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21 By permission of American Museum of Natural History, New York

2 Phoebus in his chariot

1 Diana of Actæon

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BILL.

after an Italian conception; Phæbus in his on snails and fresh-water mussels. See OPEN biga (chariot); an engraved nautilus shell displaying legends, prayers and emblems. In the SHELL MONEY. See WAMPUM. British Museum also are a number of fine specimens of this art. Cyril Davenport, in his work

SHELL-SAND. Sand consisting in great Cameos (London 1900), gives good illustra

part of fragments of shells comminuted by the tions of two white and gray cameos depicting

beating of the waves (see Sand), and often respectively. “Ganymede and an Eagle) and

containing a small proportion of organic matter. Hercules killing Cacus, both of 16th century

It is a very useful manure, particularly for clay Italian origin; a "Centaur” cut in Cypræa shell

soils, heavy loams and newly-reclaimed bogs. of the same date and origin, and a male por

It is also advantageously applied to any soil

deficient in lime. trait mounted as a pendant attributed as the

It neutralizes the organic others.

acids which abound in peat, and forms with Technique.--- In the May 1913 issue of the

them compounds which serve as food for plants. American Museum Journal, New York, L. P.

Great deposits of shell-sand are found on the

coasts of Devonshire and Cornwall, and are of Gratacap, curator, gives a clear description of the technique of shell cameo carving. But few

much value in the agriculture of that district.

Shell-sand is also found on many other parts of a number of shells are of value for this

of the European coasts, and is much used as purpose, those showing dullness, weakness or turbidity or having speckled under surface of

a manure in the maritime districts of France, the upper layer are rejected. Thinness of the

especially Bretagne and Normandy. It abounds

upon the coast of Florida and the Gulf of Mexback layer causes the artist to discard such.

ico and in some places has been compacted and Having selected a shell, a tin wheel, assisted

cemented into the rocky substance called cowith water or emery powder, cuts the object

quina, and often used as a building-stone. into pieces and the best, from the point of view of color and texture, are selected for opera- SHELLABARGER, Samuel, American tion. The design to be carved is chosen ac- lawyer and politician: b. Clarke County, Ohio, cording to its adaptation in size and treatment; 10 Dec. 1817; d. Washington, D. C., 6 Aug. the thickness of the layers and other qualifi- 1896. He was graduated from Miami Unications of the specimen point to the degree of versity, Oxford, Ohio, in 1842, and was adboldness of the execution permissible. In the

mitted to the bar in 1847. In 1851 he was execution of large chef-d'oeuvres the entire elected to the Ohio State legislature, and was a shell surface is sometimes covered with the member of Congress in 1861-63, 1865–69, and design. Next the artist prepares the surface by

1871-73. In 1871 he introduced what was eliminating all imperfections such as discolora- known as the Ku Klux Law.” In 1869-71 tion, roughness of surface, etc. The outer edge he was Minister to Portugal, and after his last of the cameo is next produced, in oval, square term in Congress he was appointed a member or oblong form, with the aid of a small grind

of the Civil Service Commission, but devoted stone whose lower part revolves in a trough

himself to the practice of law in Washington. of water (grinding is less liable to split or

See UNITED STATES RECONSTRUCTION. splinter the tender layers of the shell than

SHELLEY, shěl'i, Harry Rowe, American sawing). A handle is now cemented to the

organist and composer: b. New Haven, Conn., shell with a mixture of tar, resin and brick

8 June 1858. He studied music at Yale under dust, wetted paper being used to cover the Professor Stoeckel and afterwards Dudley shell's back. After fixing the handle in the Buck, Vogrich and Dvorák. After completing wooden chancery of a notched board the his musical education in Paris and London, shell's surface is cleaned and a drawing of the he began his career as professional church orsubject penciled in. In the work of carving ganist and since 1899 has been engaged at the 10 graving tools (burins, etc.), of different

Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, New York. He sizes are used. With the carving finished the has composed many songs, anthems and organ background is planished with boxwood bur

pieces, and his sustained compositions include nishers, working in pumice and oil first, then in two sacred cantatas; lyric music drama, Rorotten stone moistened with a little sulphuric meo and Juliet'; a lyrical intermezzo, Santa acid (oil of vitriol). The polishing deepens the Claus'; a Symphony in E major? ; Leila, color tones as well as creating a glaze that an opera. He is a member of the National adds distinction to the relief work. The bur- Institute of Arts and Letters. nishing process has to be quickly followed by an active cleaning off of the acid with a damp

SHELLEY, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, ened cotton wad so as to hinder its chemical

English writer: b. London, 30 Aug. 1797; d.

there, 21 Feb. 1857. She was the daughter of action from eating into the substance of the

William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. In shell, thereby creating pittings and unevenness

1814 she eloped with the poet Shelley to Switto mar the whole performance. In the more highly talented work a minuteness of detail

zerland, and after the death of his wife, Harand almost microscopic expertness are some

riet Westbrooke, was married to him. While

traveling with him she composed her famous times displayed by the artist that almost equals

romance of Frankenstein (1818), which exthat to be found in the camco carvings done

cited an immense sensation. After her husin the hard gemstones.

band's death she devoted herself much to literCLEMENT W. COUMBE, ary work, producing Valperga' (1823); The SHELL GAME. See TUMBLE RIG.

Last Man (1826); (Lodore (1835); Falkner

(1837); and other works of fiction; several SHELL-IBIS, or

SHELL or SNAIL biographies for the Cabinet Cyclopædia; JourEATER, names for the open-bill (q.v.). It is nal of a Six Weeks' Tour,' with Shelley (1814); not an ibis, but a stork, and feeds principally Rambles in Germany and Italy (1844); and

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an edition of Shelley's poetical works and miscellaneous writings. (See FRANKENSTEIN). Consult Marshall, Mrs. Julian, Life of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley) (London 1889).

SHELLEY, Percy Bysshe, English poet: b. Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, 4 Aug. 1792; d. by drowning in the Bay of Spezzia, on or after 8 July 1822. He was the eldest son of Timothy, afterward Sir Timothy, Shelley, a not over-intelligent country gentleman, and grandson of Sir Bysshe Shelley, who was something of an adventurer, handsome, clever and graceless. His mother, Elizabeth Pilford, seems to have handed on to him her beauty and her fondness for writing. After some tutoring he was sent to Sion House Academy, at Brentford, a middle class school, where his shyness and delicacy exposed him to brutal bullying. His biographers seem right in dating from this period his hatred of tyranny and resistance to all forms of oppression. He seems also to have developed his faculty for musing, for scientific speculation and for wide reading, especially at this time in the wild romances of Mrs. Radcliffe and others of her class. On 29 July 1804 he entered Eton where he remained for five years, developing along the lines just described. His tutors were not calculated to inspire his respect and thus could do little or nothing to check his extravagant and abnormal tendencies; nor could the outrageous fagging to which he was subjected fail to be deleterious to so sensilive an organization as his. He was nicknamed Mad Shelley,” lived as much apart as he could, dabbled in chemistry, haunted romantic spots, read widely - acquiring a taste for the classics, - and found some consolation in the society of. Dr. James Lind (later represented as the hermit in The Revolt of Islam and as Zonaras in Prince Athanase'), an elderly physician of scientific and eccentric tastes, who was apparently more sympathetic than discreet in his relations with a youth in need of guidance. As was natural, the precocious boy soon began writing and before he was 17 had composed a Radcliffian romance, Zastrozzi, as well as some immature poetry --e.g., parts of the Wandering Jew) written in conjunction with his cousin and future biographer, Thomas Medwin, who had also been with him at Sion House. Perhaps more important for his future was his interest in serious writers both practical and theoretical, Franklin, Pliny, Condorcet, who strengthened his native bent toward inquiry and were in part responsible for his early abandonment of religious orthodoxy.

Shelley left Eton, with somewhat unexplained abruptness, in the summer of 1809; he matriculated at University College, Oxford, 10 April 1810. From the amount he published in the latter year it would seem that he spent much of the interim in writing, and it is known that he had a love affair with a cousin, Harriet Grove. At Oxford he formed a friendship with the able, rather cynical Thomas Jefferson Hogg, and was encouraged in his wholesale recalcitrancy. The university was little hospitable to advanced ideas, and when Shelley sent to bishops and heads of colleges, copies of his syllabus of arguments demonstrating The Necessity of Atheism, it was small wonder, though a great pity, that, on his failure to answer their questions, the authorities should have handed him a sentence of expulsion al

ready signed and sealed. (25 March 1811). Hogg protested and was also expelled.

The offending pamphlet was Shelley's sixth publication, and he still lacked several months of being 20. In 1810 he had published how, is something of a mystery Zastrozzi? ;

Oriental Poetry by Victor and Cazire (written in conjunction with his sister Elizabeth, withdrawn on the ground that she had borrowed from Monk” Lewis, long sought for in vain, but finally edited by Dr. Richard Garnett in 1898); Posthumous Fragments of Margaret Nicholson (the mad woman who had tried to kill George III); and Saint Irvyne; or, the Rosicrucian,' another Radcliffian romance. It is needless to say that these productions are devoid of intrinsic merit. His fifth publication was A Political View of the Existing State of Things, issued anonymously at Oxford for the benefit of Peter Finerty, a prisoner for libel. This has entirely disappeared.

Shelley left Oxford with mingled regret and indignation and took lodgings in London. His affair with his cousin Harriet Grove had been broken off, and he was soon involved in the most unhappy entanglement of his much entangled life. Not being permitted to come home unless he would break with Hogg and refusing to do this, he found himself adrift in London, and fate brought him in contact with a friend of his sister Elizabeth's, Harriet Westbrook, the pretty daughter of a retired hotel-keeper. She was romantic and fancied herself persecuted by her family; Shelley was also romantic, and persecuted, and quixotic, and inflammable. When he went out of town in July 1811 she wrote him pitiful letters, which so worked upon his feelings that he returned to London, ran away with her and married her at Edinburgh at the end of August. How far the girl's relatives connived at the capture of the baronet's son cannot be ascertained. Naturally the Shelleys were indignant, and cut off the madcap's allowance; but Mr. Westbrook allowed them £200 a year, and finally Shelley's father contributed the same amount.

It is unnecessary to detail their movements at this juncture save to say that they spent some months at Keswick near Southey and then, Shelley being inspired by the theories of Wils liam Godwin (q.v.), they went over to Ireland to attempt to redress the wrongs of the longsuffering people. They were accompanied by Harriet's sister, Eliza Westbrook, whose presence grew distasteful to Shelley, and they remained only about two months, since the Irish did not respond enthusiastically, to Shelley's pamphlets. He was merely a visionary a little ahead of his times, for Catholic emancipation came peacefully not so many years after his death. When he returned to England, he excited the attention of the government by revolutionary writings, but he was not molested. Believing, however, that an attempt had been made to assassinate him, he returned with his wife and sister-in-law to Ireland, and then he went with Harriet to London, where their first child was born (June 1813). About this time he printed privately his nebulous poem of freethought Queen Mab,' accompanied by notes and a «yindication of vegetarianism to which he had become a convert. Eight years later a pirated edition brought Queen Mab) into notoriety, much to its author's disgust. A dia

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