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SHIPPING OF THE WORLD

Not to go

persistent building of sailing ships has pre- largest average tonnage in the table — 750 tons; vented any notable decrease in the sailing ton- Belgium following with 730 tons and Peru nage in Russia's shipping. Norway's sailing third on that score, with 540 tons. The largest tonnage has been declining since 1890; Sweden's average tonnage for steam vessels is shown by since 1880; Denmark's since 1880; Germany's Germany -- 1,880 tons; followed by Austriasince 1880; Holland's since 1860; France's Hungary, 1,800 tons; Netherlands, 1,740 tons, since 1860; Italy's since 1870; Austria-Hun- and Great Britain, 1,640 tons. gary's since 1870; Greece's since 1870. In the With the breaking out of the war in July case of the United Kingdom the date was 1870 1914 the destruction by war vessels of the merand for the United States 1861.

chant fleets of the belligerents began, and this farther back than 1900, the percentage of sail- destruction on the part of Germany and her ing vessels in the world's grand fleet was 23 allies was soon extended to include the shipper cent; in 1915 it had been fallen to 7 per ping of neutrals carrying contraband, few atcent.

tempts being made to capture them. In FebThe world's shipping on 30 June 1914, as ruary 1917 the German government declared recorded by the French Bureau Veritas, totaled promiscuous war on all merchant vessels of 17,135 steamers of 100 tons or over, aggregating whatever country found in certain specified 23,840,675 net tons; and 21,924 sailing vessels of areas of the open sea. This condition had al50 tons and rd, aggre 5,629,942 net ready prevailed in some waters for several tons: a grand total of 29,470,637 net tons — months previous to the declaration, and many also recorded as 45,273,783 gross tons, a figure vessels were sunk outside of the forbidden also of no small importance, as the sinkings by areas, and even those bearing safe conduct from submarines are reported on the basis of the Germany and in the so-called “safe) channels gross tonnage; the net tonnage being the vital met the same fate. The records of losses from figure in the carrying capacity of the grand these causes stop with April 1917, at which fleet.

time the British government ceased the public Table A, showing the distribution of 99.7 cation of tonnage lost, and gave thenceforth per cent of the world's grand feet, was com- only the number of vessels lost from week to piled from the records of the Bureau Veritas. week. A carefully worked-out summary of The 26 countries named are arranged in the the losses by mine and submarine from 8 Aug. order of their steam tonnage. Only steam ves- 1914 to 26 April 1917 shows a total of close to sels of 100 net tons and over and only the sail- 5,740,000 tons, of which 1,653,654 tons belonged ing vessels of 50 net tons and upward have been to neutral nations. Of the neutrals, Norway counted. Many highly interesting facts appear had suffered the most, losing 436 vessels, aggrefrom the figures in the table, among them the gating 987,816 tons; Holland came next, with a very large tonnage in sailing vessels, both loss of 76 vessels of 148,921 tons. Greece lost actual and comparative, owned in the United 60 ships aggregating 147,923 tons, and DenStates in the year cited. Though Great Britain mark 114 ships, aggregating 123,385 tons. shows a much larger number of such craft, Table B is introduced to show by the latest their tonnage averages only 190 tons as against complete figures available the condition of the 420 tons for the United States vessels. Nor- world's shipping at the date given, as it is comway's sailing fleet is notable in showing the piled from records of the Bureau Veritas. The TABLE A.- Si PPING OF PRINCIPAL NATIONS, Table B.- SHIPPING OF PRINCIPAL NATIONS, 30 30 JUNE 1914.

JUNE 1917.

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Great Britain
Germany
United States.
Norway.
France.
Japan.
Italy
Netherlands.
Sweden.
Austria-Hungary
Russia
Spain.
Greece.
Denmark.
Belgium.
Brazil.
Argentine Republic.
Turkey.
China
Chile.
Portugal.
Cuba..
Uruguay
Rumania
Mexico.
Peru.

6,594 10,785,503 4,945 935,467
1,510 2,852,797 1.041 426,919
1,103 1,481,849 2,993 1,214,974
1,266 1,108, 504| 861 600, 714
692 1,013,847 877 434, 289
803 953, 117 1,308 167, 119
537 786, 234 934 279,366
451
782,663 419

48,069
940 641,347 1,117 162, 289
345 615,554 127 11,538
622 543, 475) 3,412 559,914
438 510,000 249

30,897 342 448,857 808 142,585 470 429,337 615 78,514 132

203,311 16 11,639 257

174.295 303 67, 791 147 98,571 175 52,277 96 67, 637 985

208, 751 66 65,045 2

439 66 60, 694 82

47,954 61 51,531 252

Great Britain.
Germany
United States
Norway
Japan
France
Italy..
Netherlands.
Russia
Sweden..
Spain
Austria-Hungary
Denmark
Greece
Portugal
Brazil
Belcium.
Argentine Republic.
China
Chile..
Rumania,
Turkey
Mexico,
Cuba.
Peru
Uruguay.

6,673 11.921, 245 4,975
1,074 2,133,040 1,103
1,309) 2.053, 284/ 1,851
1,427 1.363, 358 734

932) 1,140, 767 1,493
681 1,028.655

775
598 1,025,071 949
475 898, 783 448
653 607,2113,554
826 617, 362 901
421 489, 147 234
282 486,835

91 483 461,920 634 321 430, 193 585 128 192,860 217 240 158, 745 79 102 153, 791 6 135 91, 109 49 70 60,824 7

54,438 32 29 43.233 3 69 41.346 963 24 20.048 16 27

731,019 365, 232 930,814 494, 224 191,867 386,828 243.235

49,513 583, 659 138,891 29,328

7,084 88, 280 106.997 46,379 13, 292

7,350 16, 256

865 24,695

65

42,413 41 34,969 113

11,095 30 26, 247 56

24,632 22 26, 194 22 3,567 30 22,095 47

8,512 12 17,370 58

31,390

17, 460 143 11 14,681 40 19 11,651 48

551 199,867

2,483 14,533 20,254 23,163

ลง

SHIPS - SHIR ALI KHAN

735

Losses

1920

COUNTRIES

ments
(tons)

75.000

25.000

497,860

275.265

92.382
4.275

China..
Cuba.

5,000

40,000

1,419

showing is that after three years of the most Table C.-- War Losses, REPLACEMENTS AND destructive warfare the world has ever seen, MERCHANT TONNAGE OF THE WORLI), 30 JUNE the world's grand fleet consisted of 17,135 1920. (LLOYD'S REGISTER 1920-21). steamers aggregating 25,550,159 net tons, and 19,985 sailing vessels aggregating 4,731,707 tons.

ReplaceAt their face these figures seem to show the

(tons)

tonnage same number of steamers and a gain of 1,710484 tons of steam tonnage; and a loss of 1,939

Great Britain.

7,743, 746 4,900,000 20,582.652 United States.

383,987 4,100.000 16,049,289 in the number of sailing vessels, with a loss of

Germany.

2, 706,000 9.50.000 672,671 898,235 tons of sailing tonnage. This is not Japan...

127.470 885.000 2.995.878 quite in accordance with the facts. Many of Netherlands

199,975 560.000 1.793, 396 Norway.

1,178,335 775.000 2,219,388 the sailing vessels apparently lost have been

France

907, 168 425,000 3, 245, 194 fitted with steam or gasoline engines and have Italy

854,124 375,000 2,242,393 thus passed into the class of "steamers." In

Spain.

167,693 250,000 997,030 Sweden.

201, 733 70.000 1,072,925 taking account of the world's tonnage it is to

Austria-Hungary

390,000 be remembered that under normal conditions Denmark,

239.922 95,000 803,411

183.852 Russia and Finland.

701,236 the yearly addition to the grand fleet would

Brazil.

25,464 240.000 have been the average previously quoted —2,- Chile.

10,000 320,000 103, 788 341,500 tons per year. In three years the total Greece.

337,545

530, 261 Portugal

230.000 addition would have been 7,024,500 tons, instead

Argentina

64,000 150.023 of the showing for 30 June 1917 of a net gain Belgium

166.000

415, 112 of 812,249 tons - revealing a net loss due to

15.000 40.000 142,834

10.000 30.000 the war of 6,212,251 tons; a figure not very

53,439 Mexico.

37.000 far removed from the actual losses recorded Uruguay

6,889

63,837 up to 26 April of that year.

Peru.

43,000 88,962 Turkey

60,000 A studious comparison of the two tables Rumania.

3,688

74,549 shows losses in steam tonnage by Germany,

RICHARD FERRIS. Sweden, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Greece, Belgium, Brazil, Argentine Republic, China, Chile, SHIPS, Registration of. See MARITIME Turkey, Cuba, Uruguay, Mexico and Peru; LAW. and gains by Great Britain, United States, Nor

SHIPS THAT PASS IN THE NIGHT, way, Japan, France, Italy, Netherlands, Rus

the title of a widely-read story by Beatrice sia, Denmark, Portugal and Rumania. With

Harraden. It achieved notoriety when it was the exception of Germany, Austria-Hungary and

published in 1894 to some extent, very possibly Turkey, whose losses represent vessels seized

on account of its taking title. The scene is by belligerents, or, in the case of Turkey, by laid in a Swiss winter resort for consumptives. destruction in warfare, the apparent losses do not show destruction but indicate sales of ship

SHIPTON, shịp'tón, Mother, an English ping to the principal allies fighting against

prophetess about whose existence there seems the Central Powers. The large reduction of io be no certainty, while there is no doubt that the sailing tonnage of the United States is ac- many of the sayings attributed to her were counted for by the installation of power, plac

fabricated by others. According to S. Baker, ing them in the steamer class. Another very

who published Mother Shipton's pretended large factor to be considered in making com- prophecies in 1797, she was born near Knaresparisons is that the allied nations opposing the borough, Yorkshire, in July 1488, and baptized Central Powers withdrew from their

as Ursula Southiel. She died, according to chant fleets a prodigious amount of tonnage

the same authority, at over 70 years of age, for

military purposes, and this does not but it was not until 1641 that a pamphlet apappear in the columns of these tables. Of peared containing some of her alleged predicGermany's and Austria-Hungary's ships in

tions. In 1645 all her prophecies were considforeign ports many were seized, at

ered as having been fulfilled. In 1862 a preto them of not less than 1,000,000 tons. The diction was made, with Mother Shipton's name United States alone took over 636,036 tons. appended to it, that the world would come to Figures issued by the United States Shipping an end in 1881. It caused some excitement Board in March 1919 place the world's steam among the ignorant. tonnage at 37,010,000 gross tons; the net loss SHIPWORM. See Teredo. due to the war at 4,245,000 gross tons - which includes 1,000,000 tons as Cabandoned”; and the

SHIPWRECKS. See DISASTERS OF THE further loss of the increase to have been nor

WORLD, NOTABLE. mally expected, at 12,000,000 tons: making the

SHAR ALI KHAN, shār ä'lẽ khẵn, Amir world shortage attributable to the war, 16,245,- of Afghanistan: b. about 1825; d. Mazar-i000 tons on the date cited.

Sherif, 21 Feb. 1879. He was the younger son When the armistice was signed 11 Nov. by a favorite wife of Dost Mohammed and 1918 the United States had a merchant marine was nominated successor to the throne to the of 1,366 steamers aggregating 4,685,263 gross exclusion of Mohammed Afzal Khan, the eldest tons, and 747 sailing vessels aggregating 829,- son by another wife. Dost Mohammed died in 919 gross tons; a combined total of 5,515,182 1863 and a fratricidal war ensued to determine gross tons, as compared with 2,696,763 tons in the succession. In December 1863 Shir Ali 1914 -- a gain of over 125 per cent. From such secured the recognition of the British governfigures as are available Table C has been com- ment to his succession, and in the contest that piled showing the losses, replacements, and ex- followed Mohammed Afzal was taken prisoner. isting merchant tonnage in June 1920 of the The brother and son of the latter, who retained principal maritime countries of the world. See possession of Afghan-Turkestan, renewed the MERCHANT MARINE OF THE UNITED STATES. war and in a battle which took place in May

mer

a loss

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on

1866 the majority of Shir Ali's troops deserted to the enemy. For the next three years Shir Ali's fortunes ebbed and flowed and at times he seemed likely to lose his throne forever. In 1869, however, with the recognition of the British he was fully established on the throne at Kabul. In 1877 he became estranged from the British government, and refused to receive a British mission at Kabul. At the same time he made overtures to Russia and received her mission, while relations between Russia and Great Britain were strained. The British mission being a second time repulsed, war was declared and the British invaded Afghanistan. Shir Ali fled at the approach of the British and determined upon making personal appeal at Petrograd for an alliance against the British. The Russian government sent him messages declining to enter into any such alliance, but he persisted in his journey until he had crossed the Russian frontier, where he died suddenly. See AFGHANISTAN.

SHIRAS, shi'ras, George, Jr., American jurist: b. Pittsburgh, Pa., 26 Jan. 1832. He was graduated from Yale in 1853 and from the Yale Law School the next year. Received the degree of LL.D. from Yale in 1883. Admitted to the bar in his native city in 1856 he practised there until in July 1892 he was appointed associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. Retired 1 March 1903 on age limit. He died at Pittsburgh, 2 Aug. 1924.

SHIRÂZ, she'räz, Persia, capital of the province of Fars, lies in a high valley, 220 miles southwest of Ispahan, and is reached by lofty passes. It lies in a broad plain, 115 miles east-northeast of Bushire and 35 miles southwest of the ancient Persepolis, the ruins of which still exist. Its nearest point is Kodijan. It is much praised in Persian poetry for its climate, its wine and rose-gardens. The city, with thousands of the inhabitants, was nearly destroyed for the third time in its history in 1853 by earthquake. The town now rebuilt contains mosques, a bazar, but nothing noteworthy; the suburbs are more attractive. At the north are the tombs of the celebrated poets Hafiz and Sadi, both natives of the town. It is a centre of trade, due to its position on the commercial routes leading from the port of Bushire. Shirâz is famous for its wines and inlaid work of wood and metals. It has extensive manufactures of silk and cotton, firearms, cutlery, glass, pottery, swords, etc. Pop. 40,000.

SHIRÉ, she'rā, East Africa, a river in the southeastern part of the continent. It rises in Lake Nyassa, and, after a course of 370 miles, flows into the Zambesi. It is navigable except where interrupted for 35 miles by the Murchison cataract and rapids, which have a fall of 1,200 feet. It flows through a rich agricultural country and has become an important commercial route to the lakes region. The Shiré Highlands are included in Nyasaland. There are several Scotch and English missions and settlements in the Shiré country. Cotton and grain are the chief products. The Shiré was discovered by Livingstone (1858–63), and the district was annexed as British territory in 1889. Consult Buchanan, J., "The Shiré Highlands) (1885).

SHIRE, shér or shir, in the United States the more modern term county replaces this

older name. Shire is an English term, still in general use in England, Wales and Scotland, although superseded by the modern form in most places; thus Derbyshire, Glamorganshire and Renfrewshire are «counties. In the United States counties are the first division of the State and township the next. The use of the word shire in the States has no significance as to division; it is merely a portion of a name. Thus we have the county of Yorkshire. But in England this is different. The suffix «shire) so used is in itself an indication that the division is a county.

There have been stated different periods at which, it is said, England was divided into shires. It is probable that all such statements are incorrect, and that although there exists in England a system of subdivisions known as shires, the country perhaps never was sciously so divided. If it be remembered that the Saxon people were a collection of clans and that these clans were divided into families, two or three large families to the clan, the seeming inconsistency of the above statement is explained. The head of the family was the supreme law-giver in the family. He himself was under the leadership of the head of the clan, or tribal community. These tribal communities united to form what is known as hundreds, and the hundreds united to form shires. Thus the country instead of being divided into shires was formed by the union of many separate shires, each of which was, practically, an independent kingdom. Some of these small districts still exist - Norhamshire in Northumberland and Richmondshire in Yorkshire. It was after this union of shires under one national head, not a spontaneous process, but one of slow and at times retrogradal growth, that the shire took its position as a subordinate part of the kingdom. As such it had at its head the shire-reeves, whence the modern sheriff. The shire-reeve preceding the Norman Conquest was one of the two heads of the shire organizations, the other being the ealdorman (or earl), whence comes our modern alderman. The ealdorman seemed to represent the old organization and dignity of the shire when it was an independent kingdom ; he shared certain offices with the bishop. But the shire-reeve was more particularly the representative of the king, and after the Norman Conquest he became purely a royal officer, with his importance considerably curtailed. He held the sheriff's tourn, an annual court to which came the vassals of the king. The appeal from this court was to the king himself, and from this appeal came the growth of the King's Court, in its three branches of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer. This court assessed taxes, also, and thus the sheriff became the financial head of the shire; to the Sheriff's Court, too, fell the election of knights of the shire, thus giving it the function of an assembly for the choice of shire representatives. From the time of the Plantagenet accession to the throne the importance of the shire organization decreased, the sheriff now being merely an aid to the County Court (q.v.)(See COUNTY; Feudal System). Consult J. R. Green's History of the English People, Vol. I (1870–82); Conquest of England (1884); "The Making of England (1885); Freeman's Norman Conquest, Vol. I, chs. ii-iv (1870).

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SHIRLAW, shér'lâ, Walter, American then returned to Massachusetts, where he lived painter: b. Paisley, Scotland, 6 Aug. 1838; d. in retirement the remainder of his life. He Madrid, 1909. He was brought to the United wrote Electra,' a tragedy; Bertha,' a masque; States in his second year, and began his artistic 'The Siege of Louisburg) (1745); Conduct of career in early manhood as a bank-note en- Gen. William Shirley Briefly Stated' (1758), graver. He exhibited for the first time in the etc. Consult Correspondence of William National Academy of Design in 1861. After a Shirley) (New York 1912). course of seven years' study in Munich (1870– 78) he adopted genre-painting as his specialty,

SHIRLEY, a novel by Charlotte Brontë, and also accomplished a great deal of work in

published in 1849. The scene is laid in the decoration and book and magazine illustration.

Yorkshire country, with which the author had He was one of the founders and the first presi

been acquainted from childhood. The heroine, dent of the Society of American Artists, and

Shirley, was drawn from her own sister Emily. in 1888 he became a National Academician. A

The book is richer in portrayal of character memorial exhibition of 200 of his works was

than in striking incident. held in New York and other cities in 1911. SHIRREFF, shir'ěf, Emily Anne Eliza, SHIRLEY, sher'li, James, English drama

English pioneer educator of women : b. 3 Nov. tist: b. London, 18 Sept. 1596; d. there, 29 Oct. 1814; d. London, 20 March 1897. She was a 1606. He was educated at Oxford and Cam- daughter of Rear-Admiral Shirreff and with bridge, and, having taken holy orders, obtained

her sister Maria --- afterward Mrs. William a curacy near Saint Albans. He soon after- Grey — received an excellent education, espeward went over to the Church of Rome. Then cially in languages and history. The inadequacy he removed to London, became a writer for the

of educational facilities for women impressed stage and acquired a reputation which caused the sisters deeply and their first efforts to imhim to be taken into the service of Queen prove matters lay through the publication of Henrietta Maria. His first comedy was licensed

several books of which they were joint auin 1625, and from that date he produced many

thors. These include Letters from Spain and plays in rapid succession. In 1636 he went

Barbary) (1835 or 1836); Passion and Printo Ireland to assist Ogilby in the management

ciple,' a novel (1841) ; Thoughts on Selfof the new theatre at Dublin. After his return,

Culture, Addressed to Women (1850). Miss probably early in 1610, he wrote much, and

Shirreff was a staunch supporter of the movewas conceded the foremost of English play

ment to establish Girton College, and was honwrights. He died of exposure during the great

orary mistress there in 1870, as well as being a fire. He was last of the notable series of member of the executive committee until her Elizabethan and Jacobean playwrights; and his death. With her sister she founded the Naworks, while frequently thin in plot and loosely

tional Union for Improving the Education of constructed, are clever, suave and abounding in

Women of all Classes out of which in 1877 fancy. Besides 37 tragedies and comedies, he

came the college for women now known as the published a volume of poems. His best dramas Maria Grey Training College. She was an are the tragedies (The Traitor,' (The Royal

advocate of the Froebel system, concerning Master) and The Cardinal, and the comedies

which she wrote several pamphlets. She was Hyde Park,' "The Ball,' 'The Gamester)

also author of Intellectual Education and its and “The Imposture. The best edition of his Influence on the Character and Happiness of dramatic works is that by Gifford and Dyce

Women' (1858). (1833). Consult Wood, Athena Oxonienses,

SHISHAK, shi’shăk, Egyptian king, the (ed. Bliss; 1817); Ward, History of English Sheshenk 1 of the monuments, and the first Dramatic Literature (1875); Forsythe, R. S., sovereign of the Bubastite or Libyan dynasty. Relations of Shirley's Plays to the Elizabethan

Shishak I rose to the throne from being comDrama' (New York 1914); Nason, A. H.,

mander of the powerful Libyan mercenaries; James Shirley, Dramatist: A Biographical and Critical Study (New York 1915); Parlin,

to him Jeroboam fled for protection when he

fell under the suspicion of Solomon (1 Kings H. T., A Study in Shirley's Comedies of Lon

xi, 40); and in the fifth year of Rehoboam he don Life) (University of Texas 1914).

invaded Judah, whose fenced cities he took one SHIRLEY, William, American colonial after another until he arrived at Jerusalem governor: b. Preston, Sussex, 1693; d. Roxbury, which, according to the statements of Josephus,

ss., 24 March 1771. He studied law and in fell without a struggle. (Compare 2 Chron. xii, 1731 came to America, settled in Boston, Mass., 1-10). Shishak pillaged the temple and the and there engaged in that profession. He was king's palace, carrying off the treasures acroyal governor of Massachusetts in 1741-45, cumulated in the reigns of Solomon and David, planned the successful expedition against Cape and reducing Judah to the position of a tribuBreton in 1745, and in 1745-53 was in England, tary kingdom. He ascended the throne of after which he returned to Massachusetts as Egypt about 980 B.C. and reigned at least 21 governor. He made a treaty with the Eastern years. On the southern wall of the great Indians in 1754, explored the Kennebec River, 1emple of Karnak, in Upper Egypt, is a record and erected several forts on its banks, and at of the conquests of Shishak and of the counthe outbreak of the French War in 1755 was tries ruled by him. On this are four rows of commander-in-chief of the British forces in prisoners. Each figure has his arms tied beNorth America. He planned the expedition of hind him, and a rope around his neck, and General Prideaux against Niagara and accom- Shishak, a colossal figure, leads them by a panied it as far as Oswego, but was superseded string, meanwhile branishing a weapon. In the in his military command and in his governor- lists of his conquests during the expedition in ship in 1756. He was later appointed governor which Judah was subjected to his rule we find of the Bahamas, a post he resigned in 1770, and the names of cities in both the kingdoms of

VOL. 24 — 47

738

SHITTIM WOOD-SHOCK

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Israel and Judah and of several Arabian tribes SHOCK, a sudden vital depression of the to the south of Palestine. Among those of the body usually due to sudden derangement of the cities which can be recognized in these lists functions of the nervous system, and generally are Rabboth, Taanach, Sunem, Rehob, Hap- accompanied by a dilatation of the blood-vessels haraim Adoraim, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Beth- of the surface of the body and a marked deHoron, Kedemoth, Ajalon, Megiddo and Judah crease in blood-pressure. Such a condition may Maluk, “the royal city of Judah," or Jerusalem. be brought about by both physically or psychicShishak appears to have been one of the ablest ally acting causes. A blow, a fall, a hæmorand most powerful of the Egyptian monarchs. rhage, an operation, sudden fright, an appallAll Egypt was under his sway. Consult Müller, ing sight, a heartrending cry, sudden finanW. M., Egyptological Researches) (Washing- cial loss or great and sudden bereavement are ton 1906).

among the many causes constantly acting to SHITTIM WOOD, See KITTIM.

bring about such a condition. The symptoms SHIVAISM, the religion of the Shivaites,

of shock yary greatly according to the type of or worshippers of Shiva or Siva, an ancient

cause and the individuality of the patient. Dravidian divinity of Southern India. His

Sometimes the symptoms begin at once; under proper name was Mahâdêwa, "greater god”;

other circumstances the results may be delayed but the title Shiva, the good,” was more gen

for a long period. A very severe form of shock is erally applied to him by his votaries. While

spoken of as surgical shock. This usually reShiva is the most popular of the Hindu

sults from serious operations which involve pantheon, his worship more widely obtains in

nervous structures, take much time, and large the south than in the north, although his

quantities of anæsthetic. A condition closely throne is the Himalayas, and he is a destroying

resembling surgical shock may follow the severe god, yet sometimes restoring and fructifying in

hæmorrhage of placenta prævia, ectopic preginfluence. Thus in the south he is widely hon

nancy, or other form of internal hæmorrhage. ored under the symbol of the phallus or lingam.

(See BLEEDING). Special types of shock develop Although he is a Dravidian god, in the strug

from the violent action of heavy explosions in

war. These affect the central nervous system gle between Brahmanism and Buddhism he was adopted into the Brahmanistic system and iden

and were extremely frequent in the Great War tified with the Vedic Rudra, god of storms.

of 1914-18. The symptoms of shock are very Consult Barnett, L. D., Antiquities of India'

characteristic. The face usually becomes (London 1913); Hopkins, E. W., Religions of

blanched and pale, the body becomes cold and India' (Boston 1895); Macdonnell, A. A., Vedic

is covered with clammy perspiration, the hands Mythology) (Strassburg 1898).

and feet usually become icy, the brain seems

to be in a whirl, and consciousness is lost or SHIVELY, Benjamin Franklin, American

much clouded. The pulse is usually quickened; lawyer and senator; b. Saint Joseph County,

the arteries at the wrist are soft and easily comInd., 20 March 1857; d. 14 March 1916. He

pressed; the breathing is usually rapid and was graduated at the University of Michigan

shallow, labored, and at times irregular. The in 1886, and engaged in law practice at South

eyes are often sunken and listless, and the temBend, Ind. He served in Congress in 1884 85

perature of the body is diminished one or two and in 1887-93. He was elected to the United

degrees. The most important single factor in States Senate ior the term 1909–15 but died be

pure shock of the type described is the sudden fore its expiration.

fall in blood-pressure. This is thought to be SHOA, sho'ä, Abyssinia, northeast Africa, due to purely nervous causes, the most potent an important southern province, before 1889 a one of which is paralysis of the sympathetic separate kingdom, with ill-defined boundaries. nervous fibres. This causes sudden dilatation It consists of a series of plateaus at 3,000 feet of the blood-vessels, loss of tone of the vesselabove sea level, traversed by mountain chains, walls, with loss of blood-pressure; hence the which, in the culminating point, Mount Metatite, symptoms, and oftentimes the resultant death. near Ankobar, have a height of 10,700 feet. Its The action in the sympathetic nervous system east portion, called Effat, has a less elevated and is largely due to the implication of the supramore generally sloping surface, which is highly renal glands, and other glands of internal cultivated, and yields good crops of grain, chiefly secretion. Sometimes the symptoms of shock wheat and barley. Cotton also is extensively are much less severe. There is temporary cultivated. The higher plateaus are devoted to faintness, slight pallor and a feeling of nausea, pasture. Among indigenous trees is the Juni

and the attack passes off. Between this slight perus excelsa, which in the course of a century shock and the shock that results from the attains a height of 160 feet, with a diameter at pugilist's "solar-plexus) blow, that may bring the base of four to five feet. The exports of death, every variety of change may be noted. the province comprise grain and large quantities In severe accidents many patients, while not of a durable cotton cloth, and to these may be suffering from physical injury, are often prosadded, as articles of trade, coffee, gold-dust, irated and develop true railroad shock, or ivory, gums and spices, ostrich feathers, hides, traumatic neurasthenia. (See NEURASTHENIA). dye-woods, medicinal plants, etc. The present Psychical shock may induce neurasthenia; it capital is Adis Abeba, but the chief town is

may be a potent cause of mental disease; or it Ankobar. Christianity was introduced as early may even cause death. The influence of shock as the 3d century, and is still professed by a upon pregnant women is of great importlarge number of the inhabitants, though in a

Shock in such circumstances may bring degenerate form. Pop. estimated at 2,500,000 about miscarriage, or cause malformations of of whom about 1,000,000 are Christians and the the fætus. Mild cases of shock are recovered rest chiefly Mohammedans.

from without aid. A stage of reaction sets in, SHOALS, Isles of. See Isles OF SHOALS. the patient becomes warmer, the blood-vessels

ance.

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