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of the district was generally recognized (Isaiah years later Somerset was claimed by his master, XXXV, 2), and its roses in the Song of Solo- arrested and imprisoned, whereupon Sharp mon (ii, 1). The herds of David are men- summoned them both before the lord mayor, tioned as grazing there (1 Chron. xxvii, 29). who discharged the slave. The master still reSHARON SPRINGS, N. Y., village in

fusing to release him, Sharp brought the case Schoharie County, on the Delaware and Hud

before the court of the King's Bench,

which resulted in son Railroad, about 50 miles west by north of

the famous decision Albany. It is in a valley about 1,100 feet above

against the legality of slavery in England the sea. It is a famous summer resort on

in 1772. In 1777 he resigned from the account of its picturesque location and its four

ordnance office because of his disapproval of noted mineral springs, a white sulphur, blue

the American War, and devoted himself theresulphur, a magnesia and a chalybeate. It was

after to philanthropy, particularly to the overincorporated in 1871. Pop. about 800; in the

throw of slavery. He was chairman of the

meeting which in 1787 formed the Association summer season, about 10,000.

for the Abolition of Slavery and was one of SHARP, Abraham, English mathematician: the founders of the Negro colony at Sierra b. Little Horton, 1651; d. Yorkshire, 15 July Leone. He was also an advocate of parliamen1742. Having studied and taught mathematics tary reform, opposed clueling and savored the in Liverpool, he was employed by John Flam- extension of privileges to Ireland. He wrote 61 steed in the Greenwich Observatory and made pamphlets in reference to the causes to which for him, in 1688–89, Flamsteed's first successful he devoted his life, among which are Repreinstrument, a mural arc. Afterward he taught sentation of the Dangerous Tendency of Tolmathematics in London and subsequently re- erating Slavery in England (1772); Treatise tired to Little Horton, where he devoted himself on Duelling'; Account of the English Polity to mathematics and to making astronomical and of Congregational Courts) (1786), etc. His bicalculation instruments, and is said to have ography was written by Prince Hoare (London been the first Englishman to make these accu- 1820) and ly Charles Stuart (1836). rately. He published a book of logarithms, the SHARP, James, Scottish ecclesiastic: b. first of its kind, was a joint author with Cros

Castle of Banii, 4 May 1613; d. Magus Muir, thwait of The British Catalogue and plotted

Saint Andrews, 3 May 1679. He was educated a number of important astronomical maps. at the University of Aberdeen and was apConsult Cudworth, W., Life and Correspond

pointed regent there, where his conduct won ence of Abraham Sharp' (Bradford 1889).

him the friendship of the clergy. He held a SHARP, Becky, the leading character in professorship in Saint Leonard's College, Saint Thackeray's novel, Vanity Fair (1847). In Andrews, and was then appointed Minister at the notes contributed by Thackeray's daughter,

Crail, Fifeshire. In 1656 he was a representaMrs. Ritchie, to the Biographical Edition of tive from the Presbytery to Cromwell, and he Thackeray's works, she makes the statement managed this mission so well that he was sent that she once saw the lady who was supposed

in 1660 to Monk and to Charles II. He treachto have unconsciously sat for the portrait of erously agreed to help Monk restore EpiscoRebecca Sharp. Literary gossip contains a pacy in Scotland, but the time for this coup story, current for a time, that Becky was the not being ripe he played the double part of portrait of Charlotte Brontë and that Miss friend to his constituents and tool of Monk. Brontë retaliated by drawing Thackeray as

When Parliament established Episcopacy in Rochester in Jane Eyre. The character has 1661 Sharp benefited from both parties, being been incorporated into a drama by J. M. Barrie appointed professor of theology in Saint Mary's in 1893; by Langdon Mitchell and by Robert College, Saint Andrews and king's chaplain for Hitchens and Cosmo Gordon Lennox in 1901. Scotland. He now completely went over to the

king's party, was consecrated archbishop of SHARP, Dallas Lore, American author and

Saint Andrews and primate of Scotland. In educator: b. Haleyville, N. J., 13 Dec. 1870. He 1663 he secured the establishment of a high was graduated at Brown University in 1895 and

court commission, in which he took precedence at the Boston University School of Theology in

of the chancellor, and the odious persecutions 1899. He was ordained in the Methodist Epis- of the Resolutioners by this court, especially the copal ministry in 1895 and held pastorates in cruelties it inflicted after the uprising in PentMassachusetts in 1896–99. He has been asso

land, made Sharp an object of intense hatred ciated with the faculty of the Boston Univer- throughout the country, a hatred shared by the sity since 1899 and since 1909 has been pro

king and court, whose tool he was regarded. fessor of English there. He was associate

Falling by accident into the hands of a party editor of the Youth's Companion in 1902-03. of his enemies in 1679, he was dragged from Author of Wild Life Near Home) (1901); the coach in which he was riding with his (The Lay of the Land? (1908); The Face daughter and was beaten to death. Consult of the Fields) (1911); (Where Rolls the Ore- Dodds, James, Fifty Years' Struggle of the gon' (1914); (The Hills of Hingham? (1916), Scottish Covenant) (London 1860); Stephen, etc.

Thomas, Life and Times of Archbishop SHARP, Granville, English abolitionist:

Sharp (ib. 1839); "The Lauderdale Papers b. Durham, 10 Nov. 1735; d. London, 6 July (Camden Society Publications, ib. 1885). 1813. He studied law, but abandoned it to ac- SHARP, William, Scottish writer: b. Paiscept a place in the ordnance office. He was the ley, 12 Sopt. 1856; d. Sicily, 13 Dec. 1905. He patron of the slave Somerset, whom he found was educated at the University of Glasgow, in the streets of London in 1769, having been after which he made a voyage to Australia. turned away by his master because of illness. In 1879 he settled in London, where he knew Sharp placed him in a hospital, and on_his Philip Bourke Marston and Dante Gabriel Rosrecovery procured employment for him. Two setti, whose lives he later wrote.

He was a

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critic of art and literature and an industrious editor. In the latter capacity he projected the "Canterbury Poets) and the Sonnets of the Century. His early life in the west highlands of Scotland probably confirmed his taste for Celtic literature and among his works is a collection made with the assistance of his wife called (Lyra Celtica. In verse he published (The Human Inheritance (1882); Earth's Voices) (1884); Romantic Ballads and Poems of Fantasy) (1886); “Sospiri di Roma? (1891); Flower o' the Vine) (1894); Sospiri d'Italia (1904). His fiction includes Children of Tomorrow) (1890); Madge o' the Pool ; Wives in Exile' (1898); "Silence Farm (1899). He wrote, also, the biographies of Shelley, Heine and Browning and Literary Essays; Greek Studies (1903–04). Two volumes of his critical work appeared in 1912 and in 1909–11 appeared a complete edition of his works (7 vols.). Consult the Memoir) by his wife, Elizabeth A. Sharp (2 vols., London 1912). See MACLEOD, FIONA.

SHARP-SHIN, a small hen-hawk (q.v.).

SHARP-SHOOTERS, the name formerly given to the best shots of a company, who were armed with rifles and took aim in firing. They are superseded by the better arms and more complete organization of modern armies. According to the United States army regulations, a sharpshooter is a grade of rifleman next below that of expert rifleman. He wears a silver badge, consisting of a pin and cross, on the left breast of the coat. Consult (Small Arms Firing Manual, United States Army.)

SHARP-TAILED GROUSE, the northern prairie-chicken (q.v.), a grouse (Pediæcetes phasianellus), which has the general habits of the pinnated grouse, but differs among other features in lacking the neck-tufts, in the characteristic form of the tail, in which the central pair of quills are soft, parallel-edged and square-tipped, projecting an inch or two beyond the next pair. It is somewhat more fond of brushy places and flies more than does the pinnated grouse, which is steadily encroaching on its northwestern habitat.

SHARPE, Samuel, English Egyptologist, Bible translator and banker: b. London, 8 March 1799; d. there, 28 July 1881. He entered the banking business of his uncles in 1814, became a partner in 1824 and continued in business successfully until his retirement in 1861. He was deeply interested in archæological research and published many works on Egyptology, as well as making translations of the Bible which were characterized by a nice discrimination. Author of "The Early History of Egypt (1836); Egyptian Inscriptions) (1837); Vocabulary of Egyptian Hieroglyphics) (1837); «The History of Egypt Under the Ptolomies) (1838); "The New Testament Translated (1840); «The History of Egypt from the Earliest Times till A.D. 640 (1846); (The Hebrew Scriptures Translated? (1865); A Short Hebrew Grammar Without Points? (1877); Inquiry into the Age of the Moabite Stone (1879), etc.

SHARPLES, shär'p'lz, Stephen Paschall, American chemist : b. West Chester, Pa., 21 April 1842. He was graduated at Harvard in 1866, and in 1875-93 was professor of chemistry at the Boston Dental College. He has

been a consulting chemist since 1872, and in 1885–1902 he was inspector and assayer of liquors for Massachusetts. He is the editor of the Genealogical Magazine. Author of Chemical Tables) (1866).

SHARPLESS, Isaac, American educator: b. Chester County, Pa., 16 Dec. 1848; d. 16 Jan. 1920. He was graduated from the Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard, in 1873, was instructor in mathematics at Haverford College in 187579, occupied the chair of mathematics and astronomy there in 1879–85, was dean in 1885-87 after which he was president of the college. He wrote textbooks of_astronomy and geometry and also published English Education (in International Education Series, 1892); A Quaker Experiment in Government (1898); (Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History (1900); (The American College (1915), etc. He received honorary degrees as follows: Sc.D. from University of Pennsylvania, L. H. D. from Hobart College, LL.D. from Swarthmore College and from Harvard University. He was a member of the council of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

SHARPLESS, James, American artist: b. England, 1751; d. New York, 26 Feb. 1811. He began his artistic career in the United States in 1794 with a series of pastel portraits for which some of the most eminent men of the day gave him sittings, and there are still extant by him portraits of Washington, Jefferson, Hamilton, Monroe, De Witt Clinton, Burr, etc. These are treasured in the National Museum at Philadelphia, where they were placed, 40 in all, in 1876. He was also interested in mechanics and in the first volume of the Medical and Philosophical Register (1811) is a paper by him on steam-carriages. He is buried in the churchyard of Saint Peter's, Barclay street, New York.

SHARPS, Christian, American inventor: b. New Jersey, 1811; d. Vernon, Conn., 13 March 1874. He developed a taste for mechanics at an early age and practically devoted his life to invention. He was the originator of many ingenious implements, but none of these gave him such fame and remuneration as the breech-loading rifle which bears his name. In 1854 he removed to Hartford, Conn., to superintend the manufacture of this rifle, and he subsequently invented other firearms of great value and patented many ingenious implements of various kinds.

SHARPSBURG, Md., a village in Washington County, beautifully situated in a narrow valley, 12 miles south of Hagerstown, about the same distance north of Harper's Ferry and three miles east of Shepherdstown, on the Potomac. It has no manufactures, but is surrounded by a fine farming country, the chief products of which are corn, wheat, hay, apples, peaches and other fruits. It is chiefly noted as the scene of the battle of Antietam (q.v.) or Sharpsburg, fought on the outskirts of the village, 17 Sept. 1862, in which more

were killed and wounded than on any other day of the Civil War. Pop. 1,100.

SHARPSBURG, Pa., borough in Allegheny County, on the Allegheny River and on the Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis and the Pennsylvania railroads, six miles northeast of Pittsburgh. It is in a coal-mining


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region. The chief industrial establishments are caps (which the women wore), as well as small foundries, blas: furnaces, rolling mills, machine food baskets and a rude form of dug-out canoe. shops, bottle works, planing mills, hair, felt and They rapidly succumbed to the encroachments lubricating oil works, wire and brick works. of civilization, and while the tribes composing Other manufactures are oil cans, varnish and the stock were never populous, their total numjapan, chemicals, coal-mining tools and oil-well ber at present is about 1,500, most of whom are machinery. It has large coal yards and exports on the Siletz Reservation in Oregon. Mount annually a large amount of coal and of steel Shasta derives its name from these Indians. and iron products. It has a high school, public · Consult Dixon, R. B., "The Shasta? (in Ameriand parish elementary schools and a public can Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. library. Pop. 8,921.

XVII, New York 1907). SHARPSBURG (Md.), Battle of. See

SHATTUCK, shăt'úk, Frederick Cheever, ANTIETAM, BATTLE OF.

American physician, brother of G. B. Shattuck SHARPSHOOTER, popular name in (q.v.): b. Boston, Mass., 1 Nov. 1847. He was southern United States for any of several graduated at Harvard University in 1868 and hemipterous insects which puncture the imma- took his M.D. there in 1873. He engaged in ture cotton bolls, causing them to wilt or rot. practice in Boston in 1875, was connected with Of these the Homalodisca coagulata is the the faculty at Harvard from 1879, and from most common. The Mexican boll-weevil is 1888 he was Jackson professor of clinical medilikewise known by the name in some parts of cine there. He became professor emeritus in Texas.

1912, at the same time retiring from practice. SHARSWOOD, shärz'wud, George, Amer- He has been an overseer of Harvard since 1913 ican jurist: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 7 July 1810;

and is a retired lieutenant in the United States d. there, 28 May 1883. He was graduated at

Army Medical Reserve Corps. Author of many the University of Pennsylvania in 1828 and papers in medical journals. was admitted to the bar in 1831. He served in SHATTUCK, George Brune, American the State legislature in 1837–38 and in 1842-43, physician: b. Boston, Mass., 18 Aug. 1844; d. and in 1845 was appointed judge of the District there, 12 March 1923. He was graduated at Court of Philadelphia, becoming president of Harvard in 1863 and took his M.D. there in 1869. that court in 1848. In 1848 he was appointed He was engaged in practice in Boston in 1869– to the bench of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 1911, when he retired. He edited the Boston vania, of which he was chief justice from 1878 Medical and Surgical Journal in 1881-1911. At until he retired in 1882. He ranked as one of the time of his retirement he was senior phythe most eminent jurists in the State. He was sician to the Boston City Hospital. He was an professor of law at the University of Pennsyl- overseer of Harvard in 1890-1901 and in 1903–12. vania in 1850–67. He brought out editions of many English law textbooks, of which the most

SHATTUCK SCHOOL, The, a noted colfamous was Sharswood's Blackstone's Com

legę preparatory shool at Faribault, Minn., ore mentaries? (1859). He was author of Profes

ganized in 1865 and controlled by the Protestsional Ethics? (1854); Popular Lectures on

ant Episcopal Church. The corporate name of Common Law (1856); Lectures on Commer

the Shattuck School and the Seabury Divinity cial Law) (1859), etc.

School, which is also at Faribault, is the “Bishop

Seabury Mission. The school has 19 instrucSHASTA, Mount, a peak of the Sierra

tors and 250 students. The school course is Nevada range in Siskiyou County in California.

divided into five forms of one year each, and It is of volcanic origin, about 14,350 feet above

the establishment is managed on the house syssea-level, and on its summit are three glaciers, one of which, Whitney, is three miles long. On

tem. Military drill is obligatory, and there is the slope and near the base are large trees, some

a cadet corps with four companies, and an 300 feet high. The mountain is conical in form

artillery platoon with two detachments. The and has been a dormant volcano for a long

principal buildings connected with the school period. Consult Muir, "The Mountains of Cali

are the chapel, Shumway, Morgan, Smyser, fornia(New York 1911).

Whipple and S. S. Johnson halls. The school

was named in honor of one of its earliest beneSHASTA (shäs'ta) INDIANS, probably from tsasdi, "three, referring to a triple-peak

factors, Dr. George Shattuck, the founder of

Saint Paul's School, Concord, N. H., and its mountain. A group of small tribes forming the

head master from 1867 has been the Rev. James Sastean linguistic stock of American Indians, formerly occupying the territory drained by

Dobbin. Since its organization the school has Klamath River and its tributaries from the

graduated over 2,000 students. Consult Adams, western base of the Cascade range to the point

Some Famous American Schools (1903). where the Klamath flows through a ridge of

SHAUGHNESSY, Thomas George, 1st hills east of Happy Camp, in northern Cali- BARON OF MONTREAL, Canadian Railway presifornia and extending over the Siskiyou Moun- dent: b. Milwaukee, Wis., 6 Oct. 1853; d. Montains in Oregon as far as the confluence of treal, Canada, 10 Dec. 1923. In 1868-82 he was Stewart and Rogue Rivers. They consisted of connected with the Milwaukee and Saint Paul two divisions, marked by slightly divergent and the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul raildialects, one comprising the Iruwaitsu, Kam- roads, in which time he gained a mastery of railmatwa and Kikatsik; the other the Chimelakwc road management. He became purchasing agent and Katiru. They have practically lost their of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1882, later native customs through contact with civilization, assistant general manager and presibut they were a sedentary people, living in dent of the Canadian Pacific Railway and all rectangular, semi-subterranean plank houses, its associated companies. He accomplished an and subsisting chiefly on salmon and other fish, important share in the development of Canada acorns, roots and seeds. They made basket and his services were recognized by a knight


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hood in 1901, while in 1916 he was created Baron Shaughnessy of Montreal.

SHAW, shâ, Albert, American editor and political economist: b. Shandon, Butler County, Ohio, 23 July 1857. He was graduated from Iowa College, Grinnell, Iowa, in 1879, took a post-graduate course in constitutional history and economic science there, and in 1881 began a course in history and political science at Johus Hopkins, taking the degree of Ph.D. in 1884. In 1883–88 and again in 1889–90 he was on the editorial staff of the Minneapolis Tribune, in 1888–89 he studied in Europe and in 1891 established the American Review of Reviews, which he has since edited. In 1884 he published Icaria, a Chapter in the History of Communism, which was translated into German. His other works include Co-operation in the Northwest' (1888); Local Government in Illinois? (1883); Municipal Government in Great Britain (1895), and Municipal Government in Europe) (1895). The last two mentioned gave him a recognized standing as an authority on questions of municipal government, and he has since written many magazine arti

cles on economic, especially municipal, sub• jects. Other works are (The Business Career

in its Public Relations (1905); Political Problems of American Development' (1907);

The Outlook of the Average Man (1907); Cartoon History of Roosevelt's Career (1910).

SHAW, Anna Howard, American woman suffrage leader, minister and physician: b. Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, 14 Feb. 1847; d. Moylan, Pa., 2 July 1919. She came to the United States at the age of four, studied at Albion College, Michigan in 1872–75, was graduated at the Boston University of Theology in 1878 and took her M.D. at Boston University in 1885. She was granted a local preacher's license by the district conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and paid the expenses of her education by, preaching and lecturing. She was pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Hingham, Mass., in 1878, and at East Dennis in 1878–85. She was, however, refused ordination by the New England Conference because of her sex, and the decision was confirmed by the General Conference at Cincinnati in 1880. She was ordained in the Protestant Methodist Church 12 Oct. 1880, the first woman ordained by that denomination. In 1885 she resigned her pulpit to lecture for the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association. She was national superintendent of franchise for the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1886-92; and in her connection with the National American Woman Suffrage Association she was national lecturer in 1886–1904; vice-president-at-large in 1892– 1904; president in 1904–15; and thereafter was honorary president. To her courage, initiative, resourcefulness and sound reasoning may be credited much of the success of the woman suffrage movement, the constitutional amendment for which was passed by Congress shortly before her death. She was in her lifetime the recipient of world-wide honors, had spoken in every State in the Union, before most of the State legislatures, before the committees of both houses of Congress; as well as being the first woman to speak in Gustav Vasa Cathedral, the State Church of Sweden, and the first

ordained woman to preach at the universities of Copenhagen, Berlin, Christiania, London and Amsterdam. She

chairman of the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense from 1917, and received the distinguished service cross for her services in the European War.

SHAW, Byam, English artist: b. Madras, India, 13 Nov. 1872. In 1878 he went with his family to England, and received his art education at the Saint John's Wood School of Art and the Royal Academy Art Schools (1890–92); In 1892 he began work as an illustrator, and gradually attained success in this line, first painting Rose Marie,' being exhibited in 1893. His work was received with favor by art critics and became immediately popular as well. It is marked by individuality, fertility of imagination and brilliant coloring. His other pictures include (Silent Moon (1894);

Whither? (1896); (Love's Baubles) (1897); (Truth(1898); Love the Conqueror; A Woman's Protest); (The Lady of Shalott.? Among the works he has illustrated are Browning's Poems) (1898); (Tales from Boccaccio (1899); Chiswick Shakespeare (1900); Old King Cole's Book of Nursery Rhymes) (1901); (Coronation Book (1902); Pilgrim's Progress (1904); "The Cloister and the Hearth' (1909); Poe's "Tales(1909).

SHAW, George Bernard, Irish dramatist and critic: b. Dublin, 26 July 1856. He went to London in 1876, engaged in socialistic agitation, and in 1884 became one of the founders of the Fabian Society. To the volume of Fabian Essays in Socialism' (1889) he contributed «The Basis of Socialism) and The Transition to Social Democracy.' During 1886-94 he wrote musical and art criticisms for the World, Truth and the Star. In 1895–96 he contributed dramatic criticism to the Saturday Review, and arrested attention by the vigor and severity of his judgments. In 1892 his first play, Widower's Houses,' was produced at the Independent Theatre, and was published as Volume I of the Independent Theatre series of plays. Between 1880 and 1883 he published several novels, such as “The Irrational Knot'; Love Among the Artists'; Cashel Byron's Profession) and (An Unsocial Socialist. Two volumes of interpretative studies, (The Perfect Wagnerite) and "The Quintessence of Ibsen,' deal with the works of Wagner and Ibsen, the former especially concerning itself with Wagner's chief work, The Ring of the Nibelungs. In 1898 he published two volumes of Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant, containing the (Widower's Houses); The Philanderer and Mrs. Warren's Profession); (You Never Can Tell); Arms and the Man); (Candida' and The Man of Destiny. In 1900 appeared (Three Plays for Puritans); followed by The Admirable Bashville) (1901); Man and Superman (1903); John Bull's Other Island (1904); "How He Lied to Her Husband' (1904); Major Barbara) (1905); (The Doctor's Dilemma' (1906); "Getting Married? (1908); The Showing-up of Blanco Posent (1909); Press Cuttings) (1909); The Dark Lady of the Sonnets) (1910); Misalliance) (1910); (Fanny's First Play) (1911); (Androcles and the Lion'; Pygmalion'; and Overruled (1912); (Great Catherine! (1913);

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(The Music-Cure) (1914); (O'Flaherty, V. C.'; sequently seeing other service both at home (The Inca of Persalem (1915); Augustus and abroad. does His Bit(1910); Heartbreak House

SHAW, John Balcom, American Presby(1917). Other works include "The Sanity of Art (1895); (The Common Sense of Munici

terian clergyman, educator and author; b. Bell

port, N. Y., 12 May 1860. He was graduated pal Trading (1904); Socialism and Superior Brains) (1910); (Common Sense about the

at Lafayette College in 1885, at the Union War) (1914); besides numerous contributions

Theological Seminary in 1888 and was

dained in that year. He held pastorates in to syndicate journalism. He is fearless, vigor

New York, Chicago and Los Angeles in 1888– ous and witty, a master of irony, unhampered

1915, and has since been president of the Elmira by the traditions either of the theatre or of

College for Women. Author of Four Great literature, his style having that ephemeral bril

Questions) (1898); (The Difficult Life) (1903); liance without permanent quality which pleases

Vision and Service) (1907); (The Angel in the passing popular fancy. As a dramatist he

the Sun (1914), etc. is resourceful in effective situations; but his plays appeal to a limited public. (See CANDIDA; SHAW, John William, American Catholic MAN AND SUPERMAN). Consult his preface, archbishop : b. Mobile, Ala., 12 Dec. 1863. He Mainly About Myself, to Volume I of Plays was educated at the academy of the Brothers of Pleasant and Unpleasant) for statement of his the Sacred Heart, Mobile, at Saint Finian's point of view; Burton, R., Bernard Shaw; Seminary, Navan, Ireland, the University of The Man and the Mask) (1916).

the Propaganda and the North American ColSHAW, Henry Wheeler, "Josh BILLINGS,”

lege, Rome. He was ordained to the Roman American humorist: b. Lanesborough, Mass.,

Catholic priesthood on 26 May 1888. In 1888

89 Father Shaw was assistant at the cathedral 21 April 1818; d. Monterey, Cal., 14 Oct. 1885. He entered Hamilton College in 1832, but re

of Mobile; in 1889-91 assistant and missionary

at Saint Peter's Church, Montgomery, Ala., and mained only one year. He then went to the

in 1891-1910 was rector of the cathedral at West to pursue a number of occupations

Mobile and chancellor of the diocese. On 7 offered by the primitive frontier life, but re

Feb. 1910 he was appointed coadjutor bishop turned to the East in 1858, and became an

of San Antonio, Tex., succeeding to the see, 11 auctioneer at Poughkeepsie. He contributed

March 1911. On 25 Jan. 1918 he was appointed humerous articles to a local paper under the

archbishop of New Orleans. signature of "Josh Billings, but his writings failed to attract much attention until he em- SHAW, Lemuel, American jurist: b. Barnployed a style of phonetic spelling resembling stable, Mass., 9 Jan. 1781; d. Boston, Mass., 30 his homely method of pronunciation. His first March 1861. He was graduated at Harvard book, Sayings of "Josh Billings" 1866, had University in 1800 and became prominent in the an enormous success. For many years he con- practice of law in Boston. He sat in the Massatributed to the New York Weekly. His most

chusetts house of representatives and senate, successful literary venture was a travesty on 1811-16 and in 1819, and in the State senate the Old Farmer's Almanac,' published for 1821--22 and 1828–29, and was a member of the many years by the Thomas family, Josh State Constitutional Convention of 1820. As Billings Farmers' Allminax.”; Over 200,000 chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme copies were sold within two years of its ap- Court, 1830-60, he won a high reputation as a pearance in 1870. In 1863 he began to give jurist. His publications include addresses and public lectures, which consisted of detached bits orations. He was a Fellow of the American of homely philosophy, usually pointing a moral. Academy of Arts and Sciences; a member of The delivery having an inimitable strain of the Massachusetts and New England Historical drollery made him a great popular success. He Societies and of various local clubs, and a truspublished Every Boddy's Friend (1876); tee of the Boston Library and Humane socieJosh Billings' Complete Works? (1876); Josh ties. He translated from the French the Civil Billings' Trump Kards) (1877), Josh Bill- and Military. Transactions of Bonaparte. His ings' Spice-Box (1881). Consult the Life judicial decisions comprise nearly 50 volumes. by F. S. Smith (New York 1883).

SHAW, Leslie Mortier, American lawyer SHAW, John, American naval officer: b. and politician: b. Morristown, Vt., 2 Nov. 1848. Mount Mellick, Queen's County, Ireland, 1773; He was graduated from Cornell College, Mount d. Philadelphia, Pa., 17 Sept. 1823. After serv- Vernon, Iowa, in 1874, and from the Iowa Coling on American merchant ships he commanded lege of Law in 1876; was admitted to the bar the schooner Enterprise of the United States and established a law practice in Denison, Iowa. navy, and in December 1799 started on an eight He was also prominent in local financial circles, months' cruise, during which he engaged in five and became president of the bank of Denison, actions with the French, recapturing 11 Amer- and of the bank of Manilla, Iowa. He ocican prizes and taking five French privateers. casionally took part in the campaign work of In one hour's combat he forced the Flambeau, the Republican party, but did not become promia French vessel of 100 men and 14 guns, to nent until the campaign of 1896, when his surrender after half of her men were killed or strong advocacy of the gold standard, his skilcrippled, while the Enterprise had sustained a ful handling of statistics, and keen arguments loss of but 10. Shaw was raised to the rank in public speaking won him a wide reputation, of captain; in 1811 he directed the defenses of and he was called upon to speak in many difNew Orleans, La., and in 1813 commanded the ferent sections of the country. His effective naval force which recaptured Mobile, Ala.; in work on the Republican side in the free silver 1814 while in charge of a squadron he was campaign of 1896, speaking an average of five blockaded by the enemy in the Thames River hours a day some weeks and as high as seven between New London and Norwich, Conn., sub- hours for several consecutive days, led to his

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