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$14,000,000 $4,000,000 $10,000,000 Georgia,
21,000,000 4,000,000 11,000,000 Alabama,
17,000,000 3,000,000 8,000,000 Mississippi,
14,000,000 2.000,000 7,000,000 Louisiana,
19,000,000 8,000,000 20,000,000 Tennessee,
40,000,000 5,000,000 9,000,000 Kentucky,
28,000,000 7,000,000 11,000,000 Ohio,
49,000,000 20,000,000 27,000,000 Indiana,
47,000,000 5,000,000 7,000,000 Illinois,
18,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 Missouri,
12,000,000 4,000,000 10,000,000 Arkansas,
6,000,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 Michigan,
7,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 Florida,
3,000,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 Wisconsin,
2,000,000 800,000 1,000,000 Iowa,
2,000,000 300,000 1,000,000 Texas, District of Columbia,
3,000,000 Total, . .
$591,400,000 $343,300,000 $322,000,000 From the above estimate it will be seen that nearly $600,000,000 in value will be derived this year from the cultivation of the soil, besides what may proceed from gardens, orchards, dairies, &c., amounting at least to $50,000,000 more. These productions are increased with every harvest, as new parts of the country are settled and additional labor is employed in the ratio of population.
The live stock on farms is another item in the computation of wealth, which should not be omitted in our task. We give the number, with an estimation of value, at an average of sixty dollars for horses and mules, five dollars for neat cattle, two dollars and fifty cents for sheep, and two dollars for swine, as follows:
Vahe. Horses and Mules,
5,432,000 $325,920,000 Neat Cattle,
18,738,000 93,690,000 Sheep,
24,136,000 60,335,000 Swine,
32,876,000 65,752,000 Poultry,
$557,377,000 As the grain crops are the very foundation of all support, a table showing their quantity and value is subjoined. Grain.
Value, Indian Corn,
471,913,000 $141,573,000 Wheat,
105,858,000 63,514,000 Oats,
153,939,000 38,459,000 Rye,
23,306,000 9,322,000 Buckwheat,
9,557,000 4,557,000 Barley,
5,200,000 1,560,000 Rice, pounds,
101,000,000 3,031,000 Total,
$262,016,000 The cotton and sugar crop may be estimated upon data much more recent than the census statistics of 1840. Merely as conjectural we
adopt 2,400,000 bales of the one and 250,000 hogsheads of the other as the production of 1848. We also connect a nuinber of miscellaneous articles in the statement :
$64,800,000 Produce of Dairies, $42,360,000 Sugar,
Do. of Orchards, 9,070,000 Tobacco, 19,176,000 Hay,
129,000,000 Wool, 40 c. per lb. 17,900,000 Hemp and Flax,
5,937,000 Family Goods, 36,275,000 Potatoes,
40,614,000 The investments in factories of every description are stated generally in the table of the States. Believing that it would interest our readers to see some of the varieties and the proportion of capital in each, we submit the following: Cotton Factories, . $63,877,000 Paper Factories,
$5,881,0 Silk do. 342,000 Printing do.
7,341,000 Flax do. 260,000 Powder do.
1,094,000 Mixed do.
3,006,000 Tobacco do. 4,296,000 Drugs, &c. do.
5,633,000 Hats, &c. do. 5,606,000 Glass, &c. do
3,296,000 Leather, &c. Factories, 35,000,000 Carriage do.
6,963,000 Candles, &c. do. 3,346,000 Furniure do.
8,736,000 Liquor do. 11,433,000 Mills, &c.
Having shown the outlay, it is proper to notice the return from manufacturing operations, which is given, without method, in the following statement :
Besides the amount set forth in a preceding table, as constituting the commerce, or rather the retail trade of the States, the sum of $149,000,000 is employed in the commission business and foreign trade—together, making the sum of $471,000,000 in our commerce.
We shall close, for the present, the statistics of our national industry and resources. That we have made such a rapid progress within less than three-fourths of a century, since, as a people, we cast off the shackles of monarchy, is astonishing, even to ourselves. The tables show the immense productions and business of the country, and as such we submit them for whatever they are worth.
In relation to the amounts stated as the annual product of manufactures, some doubt of their accuracy may perhaps be entertained, from the excess, in some instances, over the capital invested. Though we consider the returns made with the census as in some degree imperfect, from a difficulty of a first attempt of the kind, yet they are the nearest
and most reliable approximation with which the country has been furnished on the subject. The value of manufactured articles may exceed the capital paid out for buildings and machinery; but the cost of labor and of the raw material as to be deducted from the gross proceeds, and then the balance is subject to dividend as profits. Throughout the whole process, agriculture is the primary element, giving subsistence to labor, and probably nine-tenths of the staple afterwards converted into fabrics.
ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL.
From the Chicago Journal.
The Ilinois and Michigan Canal connects Lake Michigan, at Chicago, with the Illinois river at La Salle. This last named point is usually considered to be the head of steamboat navigation on the Minois, although boats do occasionally pass further up the stream, in times of high water. La Salle is 212 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, 250 above St. Louis, and about 1500 miles above New Orleans.
The construction of the canal was commenced in 1836 and continued until the close of 1842, when for the want of adequate funds to prosecute the work, operations were brought to a close; at that period about $5,000,000 had been expended; the entire cost upon the modified plan is about six and a half millions of dollars. It was at this juncture that the State of Illinois, in order to secure a loan of money sufficient to complete the canal upon a modified and less expensive plan of construc
a tion offered to pledge the canal and all its works, together with some 230,000 acres of canal lands, to such of her creditors as would come forward and advance a sum sufficient to complete the work in the modified form, the estimated cost of which was set down at $1,600,000. As an additional inducement for the creditors to come forward and furnish this sum, the State agreed to register bonds of the subscribers to the loan to an extent equal to twice and a half the amount they might subscribe, and to secure to such subscribers priority of payment of said registered bonds, both interest and principal; and for the security thereof, the canal, lands, &c., were, by the law authorising this measure, to be placed in the hands of three trustees, two acting for the bondholders or subscribers to the loan, and one for the State.
Upon this proposition several of the large holders of bonds in Europe, caused the canal and all its affairs to be examined by two agents, appointed by them, for that purpose, and upon receiving from the agents thus appointed, satisfactory evidence that the property offered as security for the loan might be considered sufficient to reimburse the same, principal and interest, they, together with a large number of the American bondholders, agreed to furnish the sum named as necessary to complete the canal-$1,600,000.
The 230,000 acres of land spoken of, constitute about four-fifths of the entire quantity which the general government granted to the State of Illinois in 1827, to aid in the construction of the canal. These lands lie on both sides of the canal, and within three miles of it, in alternate sections of 650 acres each ; all the residue, or the intervening sections, having been sold by the United States, and much of it, as well as 50,000 acres of the donation made to Illinois, sold by the State, settled upon and cultivated. That which remains unsold, now known as canal lands, has been greatly enhanced in value by the proximity of the surrounding improved lands. As the law which authorised the loan of $1,600,000 requires these 230,000 acres to be brought to sale within three months after the completion of the canal, it will be seen by an advertisement in another column, that they will soon be brought into market for sale, affording an excellent opportunity for those who desire to become inhabitants of one of the most important, thriving, and rapidly improving States in the West.
Since the opening of the canal, business along the line has been exceedingly active. Freight boats and passenger boats are running back and forth continually; and there is no doubt but that the revenue from this work, the first year of its operation, which can be but partial, on account of the short supply of boats, will exceed the anticipations of all. It is one of the most important works of the kind in the western country; it furnishes the most expeditious route from the Mississippi river to the Lakes, and it is impossible to estimate the extent of its maximum business.
One great article of trade upon this canal will, without doubt, be the coal of ihe Minois valley, both for the use of the steamers on the Lakes, and for domestic purposes. Five years ago (1842) 80,000 bushels of coal only were brought to Cleveland; but last year (1847) 2,000,000 bushels were sold there. The steamboats prefer il, at the price of $2 50 to $3 per ton, because it requires so much less room, is handled with less labor, and generates as much steam per ton, as two cords of wood will generate; wood per cord costs about the same as a half ton of coal.
Lumber from the lake to the Mississippi is to be a great article of trade also. Corn, which can be and is raised in great abundance on the Illinois river, can be supplied at a profit to the grower, and delivered on the bank of the river for twelve and a half cents per bushel. This will be put into canal boats in bulk, and by means of the steamers tugged to the canal, and thence to Chicago, where this corn will be put on board the large propellers and sent direct to the St. Lawrence through the Welland Canal, and thence shipped to England. The first cost being light, and the transportation being entirely by water, it can be carried a great distance with profit to the buyer. Pork and beef, also, which hitherto have been sent to Chicago on the hoof, for slaughter, will be packed on the river, and sent by the canal to Chicago, while salt for the same will be sent from the lake, through the canal, to immense slaughtering establishments, similar to those which we see described in the Western newspapers. All the staple productions of the country on the Illinois and on the Upper Mississippi will find their way through this canal.
ABSTRACT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ILLINOIS, ADOPTED 1848.
From the American Almanac, 1849. Every white male citizen, 21 years old, resident in the State for one year, may vote. Representatives, 75 in number and elected for two years, shall be 25 years of age, citizens of the United States, and three years inhabitants of the State. Senators, 25 in number and elected for four years, one half every two years, must be 30 years of age, citizens, and five years inhabitants of the State. These numbers shall be increased after ihe population of the State shall be 1,000,000; but the number of representatives shall never exceed 100. The pay of members is $2 per day for the first 42 days, and $1 per day afterwards. In forming senatorial and representative districts, the number of while inhabitants alone is regarded. The Legislature at every session may make appropriation for the next two years. The State may borrow $50,000 to meet deliciencies; but not a larger sum (except in case of invasion, &c.,) unless the law has been submitted to the people, and unless it contain an irrepealable provision for a tax to pay the interest of the debt. The credit of the State cannot be lent.
The Governor and Lieutenant Governor, chosen, by a plurality of votes, once in four years, shall be 35 years of age, citizens of the United States for 14 years, and residents of the State for 10 years. The Governor shall reside at the seat of Government, and is not eligible for iwo consecutive terms. A majority of members elected to both Houses may defeat the Governor's veto. No bill shall become a law without the vote of a majority of the members elected to each House.
The State is divided into three grand judicial districts, each of which elects a judge for nine years, who must be 35 years old, a citizen of the United States and resident in the State for five years; and the three judges compose the Supreme Court, the jurisdiction of which is original in cases relating to the revenue, cases of mandamus and habeas corpus, and in some impeachments, and appellate in all others. After the first election, one of the three judges shall be chosen every three years, either by the State or by divisions, as the Legislature may direct. There are nine judicial circuits, each of which elects a judge for six years, who must be 30 years old, and otherwise qualified as are judges of the Supreme Court. Judges are not eligible to any other office during their term, or for one year after. A County Court, for the transaction of county and probate business, with limited civil and criminal jurisdiction, shall be held by a judge elected for four years.
No State bank can be created, nor revived. Acts creating banks must be submitted to the people, and receive a majority of votes in their favor. Stockholders are individually liable to the amount of their shares. Corporations, not for banking purposes, may be established under general laws. Slavery and lotteries are prohibited; duelling is a disqualification for office. The Legislature is required to pass laws at its first session to prevent the introduction of colored persons, free or slave, into the State. In addition to other taxes, two mills on a dollar shall be levied and applied to extinguishing the principal of the State debt, except the canal and school debt. The terms of all officers under the old con