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Contributors to Volume XXIV-Concluded

PURSE, THOMAS

TUCKER, MARION, Ph.D.

Secretary of Savannah Board of Trade

Professor of English, The Polytechnic Institute of

Brooklyn

SAVANNAH, GEORGIA

SAUL
RISTEEN, ALLAN D., Ph.D.

UNDERHILL, JOHN GARRETT, Ph.D.
Director of Technical Research, The Travelers
Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn..

Author of “ Spanish Literature in the England of

the Tudors

SATURATION

SEÑORA AMA

ROLFE, WILLIAM J., Litt.D.*

WALSH, JAMES J., Ph.D., M.D., LL.D., Litt.D.,

Author of “ Life of Shakespeare

Sc.D.

Author of " The Thirteenth Greatest of Centuries"

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM

SECOND CENTURY

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
SCHIERBRAND, WOLF VON, Ph.D., LL.D.*

SEVENTH CENTURY
Author of “Russia: Her Strength and Her Weak-
ness," etc.

WARD, HENRY B., Ph.D.
RUSSIA – RUSSIAN COSSACKS

Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois
SAKUNTÂLA
SHAH NAMEH

SARCODINA

WAXMAN, SAMUEL M.
SCOTT, WALTER DILL, Ph.D.

College of Liberal Arts, Boston University

Director, Bureau of Salesmanship Research,

Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh

SAB, OR ESPATOLINO

SALESMANSHIP, THE PSYCHOLOGY OF

WELLS, BENJAMIN W., Ph.D.

Author of Modern German Literature," etc.
SEDGWICK, WILLIAM T., Ph.B., Ph.D.*

RUY BLAS

Professor of Biology and Public Health, Massa-

SAPHO

chusetts Institute of Technology

SANITARY SCIENCE

WHEELOCK, CHARLES F.

Assistant Commissioner for Secondary Education,

SHERMAN, STUART P., Ph.D.

The University of the State of New York

Professor of English, University of Illinois

SCHOOLS, BIBLE IN THE

SCHOOLS, CONTINUATION

SCHOLAR-GIPSY, THE, AND THYRSIS

SCHOOLS, INSTRUCTION IN SEX HY-

GIENE IN

SINGLETON, ESTHER

New York City

WIENER, LEO

SHEFFIELD PLATE

| Professor of Slavic Languages and Literature, Har-

vard University

RUSSIA — RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
STEVENS, WALTER B., A.M., LL.D.

RUSSIA RUSSIAN LITERATURE
Author, “ History of Saint Louis," etc.

SAINT LOUIS, MISSOURI

WILCOX, MARRION, A.B., LL.B.

Coeditor of “ Encyclopedia of Latin America "

TAFT, LORADO, M.L., L.H.D.

SALVADOR

SÃO PAULO
Author of The History of American Sculpture"

SCULPTURE OF THE 19TH CENTURY

WILSON, LEWIS A.

Director, Division of Agricultural and Industrial

THOMAS, CALVIN, LL.D.

Education, The State Department of Education

Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, SCHOOL, THE CORPORATION

Columbia University

SCHILLER, JOHANN CHRISTOPH WRIGHT, CHARLES H. C., B.A., M.A.

FRIEDRICH

Professor of French Language and Literature,

Harvard University

TRENT, WILLIAM P., LL.D., D.C.L.

SAND, GEORGE

Professor of English Literature, Columbia Uni.

versity

YOUNG, STARK, B.A., M.A.

SCOTT, SIR WALTER

Professor of English, Amherst College

SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE

SHEPHEARD'S CALENDAR

* Deceased

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PROVINCE

RUSSIA (ROSSIYA), the general name of which resulted in the fall of the Empire and those portions of Europe and Asia which until the birth of the republic, their area, population 1917 formed the dominion of the «Tsar of All and the density per square mile of land; the the Russias," and which are now broken up into areas occupied by water are included in the several separate state formations. While the name Russia is applied to the whole area of

total, but the densities of the population are cal

culated on the land area. the former empire it is frequently employed in a limited sense to Russia in Europe. The widest use of the term became current after the

Area,

GOVERNMENT OR great expansion of the empire in the 19th

Population,

Density square 1 Jan. 1915

per century. The following articles, dealing with

miles

sq. mile the area, topography, etc., consider Russia as it was at the beginning of 1917, before the fall

European Russiaof the empire. The history, government and Arkhangelsk.

326,063 505, 700 1.6 political parties, language, education, etc., are

Astrakhan.

91,042 1,427,500 16

Bessarabia considered as follows:

17,143 2,686,600

157 Chernigor

20, 232 3, 148,900 156 1. Geography, Topography, 12. Industry and Manu

Courland.

10,435 812, 300 78 Political Divisions.

factures.

Don, Province of.

63,532 4,013,400 63 2. History. 13. Banking and Finance.

Esthonia.

7,605 512, 500 65 3, Language.

Grodno 14. Railways and Communi

14,896 2,094,300 141 4. Literature.

cation.

Kaluga.
11,942 1,497,200

125 5. Drama. 15. Army and Navy.

Kazan.

24,587 2,900,400 118 6. Art. 16. Russia and the World

Kharkor

21,041 3,452,000 164 7. Architecture.

War.

Kherson

27,337 3,806,900 139 8. Musk.

Kholm.. 17. Russia, Diplomatic Rela.

5,213 1,087,800 209 9. Education.

tions of the United

Kiev.

19,676 4,988,000 254 10. Religion.

States with.

Kostroma .

32,432 1,855,900 57 11. Government and Political

Kovno.

15,518 1,871,400 120 Parties.

Kursk,

17,937 3,276,200 183 Livonia.

17,574 1,778,500 101 1. GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY,

Minsk.

35, 220 3,070,900 87 Moghiler.

18,514 2,551,400 138 POLITICAL DIVISIONS, ETC. Russia is Moscow.

12,847 3,662,900 285 a federated republic comprising the whole of Nizhnii-Novgorod. 19.789 2,081, 200 105 eastern Europe from about 23° East, and Novgorod.

45, 770 1,729,300 Olonets.

49.355 476,200 10 stretching continuously for about 170 degrees.

Orel

18,042 2,816, 200 156 over the whole continent of Asia to Bering Orenburg

73,254

2,272,000 Strait, or nearly half of the circuit of the world.

Penza.

14,997 1,940, 500 130 Perm.

127,502 The boundaries are the Arctic Ocean on the

4,083,200 32 Petrograd.

17,226 3,197,800 186 north, Bering Strait and Bering Sea on the Podolia.

16,224 4,127,600 254 east, the Pacific Ocean, Chinese Republic,

Poltava.

19, 265 3,906, 200 203 Pskov.

16,678 1,447,100 87 Afghanistan, Persia, Asiatic Turkey and the Ryazan.

16,190 2,795,000 173 Black Sea on the south, and on the west

Samara

58,320 3,899,800 67

Saratov. Esthonia, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania and Fin

32,624 3,432, 100 105 Simbirsk.

19, 110 2,124,500 111 land. The length east to west is estimated at Smolensk.

21,624 2,210,200 102 about 6,500 miles; the average breadth north

Tambov.

25, 710 3,555,000 138 Taurida.

23, 312 to south is about 1,500 miles. The whole area

2,133,300 91 Tula.

11,954 2,016,000 169 is officially given at 8,417,118 square miles, ap- Tver.

24,975 2,402, 900 96 proximately twice the area of Europe, and

Ufa..

47, 109 3, 139, 100 67 Vilna

16,181 one-seventh of the land surface of the globe.

2,083,200 129 Vitebsk

16,983 1,984, 800 117 The republic consists of several well-defined Vladimir

18.821 2,225,900 118 parts; European Russia, the latter although Volhynia.

27,699 4,241,800 153 Vologda.

155, 265 1,772,200 11 less than a fourth of the whole, including Voronezh.

25,443 3,687,000 145 nearly three-fourths of the entire population; Vyatka

59.329 4,062,000 69 in Asia — northern Caucasia, Transcaucasia, the

Yaroslavl..

17,723 1,416, 700 103 Yekaterinoslav.

24,477 3,537, 300 144 Steppes, Turkestan, the Caspian and Trans- Poland caspian, and Sibera. The appended table gives Kalisc.

4,377 1,342,400 307 the official divisions of Russia as it was on

Kielce.

3,897 1,029,800 264 Lomza.

4,588 819, 700 179 12 March 1917, the date of the coup d'état Lublin.

6,297 1,481,000 235

38

31

2

RUSSIA - GEOGRAPHY, POLITICAL DIVISIONS, ETC. (1)

sq. mile

83 65 47

Hyperboreans
Ghilaks.

6,194 oomprising Area, GOVERNMENT OR

Population,
Density Kamchadals.

3,978
PROVINCE
square

Ainus.

per
1 Jan. 1915
miles

1,446
Others.

2,084 All others.

5, 201 Poland

Total.....

125,640,021 Piotrkow.

4,730 2,097,900 442 Plock.

3,641 786,000 216 Radom. 4,769 1,180, 200 247

Expansion in Asia was a marked feature of Suwalki. 4,756 718,000 151

Russian policy from the 18th century. Warsaw.

The 6,749 2,792,600 414 Ciscaucasia

first settlements on the Pacific slope were Kuban, Province of . 36,645 3,051,200

established on the Sea of Okhotsk, and by Staоropol... 20,970 1,353,500

1859 the boundaries were pushed as far_south Terek, Province of 28,153 1,314,900

as the Amur River. In North America, Russia Total, Russia in Europe. 11,997,310 149.764,000 75 had extended its sovereignty over the Alaskan Transcaucasia

Peninsula, which, however, it sold in 1867 to Baku.

15,061 1,119,600 75 Batum, Province of...

the United States for $7,200,000. (See ALASKA 2,693 186,000 69 Black Sea .

3,220 201,800 63 and ALASKAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION). In Daghestan, Province

1872 it compelled Khiva (q.v.) to acknowledge of

11,471 732,600 64 Yelizavetpol. 16,991 1,117, 200 66

the suzerainty of the Tsar, and in the followErivan..

10, 725 1,034,800 96 ing year Bokhara (q.v.), on which pressure Kars. 7,239 403,000 56

had been brought to bear since 1850, and which Kutais..

8,145 1,070, 300 130 Sukhum, District of. 2,545 147,600

had been invaded in 1866, became practically

58 Tiflis.

15,776 1,394,800 88 a Russian dependency. In 1875, the island of Zakataly, District of.. 1,539 101,800 66 Sakhalin in the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, Siberia Amur, Province of.. 154,795 261,500

was ceded to Russia by the Japanese. In 1898,

1.6 Irkutsk. 280, 429 821,800 2.5

after Japan's successful war with China, Russia Kamchatka, Province

obtained from Japan a lease of the Liao-tung of

502,424 41,400 0.1 Primorskaya, Province

peninsula, with the important ports of Dalny of 266, 486 631,600

3.0 and Port Arthur (qq.v.), and after the Boxer Sakhalin, Province of 14,668

34,000

0.5 Tobolsk.

uprising of 1901, occupied Manchuria (q.v.). 535,739 2,085, 700 3.9 Tomsk, 327,173 4,053,700

Meanwhile Armenia had been partly absorbed ;

12 Transbaikalia,

Russian influence had been strongly established Province of..

238, 308 971, 700 4 Yakutsk, Province of .1,530,253

in the Mongolian steppes, and the military out

332,600 0.2 Yeniseisk... 981,607 1,143,900 1.1

posts in Turkestan had been extended southSteppes – (Provinces)

ward in the Pamirs Akmolinsk..

225,074 1,546,500 6.8 The continuity of the empire might appear Semipalatinsk.

178,320 874,900 5 Turgai. 169,832 706, 200

4.1

to demand a detailed description in a single Uralsk.

137,679 889,600 6.4 article; but its immense magnitude, and the disTurkestan

tinct names commonly used to designate the Ferghana..

55,483 2,169,600 39 Samarcand. 26,627 1,207,400 45

different portions, make it more convenient to Syr-Daria..

194, 147 2,026,100 11 consider them separately under the heads of Semiryechensk. 144,550 1,281,300 9

European Russia, and Siberia and Asiatic RusTrans-Caspian Province.... 235, 120 552,500 2.2

sia. See article ŚIBERIA AND Asiatic RUSSIA. Total, Russia in Asia 6,294,119 29, 141,500 4.4

EUROPEAN RUSSIA. Finland..

125,689 3,277,100 21.6 Internal waters. 347, 468

Various classifications, partly historical and

partly geographical, of the numerous divisions Total without Finland 8,291 , 429 178,905,600 4.6

of European Russia, include Great Russia, Grand total*. 8,764,586 182, 182,600 20.8

Little Russia, South Russia, West Russia, the
Baltic Provinces and Caucasus (qq.v.).

The boundaries of European Russia on the * Finland, Poland, Ukrainia and other provinces have north and west are the same as those given become separaté states since the fall of the empire.

above for the republic. Its southern boundaThe ethnical composition of the population

ries also are the same as far east as the eastis as follows:

ern shores of the Caspian Sea. The eastern

boundary is not so well defined. In its northern Aryans.

100.331,516 comprising Slavs.

92,089, 733

part the Ural Mountains form such a definite Lithuanians.

3,094,469

natural barrier that their title to fix the fronLatins.

1.143,000

tiers of Europe and Asia, so far at least as the Germans.

1,813, 717 Iranians.

784,746

governments Archangel and Vologda extend, Armenians.

1,173,096

has been almost universally recognized. To Other Aryans.

232, 755

the south of this the boundary may be said to Jews.

5,070,205 Urolo-Altayons.

17,669,067 comprising

be almost arbitraty, but is generally conceded Finns.

3,502, 147

to follow the Ural chain southward until it Samoyeds..

15,877

reaches the sources of the river Ural, and then Turks-Tatars..

13,601, 251 Tunguz..

follows the course of this river to its mouth in

69,664 Mongols.

480,128

the Caspian. Parts of the governments of Georgians.

1.352,535

Perm and Orenburg, however, extend across Other Caucasians.

1,091, 782 Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.

the Ural Mountains, and are therefore in Asia.

86,113 Hyperboreans..

33.602 comprising European Russia, as thus defined, is bounded Yukaghirs.

948

northeast by the Ural Mountains, east by the Koriaks.

6,058 Chukchis.

11,795

government of Tobolsk, the steppes of the Eskimo.

Kirghiz, and the Caspian Sea.

1,099

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