, and under Major Anderson at the defense of Fort Sumter in 1861, receiving the brevet of major in recognition of his services. He became chief of artillery in McCall's division of the Army of the Potomac in 1862 and was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He was engaged in the Virginia and Maryland campaigns, was in command of a division at Malvern Hill, Manassas, South Mountain and Antietam, receiving rank of brevet colonel. As chief of staff to the commanding general of the Department of the South in 1863 he led a division on Folly Island, took part in the attack on Morris Island and commanded the unsuccessful assault of Fort Wagner on 18 July, in which he was severely wounded. He commanded a brigade in the battle of the Wilderness, was taken prisoner, and after his exchange in the following August was in command of a division in the Shenandoah Valley, and was engaged in the operations around Petersburgh until the close of the war. He was present at Lee's surrender. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general in the regular army, and in 1865 was mustered out of the volunteer service. He became major of artillery in 1866 and served in command of various forts until his retirement in 1876. After his retirement he resided in Europe, mostly in Florence.

SEYMOUR, Conn., town in New Haven County, near the junction of Bladen, Little and Naugatuck rivers, and on the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, nine miles northwest of New Haven. Seymour is one of the oldest towns of Connecticut. The manufacturing of woolen goods was begun here the last of the 18th century. In 1803 Gen. David Humphreys (who was the first to bring merino sheep into the United States) bought the woolen mill and enlarged it to what was then called a large factory. In 1836 the place was incorporated under the name of Humphreysville, and in 1850 it was incorporated as a town under its

present name. The chicf manufactures are woolen goods, mechanics' tools, agricultural implements, nails, pins, paper, submarine cables, fountain pens, bicycle parts and rubber. There are five churches, a high school, public graded schools, private schools and a public library. Pop. 6,781. Consult Sharpe, History of Seymour) (Seymour 1902).

SEYMOUR, Ind., city in Jackson County, on the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis, the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern, the Chicago, Terre Haute and Southeastern, I. P. S. Traction Company and I. and I. Traction Railway Company, about 60 miles south of Indianapolis and 50 miles north of Louisville, Ky. It is an agricultural and stock-raising region and has considerable manufacturing interests. The chief industrial establishments are woolen mills, grain cradle and tool factory, large flour mills, hominy mill, chair factories, furniture factory, several commercial printing plants, harness factories, carriage factory, shirt factory, planing mills and other woodworking establishments, ice and cold storage plant, ice cream plant, bottling works and creamery: This being a division of the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern, a great many railroad people are employed and live here. There are 11 churches, four ward public schools, Shields High School, Catholic and Lutheran parochial schools, two national banks, capital $100,000 each, and one trust company, capital $60,000. Pop. 7,348.

SFAX, sfäks, Tunis, a town on the east coast, on the Gulf of Cabes, opposite Kerkenna Island. It is strongly fortified and surrounded by gardens and villas. The European, Arab and French portions are the three distinct divisions of the town. The first modern, the second in the central portion -- walled and entered by two gates; the third, a camp. Sfax is an important seaport, with a considerable trade in dates, olive-oil, wool, fruits, sponges, grasses, etc.; cotton, woolen and silk goods are manufactured. A safe harbor and a railway connecting with the interior are modern features. The harbor is provided with a repair dock and slips for fitting and repairing the sponge and fishing vessels. Sfax was occupied in the 12th century by the Sicilians, and in the 16th century, for a brief period, by the Spaniards. One of the principal events of the conquest of Tunis by the French was the bombardment of the town in 1881. Pop. 45,000.

SFORZA, sfort'sä, a celebrated Italian house, which played an important part in the 15th and 16th centuries, gave six sovereigns to Milan and formed alliances with most of the princely houses of Europe. The founder of the house was a peasant of Cotignola in Romagna, GIACOMUZZO (Giacomo or Jacopo Muzio) ATTENDOLO: b. Cotignola, in the Romagna, 10 June 1369; d. 4 Jan. 1424, whose skill and courage made him one of the most powerful condottieri of Italy. His surname of Sforza (the forcer), which youches for his great strength, he is said to have received from Alberigo Barbiano, the true founder of the condottiere mode of warfare in Italy. He served in the wars in the papal states, in Tuscany and in Naples, and died as Grandconstable of Naples. His son FRANCESCO: b. 25 July 1401; d. Milan, 8 March 1466, received the command of



the Milanese forces in the war against Venice. and the delicacy of the work. There is only In 1447 he laid claim to the states of Milan in one peculiarity in it which is different in nature virtue of his wife, although she was only the from the effect produced by engraving, and that natural daughter of the last duke, and to en- is the producing of color effects by scratching force his claim concluded a treaty with Venice, through an outer surface so as to show an and advanced against Milan. He laid siege to inner surface of a different hue or tint. Even the city in 1449, and on 3 March 1450 it was in this respect it is like a very delicate art of forced by famine surrender.

His son

incision, namely, the Japanese method of cutGALEAZZO MARIA: b. 24 Jan. 1444; d. 26 Dec. ting through different layers of colored lacquer 1476, a barbarian and a voluptuary, was mur- so as to produce decorative patterns. It is also dered by conspirators. The son of Galeazzo, in this respect like the art of cameo-cutting GIOVANNI GALEAZZO: b. 1468; d. 1494, never when applied to onyx in layers of black and actually ruled. Till 1480 he was subject to the white, or a similar stratified material. guardianship of his mother and her minister, Sgraffito decoration, in the usual sense, is Checco Simonetta. The latter was then be- of two kinds: first, that which is applied to headed by his uncle Lodovico, surnamed the plaster surfaces, as of the outer faces of walls; Moor, in 1481. Lodovico then assumed the and, secondly, to clay surfaces, as where an government himself and kept his nephew carthen pot is scored with a hard point before virtually a prisoner in the castle of Pavia. At it is fired. In both of these departments a subsequent period he joined the league against sgraffito decoration is one of the earliest methFrance, and was on that account deposed by ods applicd; and in pottery we have in our Louis XII (1500). He was taken to France museums pieces of prehistoric and primitive where he died. His son MASSIMILIANO: b. work of great interest, while also the art seems 1491 ; d. 1530, once more drove the French from one never wholly abandoned when pottery is his territories by the aid of the Swiss, but in made cheaply and quickly by people who care consequence of the battle of Marignano was for decorative effect. The sgraffito decoration obliged to cede his dominions to Francis I of plaster walls is, however, limited in appli(1515) in consideration of a pension. The re- cation to a few epochs of European history. It mainder of his life was spent in France. has never been out of use in Italy since the Francis was afterward driven from Italy by the Middle Ages, and occasionally a new building, Emperor Charles V, who invested FRANCESCO: even of some pretensions, is adorned in this b. 1492; d. 24 Oct. 1535, brother of Maximilian, way, or a monument of the past is carefully rewith the duchy of Milan in 1522. On the death stored, with its sgraffito decoration repaired and of Francesco in 1535 Charles V conferred the completed. In the northern lands of Europe duchy on his son Philip II, king of Spain. the severity of the weather is a partial check on Consult Ady, C. M., History of Milan under the employment of the art; but the inain reason the Sforza) (New York 1907); Corio, Historia for its neglect is the modern desire for smoothdi Milane (1565); Verri, Storia di Milane! ness, finish and completeness of all sorts, with (1851); Hallam, View of the State of Europe which the sgraffito process may be thought to during the Middle Ages (1818); Magenta, be inconsistent. It is clear that a house faced (Gli Visconti e gli Sforza' (Milan 1883). with brown plaster which is deeply scored to

show line of black and white plaster from beSGAMBATI, zgạm-bä'tē, Giovanni, Italian

low will not meet the requirements of a commusician: b. Rome, 28 May 1843; d. 14 Dec.

munity respecting nothing which has not the 1914. He studied at Trevi, Umbria, and in 1860 removed to Rome. There he gained the

look of expense and deliberation. The effects, friendship of Liszt, whose teaching and in

however, are very spirited and artistic, and it fluence were of inestimable benefit to him. He

is a pity that the process is not used for inexbecame known as a conductor, composer and

pensive building. Consult Opitz, 'Sgraffito

(1891). pianist, and as an interpreter of German music in Italy. He was professor of pianoforte at SHABATZ, shä'bąts, SHABATS, or SA. the Academy of Saint Cecelia from 1877; and BAC, Jugo-Slavia, town, capital of the Drina in 1897 he founded the Nuova Societa Musicale department, on the river Save, 35 miles west Romanà. His pianoforte pieces won wide suc- of Belgrade. It has a castle dating from 1470, cess and he also composed a requiem mass, is the seat of a bishop, of the district prethree symphonies, several concertos, overtures fecture and of a tribunal. The town is the and organ pieces,

commercial centre of the surrounding country, SGANARELLE, zga'na'rěl', a comic char

and exports honey, prunes, grain, cattle and acter in ancient comedies, frequently used by

hogs. It suffered considerably as the scene of Molière, with whose plays he is generally as

active fighting in the European War. Pop.

12,072. sociated. He is introduced by Molière in (Siganarelle, ou le cocu imaginaire! (1660). SHABUOTH, a Jewish feast, known also He appears also in Don Juan, ou le festin de as the Festival of the Weeks; the most joyous Pierre) (he is Leporello in the opera

Don of all the ancient Hebrew holidays. It was Giovanni'); and in L'Amour d’médicin); Le originally called the Feast of the Barley. médecin malagre lui? ; Le mariage forcè, and others. The character as handled by Molière is

SHACKLETON, shăk'l-ton, Sir Ernest

Henry, British explorer : b. Kilkee, Ireland, 15 the source of many popular proverbs.

Feb. 1874; d. at sea, off S. Georgia Island, 5 Jan. SGRAFFITO (sgräf-fē'to) DECORA- 1922. He was educated at Dulwich College, TION, that which is produced by means of

served in the merchant marine and was a lieuscoring or scratching on a comparatively soft tenant in the Royal Navy Reserve. He was third surface. It is like engraving in all respects

lieutenant under R. F. Scott in the National except in the relative hardness of the material Antarctic Expedition in 1901-04, and with Scout

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reached lat. 82° 17', the farthest point south then duced into the Sacramento River by the Calitouched. He was secretary and treasurer of the fornia and United States fish commissions in Royal Scottish Geographical Society in 1903-06. 1871-80, it has now become abundant on the In 1907-09 he commanded the British Antarctic Pacific Coast from Monterey Bay to Alaska. Expedition, and succeeded in reaching lat. Concerning the habits of the shad during the 88° 23' S., 9 Jan. 1909, establishing a new rec- greater part of its existence in the sea, very ord. He also ascended Mount Erebus, 13,120 little is definitely known. Apparently, from the feet high, and reached the south magnetic pole fact that they are taken frequently with mack16 Jan. 1909, determining its position as lat. erel and other fishes near the coasts, they do 72° 25', long. 154° E. He headed a third expe- not depart very far from the shores. Their dition in 1914–16, crossing Antarctica from structure indicates that they swim near the surCoat's Land to Mac Murdo Sound and making face, strain through their gill-rakers the water valuable geologic and scientific surveys. He

taken in by the mouth, and retain the minute was awarded the special gold medal of the life which it contains. This food appears, from Royal Geographical Society, the King's Polar what few stomach examinations have been medal with two bars, and gold medals from made, to consist chiefly of minute crustaceans. the Royal Scottish Geographical Society as well Their movements are controlled largely by the as from the geographical societies of Den- temperature of the water and, although the anmark, Belgium, France, Antwerp, Italy, Amer- nual migration from the sea to the rivers is ica, Paris and Russia. He was knighted in solely for the purpose of reproduction, it takes 1909 and was an officer of the Legion of Honor. place when the temperature of the water lies Author of Heart of the Antarctic (1909); between 56° and 66°, and is hastened or reDiary of a Troopship.'

tarded accordingly by warm or cold seasons. SHACKLETON, Robert, American writer : The movement of the schools begins in Novemb. Wisconsin, 26 Dec. 1860; d. Hyeres, France, ber and ends in March in the Saint John's 24 Feb. 1923. He studied law in Michigan, was River and progresses regularly from south, admitted to the Ohio bar, was journalist in New northward, as the season advances, the chief York five years, was in Philadelphia as associate runs in the Potomac occurring in April, in the editor of The Saturday Evening Post two years. Delaware in April and May and in the KenHe is the author of Toomey & Others) (1900); nebec in May and June. During the earlier Many Waters) (1902); The Great Adven- weeks of the migration males predominate, durturer' (1904); "The Quest of the Colonial ing the later, females. The eggs may be de(with Elizabeth Shackleton, 1907); Adven- posited anywhere above brackish water, at the tures in Home-Making! (1910); A Living mouths of creeks or high up the rivers. No Without a Boss) (1911); (Unvisited Places of nest is formed or other care given the eggs; Old Europe (1913); <The Charm of the the spawn and milt are simply ejected in interAntique (with Elizabeth Shackleton, 1915); mingling streams as the male and female fish Four on à Tour in England (1915); Life of swim side by side about the time of sunset. Russell H. Conwell! (1916); (The Book of The fertilized eggs are about one-eighth of an Boston' (1916).

inch in diameter with a water space beneath the SHAD, the popular name of three recog

egg membrane and, being heavy, sink to the nized anadronous fishes of the genus Clupea,

bottom. From 30,000 to 100,000 eggs are taken viz., the Allis, or European shad; the Amer- artificially from each female, but the natural ican shad, clupea sapidissima; and the Twaite yield is much greater. After spawning, the fish shad, clupea finta. To these should be added which are lean and starved begin to feed and a fourth, recently discovered to be distinct, to move sea-ward. The young shad remain in the the Gulf States. This genus is closely allied rivers much longer and do not finally enter the to the alewives (Pamolobus), from which it is bays and coastal waters until the temperature distinguished by the very deep head, particu- of the river water approaches 40° when, in Nolarly the cheeks, and by having the upper jaw vember, they are about three inches long. They compressed and grooved to receive the tip of remain in the sea for three or four years until the lower. The American Atlantic shad is the mature, though a few immature ones often largest of the herrings found in this country,

enter the rivers in the spring with herrings or the female exceeding the male and generally

shad, and they have been found on several ocweighing at the spawning age three to six

casions in shallow bays along the coast. Bepounds, though larger ones are taken. On the sides man, the shad has many enemies, and the Pacific Coast, where the shad has been intro- destruction of the eggs and young by predaduced and established, it reaches a greater ceous fishes, and especially by eels, is enormous. weight. The body is deep and compressed,

Because of this fact and the added one that especially on the belly, where the scales and shad can be caught only before and during the their supporting bones form a series of serra- spawning season, and for various other reasons, tions; the scales are large and very easily de- the shad fisheries had greatly declined and in tached; the mouth toothless and the gill-rakers some places had even been abandoned during long and numerous. The numerous slender, the seventies. pin-like bones, which are such an annoyance at To remedy this the United States Fish Comthe table, are chiefly several series of inter- mission took up the problem of the artificial muscular bones which support the muscle seg- propagation of shad and succeeded so well that ments above the ribs. There is a narrow lat- the fisheries have not only been saved, but eral strip of dark muscle.

greatly extended and at the present time are The northern limit of the shad's range is dependent on this means of maintaining the the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, south of which it abundance of this fish. The chief advantage of enters all of the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard artificial over natural propagation lies in the unless prevented by some obstruction. Intro- much larger percentage of eggs fertilized and hatched. In its perfect state the method is very shad is about a half less than the common spesimple but exact. The spawn-takers enter the cies, and weighs on an average about two boats as the nets are drawn and select and strip pounds. with great precision the ripe males and females, Bibliography.- Goode, "The Fisheries Inthe milt being squirted over a layer of eggs in dustries of the United States) (Washington the bottom of a moist pan, after which a small 1884–87); Stevenson, The Shad Fisheries of quantity of water is added and the whole gently the Atlantic Coast,' Report United States Fish agitated. The surplus milt is then washed away Commission (Washington 1899); Brice, CA and eggs carefully washed and cleaned. As the Manual of Fish Culture (Washington 1897) eggs are heavier than the water they are now Cunningham, Marketable Marine Fishes hatched in a closed McDonald or siphon jar, to (New York 1896); and the Annual Reports of which a stream of fresh water is admitted the United States Bureau of Fisheries. See through a glass tube running to the bottom, and CLUPEIDE; HERRING. the overflow drawn off at the top, thus con- SHAD-BUSH. See AMELANCHIER. stantly moving the eggs. They begin to hatch

SHAD-FLY, a May-fly (q.v.). in about a week, though the time varies with the temperature, and as the young fry and

SHAD-WAITER. See WHITEFISHES. nearly hatched eggs rise to the surface they are SHADDOCK, a small tree (Citrus dedrawn off automatically at the outlet into larger cumana) of the order Rutacee. It is a native vessels. With careful attention to details the of the Malay Archipelago, whence it has been fry are distributed to the various creeks and introduced into India, the West Indies, Florida, rivers a few days after hatching, in some cases California and other warm climates for its the special cars devised for carrying young fish fruits. It is a small tree about 25 feet tall, being employed for their transportation. They with large ovate leaves, large white flowers and may, however, be readily reared in ponds, and light yellow or pink fruits, with sweet or acid many have been thus kept for months or even pale yellow or reddish pulp, arranged in sections a year before being liberated. The shad- like those of the orange. In some horticultural hatching work at one time reached enormous varieties the fruits are more than six inches proportions. In 1900, for example, the United in diameter and weigh more than 10 pounds. States Fish Commission hatched and distrib- The true shaddocks are pear-shaped and are uted 241,056,000 fry; but in the fiscal year 1916- seldom found in the northern markets, since the 17 the distribution fell to 77,946,000 fry. round fruited kinds or "pomelos” are in Amer

The great estimation in which the shad is ica considered more valuable for shipping. The held as a food-fish led to the development of name "grape-fruit” is often applied to the shadthis fishery so that it is exceeded in value only dock because it is produced in clusters someby that of the cod and salmon. The fisheries at- what resembling grapes. Other popular names tained their greatest extent in Delaware Bay are forbidden fruit, fruit of paradise, pumelo, and river, Chesapeake Bay and tributaries and pompelos and variations of spelling. The tree is the North Carolina sounds. By 1916 the sup- somewhat larger than its relative, the orange, ply had become imperiled by unrestricted fish- and is planted about 30 feet apart. It is found ing and by obstructions and pollutions. In the to be most satisfactory when budded upon its Hudson, formerly one of the leading shad own stock, or that of the sour or sweet orange, streams, the catch decreased from 588,898 in the first being preferred by many growers. It is number in 1896 to 9,287 in 1916; in the Chesa- considered more tender than the orange and in peake region, from over 7,000,000 pounds in the United States is grown only in the lower 1890 and 3,252,000 in 1909, to 1.454,535 in 1915; part of the Florida Peninsula and warmer Caliin Virginia, from 11,500,000 pounds in 1897 to fornia. The cultivation, fertilization and man4,714,124 in 1915. In 1915 these fisheries were agement are practically the same with the above operated on a capital of $1,528,824, and the exceptions to those of the orange and lemon value of their products was $1,155,670. With

(qq.v.). the exception of a few pickled and salted the SHADOOF, an ancient Egyptian contriventire catch of shad is consumed fresh. In the

ance for raising water. It is extensively in use sounds, bays and estuaries many are taken in in the East for drawing water for irrigation pound nets and weirs, but in the rivers above

purposes, and its prototype is found in use in their mouths gill nets and seines are the chief the South in the United States, where it is means of capture. Some of the great seines employed to draw water from the open "surin use on the Potomac and Delaware rivers are face) wells. The machine consists of a crossmore than a mile in length and are hauled by bar on two uprights; suspended on this horimeans of donkey engines.

zontal bar is a long rod or branch of a tree, Two species of shad are found in Europe, so fixed as to work as on a fulcrum, the long the common or allis shad (Alosa vulgaris) and end or lever pointing upward and over the the twaite shad (A. finta). The common shad water, usually a river or stream, and the short inhabits the sea near the mouths of large rivers, end behind the bar and nearest the ground. and in the spring ascends them for the purpose On the short end is affixed a weight of rock of depositing its spawn in the shallow water or dried mud, to act as a counterpoise to the about their sources. The young fry remain for long end. From the end of the long portion a a season in the waters which gave them birth, bucket is suspended. When not in

use the but on the approach of cold weather descend shadoof naturally rests with the short weighted the rivers and take refuge in the ocean. The end next to the ground and the long end, with old ones likewise return, and at this time are dependent bucket, in the air. When it is desired emaciated and unfit for food. Its color is a to draw water the bucket is pulled down (by a dark blue above, with brown and greenish lus- rope attached to the long end) and is dipped tres, the under parts being white. The twaite under the water; on account of the weight at

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