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when the latter are separated from a Senior Officer, and provided that the adoption of such a course will not interfere with their instructions from you. The system of joint cruizing should be adopted, whenever, in the judgment of the Officers of both Nations, it can be done with advantage; and under any such arrangement, the Commanding Officers of Her Majesty's ships on the African station will continue to be guided by the Instructions under which they act when cruizing singly, so far as relates to the visit, search, and detention of vessels belonging to nations with whom Great Britain has concluded Treaties for the suppression of Slave Trade, and of vessels not entitled to claim the protection of the flag of any nation.
But in the event of meeting with a vessel believed to be British, and suspected of being engaged in the Slave Trade, the Commander of the British cruizer will invite the Commander of the cruizer of the United States to join him in visiting her. So also in the case of a vessel hoisting British colours, and suspected of having no right to carry them. If, on the other hand, a vessel should appear under the colours of the United States, and if the British Commander should not have reason to believe that she is other than a vessel of the United States, he will carefully abstain from all interference with her, unless his co-operation shall be requested by the Commander of the United States' cruizer.
It is only when the British Commander shall have reason to believe that the United States' Flag is dishonestly used, and that the vessel is engaged in the Slave Trade, and either is British, or belongs to a nation which has given to Great Britain the right to detain her vessels when so engaged, that he is, in co-operation with the Officer of the United States, to cause her to be visited and dealt with according to her nationality.
In carrying this part of his Instructions into execution, he will do right to leave the Commander of the United States' cruizer to take the first step of visiting the vessel, and ascertaining whether she is entitled to bear the Flag of his country; provided that in so doing no such delay is incurred as may enable her to escape altogether unvisited.
The Commanding Officers of Her Majesty's vessels on the African station are to bear in mind, that it is no part of their duty to capture, or visit, or in any way to interfere with vessels of the United States, whether those vessels shall have Slaves on board or not; and you will give strict instructions to the Commanding Officers of the vessels under your orders, to abstain therefrom; at the same time, you will remember, that the Government of the United States are far from claiming that the Flag of the Union should give immunity to those who have no right to bear it; and that, most assuredly, Great Britain never will allow vessels of other nations to escape visit and examina
tion by merely hoisting an United States' Flag, or the Flag of any other nation which has not granted to Great Britain the Right of Search. Accordingly, when from intelligence which the Officer commanding Her Majesty's cruizer may have received, or from the manœuvres of the vessel, or other sufficient cause, he may have reason to believe that the vessel does not belong to the nation indicated by her colours, he is, if the state of the weather will admit of it, to go a-head of the suspected vessel, after communicating his intention by hailing, and to drop a boat on board of her to ascertain her nationality, without causing her detention, in the event of her really proving to be a vessel of the nation, the colours of which she has displayed, and, therefore, one which he is not authorized to search; but should the strength of the wind, or other circumstance, render such mode of visiting the stranger impracticable, he is to require the suspected vessel to be brought-to, in order that her nationality may be ascertained, and he will be justified in enforcing it, if necessary; understanding always, that he is not to resort to any coercive measure until every other shall have failed; and the Officer who boards the stranger is to be instructed, merely in the first instance to satisfy himself by the vessel's papers, or other proof, of her nationality; and if she prove really to be a vessel of the nation designated by her colours, and one which he is not authorized to search, he is to lose no time in quitting her, offering to note on the papers of the vessel the cause of his having suspected her nationality, as well as the number of minutes the vessel was detained (if detained at all) for the object in question; such notation to be signed by the boarding Officer, specifying his rank, and the name of Her Majesty's cruizer; and, whether the Commander of the visited vessel consents to such notation on the vessel's papers or not (and it is not to be done without his consent), all the said particulars are to be immediately inserted in the log-book of Her Majesty's cruizer; and a full and complete statement of the circumstances is to be sent, addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty, by the first opportunity, direct to England, and also a similar statement to you as the Senior Officer on the station, to be forwarded by you to our Secretary, accompanied by any remarks you may have reason to make thereon.
Of course in cases when the suspicion of the Commander turns out to be well-founded, and the vessel boarded proves, notwithstanding her colours, not to belong to the nation designated by those colours, the Commander of Her Majesty's cruizer will deal with her as he would have been authorized and required to do, had she not hoisted a false flag.
Given under our hands, this 12th day of June, 1844.
By command of their Lordships,
Instructions for the Senior Officers of Her Majesty's Ships and
By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High
1. THE suppression of the Slave Trade may be materially assisted by obtaining the co-operation of the Native Chiefs of Africa in the object; you are therefore authorized to conclude Engagements for this purpose with the African Chiefs; but you must strictly adhere to the regulations herein laid down on the subject.
2. You will procure the fullest and most correct information as to the state of those parts of the coast in which Slave Trade is carried on, so as to enable you to determine with what Chiefs it may be expedient to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of Engagements.
With this view, you will endeavour to ascertain the power and the influence of the several Chiefs; their personal character, and the habits of the people; the extent and force of the country; the sources, amount, and description of the legitimate trade carried on.
You will endeavour to obtain the most accurate information as to the Slave Trade; its present extent, and whether it has recently increased or diminished; you will enquire by whose agency, whether native or foreign, it is principally prosecuted; in what mode it is conducted; in what form the price of Slaves is received, whether in money or goods, and if in goods, the description of the same; how they are obtained; from whom and into what places imported; from what parts of the country the Slaves are brought, and how procured; from what parts of the coast they are usually embarked, and whether with the assistance of any, and what Chiefs.
You will investigate the means whereby the Slave Trade may most effectually and speedily be extinguished, and you will enquire into the inclination and the power of the Chiefs to carry into effect an Engagement for that purpose, and the means which Great Britain may have for enforcing it.
3. You are not to attempt to enter into any negotiation until you have obtained the fullest information that the circumstances admit of with respect to all the matters of enquiry before specified. And you must not enter into any Engagements excepting with independent Chiefs of considerable power and influence upon the coast.
4. When you shall desire to open negotiations with any ENGAGEAfrican Chief, you will, after taking every proper precaution for MENT. the safety of yourself and your people, at the same time avoiding giving offence to the Natives, obtain a personal interview with the Chiefs, and endeavour to induce them to conclude an Engagement according to the Draft of Engagement forming the Appendix to this Instruction. (Vide Appendix to Section 7th.)
5. If at the time of the negotiation the foreign Slave Trade actually exists in the territory of the Native Chief, you will propose the two Articles marked "Additional," annexed to the Draft, and will consider them an indispensable part of the Engagement.
6. Every opportunity is to be taken of impressing the minds of the Native Chiefs and their people, with a conviction of the efforts Great Britain has made for their benefit, and of her earnest desire to raise them in the scale of nations. It is most desirable to excite in them an emulation of the habits of the Christian world, and to enable them to make the first practical step towards civilization by the abandonment of the Slave Trade.
7. Special care must be taken not to offend the prejudices of the Natives; and every proper respect must be paid to their peculiar usages, so far as the same are not of an inhuman character; and allowance must be made for any jealousy or distrust that may be shewn by them.
8. You will not conclude the Engagement without reference home, except it be completed in the exact terms of the Draft of Engagement forming the Appendix to this Section; and if any further stipulation should appear to you to be necessary or desirable, whether on commercial or on other grounds, it will be your duty to make a report on the subject to your Government.
9. Threats or intimidation are never to be used, to induce the Native Chiefs to conclude the Engagement: on the contrary, forbearance and conciliation must be in all cases the rule of conduct; and if the Native Chiefs refuse the Engagement, every means must be taken to encourage in them feelings of confidence, and to leave a favourable impression that may facilitate the renewal of negotiations at a future period.
10. On the conclusion of an Engagement, according to the Draft, you will consider yourself authorized to declare Her Majesty's approval of the same.
The Engagement must always be signed in duplicate.
11. Immediately after the conclusion of the Engagement, you will require the Chiefs to proclaim a law to their people, by which its stipulations shall be publicly made known.
12. In case the Slave Trade is actually carried on within the ADDITIONAL jurisdiction of the Chief at the time the Engagement is concluded, and that, consequently, the two Additional Articles form part of
the Engagement, you will then require, that all the Slaves held for exportation shall be delivered up to you to be made free at a British colony. You will also demand, that all implements of Slave Trade, such as shackles, bolts, and handcuffs, chains, whips, branding-irons, &c., or artieles of Slave equipment for fitting up vessels to carry Slaves, shall be given up to you, or destroyed in your presence. You will also insist on the immediate destruction of the barracoons, or buildings exclusively devoted to the reception of Slaves, and, if necessary, you will enforce all these demands.
13. Upon the fulfilment of the Engagement thus far, you will use every effort to induce the Chiefs to carry into effect the other provisions of the Engagement, especially as regards the white Slave-dealers, and you are for this purpose to afford any assistance that the Native Chiefs may require, but you are not to use force, unless at their signed request in writing.
14. You are not, without the signed consent in writing of a Native Chief, to take any step upon his territory for putting down the Slave Trade by force, excepting when, by Engagement, Great Britain is entitled to adopt coercive measures on shore for that purpose.
15. After the conclusion of an Engagement, and the carrying of the same into effect so far as above directed, you will send home one of the originals of the Engagement, and a report of your proceedings thereupon, for further instructions. You will cause a vigilant watch to be kept over the proceedings of the Chiefs, until you are satisfied of their fidelity to their Engagements. After which, you will visit the Chiefs in person, or send a Commander of one of Her Majesty's ships, at least once in six months, to see to the due execution of the Engagements on the part of the Chiefs.
16. In the event, however, of ultimate failure of the negotiation, you will finally state to the Chief, that every civilized Naval Power in the world has declared that it has abandoned the Slave Trade; that most nations have united with Great OUTSIDE OF Britain in endeavours to put it down; that Great Britain will
not allow the subjects of the Chief so far to frustrate those endeavours, as to carry Slaves for sale, to or from any places beyond the limits of his own territory, and that Her Majesty's Officers have orders to liberate Slaves when found embarked in boats of his subjects for that purpose.
17. All the proceedings adopted in conformity with these Instructions, whether with regard to the negotiation or the carrying into effect of Engagements, are to be conducted by you; but if circumstances prevent you from doing so in person, you may specially authorize for the purpose another Officer: but you will take great care, in such case, to select one on whose judg ment and discretion you can rely with confidence.