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SHEPHEARD'S CALENDAR, The. He was graduated M.D. at McGill University "The Shepheard's Calendar) was published (

in 1873 and later studied in England, France, anonymously in 1579, with a dedication «To Germany and Austria. He was associated with the noble and vertuous gentleman most worthy the medical faculty at McGill from 1875 and of all titles both of learning and chevalrie, M. from 1883 was professor of anatomy there, Philip Sidney.” The book consists of 12 ec- becoming dean of the medical faculty in 1908. logues, each eclogue accompanied by a com- From 1883 he was senior surgeon of the Monmentary or glossary that gives the argument treal General Hospital. He was president of and the meaning of unusual words; and pur- the Canadian Medical Association in 1901. He ports to be written by E. K., a friend of the is joint author of American Text-Book of poet's identified by some scholars with Edmund Surgery (1892); Retrospect of Surgery) Kirke, a college-mate of Spenser's, and by (3 vols., 1881-94) and editor of Robert Craik's others with Spenser himself. The whole is Addresses! (1907). introduced by a "General Argument and an SHEPHERD, William Robert, American epistle to Master Gabriel Harvey of Cambridge. historian and educator: b. Charleston, S. C., 12 The Calendar) was an immediate success. It

June 1871. . He was graduated at Columbia went through five, editions during Spenser's University in 1893 and later studied at the lifetime, the first in 1579, and then in 1581,

universities of Berlin and Madrid. He was a 1586, 1591, 1597; and was regarded as one of member of the faculty at Columbia from 1902 the high-water marks of English poetry. "The and from 1912, was professor of history there, Shepheard's Calendar) is descended from many He has specialized in United States colonial sources. From the eclogue end its origins were history and in that of Latin America. He is in Theocritus most of all, and to varying de- honorary professor of the University of Chile. grees in Bion, Vergil, Petrarch and Bocaccio,

Author of History of Proprietary Government Mantuan, Sannazaro and Marot. In metres in Pennsylvania) (1896); Battle of Harlem and rhythms, of which Spenser attempts a wide Heights) (1898); "The Cession of Louisiana to variety, his main sources are Chaucer in par- Spain (1904); Passing of New Amsterdam ticular, Surrey, Marot, and the old ballads. The (1912); Central and South America' (1914); language of the book marks Spenser as a daring (Latin America (1914); Expansion of innovator in poetic diction. It consists of words Europe (1915); “Commonsense in Foreign and forms from Lancashire and other dialects, Policy) (1917), etc. of colloquialisms, old literary words, obsolete

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS. See HERMAS, expressions, the best of contemporary poetic SHEPHERD OF. diction, and coinages in words and in forms,

SHEPHERD KINGS. See Hyksos. often happy, sometimes far-fetched, of Spenser's own.

SHEPHERD'S PURSE, a small cruciferThe single eclogues employ the traditional ous weed (Capsella bursa-pastoris). It has devices: the monologues, the two- and three- rosettes of lobed or pinnatified leaves, a short part dialogues, the singing contests and the stem, branching into spreading pedicels carrystories. The scheme of an eclogue to the ing racemes of small white flowers, rapidly sucmonth, following the general plan of country ceeded by triangularly, heart-shaped capsules, almanacs was original. But this motive is which have suggested this name and also those followed only indifferently; in October not at of mother's heart, case-weed, shepherd's bag, all, quite fully in the January, February, Novem- etc., by their resemblance to ancient wallets. ber and December divisions. In like manner the Originally European, this plant has been naturromance of Colin's love for Rosalynd also runs alized throughout the temperate regions, bloomthrough some of the eclogues and is absent ing during the entire year, and was formerly from others. The two motives combine to used as an anti-scorbutic and in hæmatura. make the framework of the poem.

SHEPHERDSTOWN, W. Va., town in There is probably no one book in English Jefferson County, on the Potomac River and that looks in so many poetic directions as 'The on the Norfolk and Western Railroad, about Shepheard's Calendar. It is the work of a 65. miles west of Washington, D. C., and 10 young writer possessed of enthusiasm, the miles above Harper's Ferry. It was settled in splendor and excitement of the Renaissance, 1732; but there is good reason to believe a setwide taste and reading, and one of the supreme tlement was made as early as 1718 by German lyrical gifts in all poetry for tone, rhythm, colonists from Pennsylvania. In 1762 it was ornament and the enveloping glamor of a beau- incorporated as a town; first called Mecklentiful and rare spirit and mentality. Most of burg and afterward changed to Shepherdstown. Spenser's later work finds its beginnings in the It is in an agricultural region. The chief manuCalendar); and though he progressed far be- factory is a knitting factory. Other industrial yond it in every way, in profundity of content, establishments are a flour mill, machine shop in rhythm and imagery, the progression was in and cement-works. There are several churches, almost every case directly from the qualities some of which are exclusively for the colored of his first work. As the poet's poet, which inhabitants. The educational institutions are he undoubtedly is, Spenser stands from the Shepherd College, State Normal School and first revealed. In (The Shepheard's Calendar graded public schools. The government is lovers of Milton will find many of his qualities vested in a mayor, recorder and a council of predicted, and to a varying extent the same five members, elected annually. Pop. 1,276. is true of Shakespeare, Keats, Chatterton, Blake, SHEPHERDSTOWN, Engagements at Coleridge, Wordsworth and Tennyson, to men- and Near. Situated in a great bend of the tion only a few of Spenser's debtors.

Potomac, nine miles east of Martinsburg and STARK YOUNG.

on one of the principal routes from the ShenSHEPHERD, Francis John, Canadian andoah Valley to Maryland, Shepherdstown, physician: b. Cavagnol, Quebec, 25 Nov. 1851 W. Va., was the scene of much activity during




the Civil War. Both armies, at various times, on the position at Halltown for three days, crossed the Potomac at a ford about one mile and on the 25th with the four infantry divisions below the town, which was used by the Con- of Rodes, Ramseur, Gordon and Wharton, with federates when they withdrew from the Antie- their artillery, moved northward toward tam battlefield, 18-19 Sept. 1862, and by a great Shepherdstown, his cavalry at the same time part of Lee's infantry when they marched to moving on Williamsport to keep up the imGettysburg in June 1863. On 25 Sept. 1862 pression of an invasion of Maryland and PennGeneral Pleasonton's cavalry division crossed sylvania. Between Lee Town, seven miles the ford on a reconnaissance toward Martins- southwest of Shepherdstown and Kearneysburg and a few miles beyond Shepherdstown ville, Early came upon Merritt's and Wilson's encountered the Confederates in some force, cavalry, divisions, under Torbert, who had and was checked after capturing a few men. marched from Shepherdstown and Duffield's Again (1 Oct. 1862) Pleasonton crossed the that morning on a reconnaissance to Lee Town. river, with 500 cavalry and a battery of six Torbert promptly attacked Wharton's division, guns, drove the Ninth Virginia cavalry from Early advanced and drove it back in confusion Shepherdstown and pursued it across the Ope- nearly a mile. Early brought up the rest of quon and into Martinsburg, where he encoun- his command, and after a short and sharp contered the rest of Col. W. H. F. Lee's brigade and test in which artillery was freely used, Tora battery, both of which were driven from the bert ordered his two divisions to fall back, place. Pleasonton remained in the town until Wilson's by the route it had come, and Merritt's 5 P.M., when he started on his return march, by the direct road to Shepherdstown. Merritt followed by Confederate cavalry and two guns, was followed so closely by Early that when with whom about dark he had an encounter near Shepherdstown on the Charlestown road, when within a mile of Shepherdstown, after Custer's brigade was ordered out to repel the which he recrossed the Potomac. The loss

advance, in which it succeeded, driving it back; was slight on both sides. On 16 Oct. 1862 in

but it was in turn struck in flank and rear by co-operation with General Hancock's division, Gordon's division, which had marched across which advanced from Harper's Ferry toward

the country. Devin's brigade was sent to Cuse Charlestown and Winchester, General Hum

ter's relief, and engaged Gordon. Custer was phreys, with about 500 cavalry, 6,000 infantry cut off and, after a sharp fight, made his escape and six guns, marched from Sharpsburg, crossed

by crossing the Shepherdstown Ford into Shepherdstown Ford at 4 A.M., and moved

Maryland. It was now dark; Merritt rejoined toward Smithfield on a reconnaissance. A

Wilson and both joined Sheridan. The loss mile out of Shepherdstown his advance was was considerable on both sides. Early encontested by Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry brigade and camped near Shepherdstown, and next day two guns. Lee was driven beyond Kearneys

moved back across the Opequon, and on the ville, where he was reinforced by cavalry and

27th to Bunker Hill. (See Civil War IN a brigade of infantry, but was driven back, and

AMERICA). Consult Dandridge, Mrs. D., (HisHumphreys went into bivouac. The latter re

toric Shepherdstown (Charlottesville, Va., sumed his march on the morning of the 17th, 1910).

? and one and a half miles beyond Kearneysville

E. A. CARMAN. came upon Lee in a strong position. Not desiring to bring on an engagement, and having SHEPHERDSTOWN (Boteler's) FORD his cavalry make a dash on Smithfield, which Engagement at. General Lee withdrew from was found occupied by Confederate cavalry, the field of Antietam during the night of 18 Humphreys returned to Sharpsburg by the way Sept. 1862 and recrossed the Potomac into Virhe had gone out, followed by cavalry and artil- ginia by the Shepherdstown or Boteler's Ford, lery as far as Shepherdstown.

one mile below. Shepherdstown and about two After his Gettysburg campaign, Lee re- and one-half miles from Sharpsburg. Leaving crossed the Potomac at Williamsport 14 July some artillery and two small infantry brigades 1863. On that day, to watch his movements, at the ford to hold McClellan in check, he General Gregg's cavalry division was sent across marched his army for the Opequon. On the the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and on the 15th morning of the 19th Pleasonton's cavalry folmarched Shepherdstown, driving

lowed Lee to the Potomac, and in the evening cavalry from the town that evening and en- detachments of the Fifth corps forded the river, camping ncarby. On the 16th, about 1 P.M., drove away the Confederate infantry, and seized Gregg's advance near Kearneysville was at- some of the artillery. To ascertain how far tacked by Fitzhugh Lee, with his own and Lee had retreated, General Porter was authorChambliss' brigade, supported by Jenkins' ized by McClellan to send a reconnaissance bebrigade. Gregg was gradually driven back yond the Potomac on the morning of the 20th, upon his guns, when he rallied his command, and Porter ordered over the divisions of Genand the sharp engagement was continued, last- erals Morell and Sykes. Before daylight two ing until dark, both sides dismounted. This regiments crossed with spare horses, secured engagement was on the Boteler farm, about a three guns that had been taken the night bemile from town. During, the early morning fore, and took them to the Maryland side. At Gregg fell back to Harper's Ferry, with a loss 8 o'clock Sykes crossed the river with Lovell's of 70 killed, wounded and missing as the result brigade of regulars and pushed out a mile on of his fight on the 16th. The Confederate loss the Charlestown road, when he discovered the was 106.

Confederates in force, upon which Lovell fell On 21 Aug. 1864 Sheridan fell back from back, skirmishing, to the heights near the river, the line of the Opequon to Halltown, near and Warren's small brigade of two regiments Harper's Ferry, the cavalry, under General formed on his left. The Confederates encounTorbert, being moved to his right at and near tered were Gen. A. P. Hill's division of six Shepherdstown. General Early demonstrated brigades, supported by three brigades under



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General Early, all sent back by Lee when he death he served as United States circuit judge heard that the Union advance had crossed the of the First Judicial Court of Maine. His deriver. Hill's skirmishers had slowly pressed cisions appear in Holmes' Reports (1877). back Lovell, and meanwhile Barnes' brigade of

SHEPPARD, Edmund Ernest, Canadian Morell's division had crossed the river, under

journalist: b. South Dorchester, Ontario, 29 orders to go on the road to Shepherdstown; but Sept. 1855. He was educated at Bethany ColSykes ordered it straight to the top of a high lege, West Virginia, and engaged in journalism steep bluff on the river bank to connect with in the southern United States. After his reLovell's right. Before Barnes' brigade had all turn to Canada he was editor of the Saint taken position Sykes came to the conclusion that Thomas Journal in 1881-83; editor-in-chief of he was too largely outnumbered to remain on the Toronto News in 1883–87; of the Toronto that side of the river, and ordered the troops Saturday Night, which he founded, in 1887– to recross, which was done by the left in good 1906; and editor-in-chief and owner of the order, under cover of a heavy artillery fire Toronto Star in 1895–97. He represented the from the Union batteries on the Maryland side; Dominion government on a commercial mission but the withdrawal on the right was not ac- to Central and South America in 1897. Author complished without disaster. The 118th Penn

of several novels, Dolly'; "The Wisdom of sylvania or “Corn-Exchange regiment, 737 Jones, etc. officers and men, had ascended the hig bluff,

SHEPPARD, John (Jack), English crimiand was not fairly in position when it was at

nal: b Stepney, Dec. 1702; d. Tyburn, 16 Nov. tacked by five brigades of A. P. Hill's division.

1724. He was brought up in the workhouse of It made a good fight, but was attacked on both

Bishopsgate, his father having died the year flanks and in front, Colonel Prevost

after his birth. He was apprenticed to a carwounded, and it was driven in disorder over the

penter, but falling in with bad company deprecipitous rocky bluff, many being killed and

serted his master and took to a life of thieving. wounded in falling to the roadway below. The

He was first brought up in court in 1723 as a men began to cross the river, and the Confed

runaway apprentice, but having secured his reerates, advancing to the bluff, fired upon them

lease, he thenceforth, as he confessed, fell to as they were struggling to regain the opposite

robbing almost everyone that stood in his way. shore. Some were killed in the water; some

Having offended Jonathan Wild, a broker of were drowned; others, who took refuge in old

stolen goods and informer against thieves, his lime-kilns on the bank of the river, were killed

capture was effected 23 July 1724. He was tried or wounded by careless firing of the Union bat

at the Old Bailey and condemned to death, but teries; and some surrendered. In this disastrous

before his execution was effected he escaped affair the regiment lost 53 killed, 10 wounded, from prison twice. He was hanged at Tyburn in and 105 missing, or 269 out of a total brigade

the presence, it is said, of over 200,000 people. loss of 317. A. P. Hill's loss was 30 killed and

He was celebrated by all the journals and chap231 wounded. The Union loss on the 19th and

books, and even by the divines, who exhorted 20th was 71 killed, 161 wounded and 131 miss- their flocks to emulate him in a spiritual sepse. ing; the Confederate loss, 33 killed and 252 Plays have been constructed around his personwounded. After the engagement of the 20th ality and Harrison Ainsworth made him the A. P. Hill and Early marched from the field hero of his novel Jack Sheppard? (1839). and joined the main body of the army, which

SHEPPARD, Morris, American politician: bivouacked that night on the Opequon near

b. Wheatville, Morris County, Tex., 28 May Martinsburg. Consult Official Records (Vol. XIX); Smith, History of the 118th Pennsyl

1875. In 1895 he was graduated at the Univania Volunteers.

versity of Texas and subsequently studied at

Yale. In 1898–99 he practised at Pittsburg, E. A. Carman.

Tex., and since 1899 at Texarkana. On 15 Nov. SHEPLEY, shěp'li George Foster, Ameri

1902 he was elected to the 57th Congress for the can soldier and jurist: b. Saco, Me., 1 Jan. unexpired term (1902–03) of his father. Mr. 1819; d. Portland, Me., 20 July 1878. He was Sheppard was re-elected to the 58th, 59th, 60th, graduated from Dartmouth in 1837, from the 61st and 62d Congresses (1903–13) from the Dana Law School at Cambridge in 1839, and first Texas district. On 29 Jan. 1913 he was admitted to the bar in 1840. He settled in Port- elected United States senator for the unexpired land in 1844, where he established a large prac- term (ending 4 March 1913) of Joseph W. tice and in 1848–49 and in 1853–61 he was United Bailey, and on the same day was elected for the States attorney for Maine. In 1861 he was term 1913-19. He was re-elected to the Senate commissioned colonel of volunteers in the in 1919. Union army, participated in General Butler's SHERATON, shěr'a-ton, Thomas, English expedition against New Orleans, commanded furniture designer and cabinet-maker: b. Stockas acting brigadier-general at Ship Island, and ton-on-Tees, 1751; d. London, 22 Oct. 1806. He after the capture of New Orleans was appointed was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker and was military commandant, acting mayor, and was in self-taught in drawing and geometry. He setcharge of the defenses of the city until 1862 tled in Soho square, London, about 1790 and when he was appointed military governor of there began the publication of the books of Louisiana and commissioned brigadier-general furniture designs which place him in the front of volunteers. He commanded the military dis- ranks of English furniture designers. He aptrict of Virginia and North Carolina in 1864, pears to have had a small shop, but very little was with the army of the James in 1864-65, and of his work is known to be in existence. He entered Richmond 3 April 1865. He was ap- made a scanty living through the sale of his pointed military governor of the city and held books, by teaching drawing, occasional preachthe command until June when he resigned and ing in Baptist chapels, and the publication of a resumed his law practice. From 1869 until his number of religious books. He failed to SHERBROOKE - SHERIDAN


achieve personal success, his talents and tastes bestos, copper and lime are exported to the being too much diversified and untrained for United States. It is the seat of a Roman concentrated endeavor. His furniture designs, Catholic bishop, and has fine county buildings, however, had a far-reaching influence, as they post-office building, several churches, an acadwere widely copied, and they remain unexcelled emy, good schools, banks and daily, semias models of exquisite taste and simplicity. weekly and weekly newspapers. Pop. (1921) His designs showed the square, tapering leg 22,097. simple lines and quiet ornament, marquetry be- SHERIDAN, Philip Henry, American ing almost the only decoration he used. He soldier: b. Albany, N. Y., 6 March 1831 ; d. used satinwood to a marked extent, and when Nonquitt, Mass., 5 Aug. 1888. He was graduhe employed carvings they were of a flat

ated at the United States Military Academy in description. His theory was that beauty in 1853. He served in the 3d and 4th infantry furniture lies in utility worked out through regiments in the West until May 1861, when he sound lines of construction. His later work was appointed captain in the 13th infantry. shows an unfortunate departure from the rules In December 1861 he was made quartermaster laid down at the beginning of his career, his and commissary of the Union army in southnatural inventiveness being tempted by the western Missouri. He was Halleck's quarvogue of the French Empire. In these he de

termaster during the Corinth campaign in 1862. parted from his oldtime beauty and simplicity In May 1862 he was appointed colonel of the of line, and his influence is responsible for 2d Michigan cavalry and was made brigadiermuch of the grotesque carvings and ugly de- general of volunteers in July. He served with signs of the succeeding period. His name, distinction in the battles of Perryville and however, is inseparably connected with his early Stone River (qq.v.), and was made majordesigns. His books of designs are «The Cabi- general of volunteers 31 Dec. 1862. In 1863 net Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book he distinguished himself in the bloody battle (111 plates, 1791; 2d ed., 119 plates, 1793-96; of Chickamauga (q.v.), and also bore an im3d ed., 122 plates, 1802); (The Cabinet Diction- portant part in the battle of Chattanooga (q.v.), ary) (1803); (The Cabinet Maker and Artist's where he attracted the attention of General Encyclopedia? (30 parts, 1804–06). The last Grant, who, when he assumed command in work was planned in 125 parts, of which but 30 Virginia, had Sheridan transferred (April were completed when he died.

1864) to the Army of the Potomac as comSHERBROOKE, shér'brükSir John

mander of the cavalry corps. Sheridan was Coape, English soldier: b. England 1764; actively engaged in the battles of the Wilderd. Calverton, Nottinghamshire, 14 Feb. 1830.

ness, Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor He was commissioned ensign in the army in (99.v.), etc. From 9-25 May 1864 he raided 1780, served in Nova Scotia in 1784–85 and the Confederate communications around Richin 1796–1800 was on duty in India and South mond, destroying 10 miles of track on three Africa. He was sent to Egypt to negotiate a

important railroads, cutting the telegraph wires, treaty with the Beys in 1807, and in 1808 was capturing several trains and causing much in temporary command of all the troops in alarm in the Confederate capital. On 28 May Sicily. He later served in Portugal, was sec

he fought the battle of Hawes' Shop (q.v.) ond in command to Wellesley in the campaign

and 11 June that of Trevilian's Station. Nearly of 1809, and was awarded a medal for gallant

every day in May, June and July Sheridan's conduct at Talavera. In 1811 he became lieu

cavalry was engaged with the Confederate tenant-general and was appointed governor

troops or raiding their communications. On 7 general of Nova Scotia. He led a naval ex

Aug. 1864 he was placed in command of the pedition to Maine in 1814 and captured some

Army of the Shenandoah with instructions to places on the Penobscot River. In 1816 he be

clear the Confederates out of the valley. He came captain-general and governor-in-chief of defeated Early at Winchester (q.v.)19 SeptemCanada. He resigned in 1818 in consequence

ber, and at Fisher's Hill 22 September and was of a paralytic stroke and lived the remainder

rewarded by being made a brigadier-general in of his life in retirement. Consult Dictionary

the regular army. After the battle of Fisher's of National Biography) (London 1897).

Hill he laid waste the Shenandoah Valley.

Practically, everything destructible , was deSHERBROOKE, Robert Lowe, VISCOUNT.

stroyed and the horses, cattle and sheep were See Lowe, ROBERT.

driven out. His object in devastating the counSHERBROOKE, Canada, city, port and try was to prevent future expeditions by the capital of Sherbrooke County, Quebec, on the Confederates up, the valley by destroying the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk, Boston and means of subsistence. The non-combatants Maine and Quebec Central railways; 101 miles were reduced to the verge of starvation, and east of Montreal. The city is built on both Sheridan has been much censured for his sides of the Magog River at its junction with course. On 19 Oct. 1864 his army was the Saint Francis and both rivers are crossed prised and routed in the battle of Cedar Creek by fine bridges and afford abundant water (9.v.), by Early, who neglected to pursue. power for manufacturing. The most import- Sheridan, who was 20 miles away when the ant industry is the manufacture of woolen battle began, made his famous ride, rallied his cloth, one mill employing over 1,000 persons; demoralized troops, returned and decisively deother manufactures are paper, cotton goods, feated the army of Early. On 8 Nov. 1864 carpets, clothing, foundry products, machinery, Sheridan was made major-general in the reguaxes, bobbins, electrical supplies and cigars, lar army. From 27 Feb. to 24 March 1865 he and there are breweries, tanneries and flour and made a raid from Winchester to Petersburg, lumber mills. Copper, asbestos and chrome cutting three railroads, two canals, telegraph iron ore are mined in the vicinity. The local wires, destroying supplies, and leaving only trade is important and lumber, paper pulp, as- one line of railroad by which supplies could


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he brought to Lee's army. During this raid he At the age of seven he was taken to London. defeated Early again at Waynesborough (q.v.). From 1762 to 1768 he attended Harrow school, At Five Forks (q.v.) 1 April Sheridan turned where, in collaboration with a fellow-pupil Lee's flank, forcing him to evacuate Petersburg named Halhed, he wrote a farce called Jupiand begin the retreat to Appomattox. In the ter. In 1771 he moved to Bath, where he pursuit of Lee, Sheridan took a leading part, learned at first hand the foibles of the fashionand when he had placed his army squarely able world. Among the people that he met across the Confederate line of march at Appo- was the eminent composer, Thomas Linley. mattox Court House the surrender took place Linley's daughter, well-known as a singer, was (9 April).

a lovely and coquettish girl with many adFrom May 1865 to March 1867 Sheridan com- mirers. To shield her from the persecutions of manded the Military Division (later Depart- a Major Mathews, Sheridan arranged to esment) of the Gulf. His strong force on the cort her to a French convent. Near Calais he Mexican border encouraged the Liberals and became secretly married to her; his age was forced the French to withdraw their support 21 and hers 18. Linley brought them back to from Maximilian. In his Personal Memoirs) Bath and separated them. After his return, Sheridan states that material assistance was Sheridan fought two duels with Mathews, dissecretly given by the United States authorities arming his opponent the first time and being to the Liberal army under Juarez, 30,000 mus- himself seriously wounded the second. On 13 kets at one time being sent to the latter from April 1773, he married Miss Linley openly. the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge. At a very early age he began writing for After the passage of the reconstruction acts, in the theatre. On 17 January 1775, his farceMarch 1867, Sheridan was placed in command comedy, The_Rivals,' was produced at Coof the fifth Military District, consisting of vent Garden. It failed and was withdrawn. In Louisiana and Texas, with headquarters at a revised form it reappeared on 28 January, New Orleans. His career as military governor and is still being played. His farce, Saint was a stormy one. He was in favor of radical

Patrick's Day,' was first acted on 2 May 1775. measures in dealing with the conquered South

It was followed on 21 Nov. 1775, by The erners, and the troubles that arose in his dis

Duenna, a comic-opera, whose great success trict he was supported by General Grant and

eclipsed the popularity of Gay's Beggar's opposed by President Johnson, who sent sev- Opera. In 1776 he succeeded Garrick as eral messengers to him in the endeavor to influ

manager of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. ence him to a more moderate course. Sheridan, He was careless in business, but his personal believing that severe measures were necessary, popularity atoned for his practical shortcomrefused to conform to the suggestions of the ings. He produced a revision of Vanbrugh's President's agents, and Johnson, after Sheri

Relapse, called A Trip to Scarborough, dan's wholesale removal of civil officers, re- 24 Feb. 1777. On 8 May 1777, he presented at lieved him from command of the Fifth Military

Drury Lane one of the greatest comedies of District in September 1867. General Grant

all time, The School for Scandal.' He was strenuously protested, but Johnson was firm

then only 25. A farce called The Critic, in and Sheridan was transferred to the Depart

which he satirized his jealous rival, Cumberment of the Missouri. In 1869, when General

land, was performed 29 Oct 1779. This pracGrant became President, Sheridan was made

tically closed his career as a dramatist; though lieutenant-general. In 1870–71 he was with

on 24 May 1799, he produced Pizarro,' a melothe German armies observing the campaigns of

drama adapted from the German of Kotzebue. the Franco-German war; in 1875 was again

His gaiety and talent made him a great sent to New Orleans on account of the political

favorite in society. On 12 Sept. 1780 he was riots in that city; in 1878 commanded the West

elected to the Commons for Stafford, and ern and Southwestern Military Divisions; in

began a remarkable parliamentary career.

He 1883 succeeded Sherman as commander-in

developed wondrous power as an orator, and chief of the army; and in 1888 was made gen

was unexcelled for brilliancy and eloquence. eral. In person, General Sheridan was short

He was conspicuous in the impeachment of and stout, with rather harsh features.

In man

Warren Hastings. On 7 Feb. 1787 his great ner he was 'gruff, but not unkind.

He was

speech before the House of Commons, relating trusted by his soldiers, who called him "Little

to the Princesses of Oude, held his auditors Phil and believed him invincible. He

enthralled for five hours and a half. Hardly married, in 1879, Miss Rucker, daughter of

less effective was his speech at the arraignment Gen. D. H. Rucker of the United States

of Hastings in Westminster Hall, June 1788. army. In religion, General Sheridan was

Throughout his public career he maintained devout Roman Catholic. He always refused

the reputation of a pure and independent to enter politics. An equestrian statue has been

statesman. erected in his honor at Albany, N. Y.

His wife died 1792; and on 27 April 1795 he Consult Sheridan, Personal Memoirs (1888); Davies, "General Sheridan' (1895);

married Esther Jane Ogle. His income from Newhall, With General Sheridan in Lee's Last

Drury Lane averaged £10,000; but he often

overdrew his resources to lead a dazzling Campaign (1866).

social life. From 1791 to 1794 the Theatre Walter L. FLEMING, Professor of History, Vanderbilt University.

Royal was rebuilt at ruinous expense to Sheri

dan; and the destruction of the new house by SHERIDAN, Richard Brinsley, English fire in 1809 involved him in serious financial dramatist, orator and statesman: b. Dublin, difficulties. In 1812 he failed of re-election to Ireland, 30 October 1751; d. London, 7 July Parliament; and in August 1813 he was ar1816. His father, Thomas Sheridan, was an rested for debt. His health, weakened by actor; his mother was a dramatist and novelist, social dissipations, failed rapidly; and he died

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