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were to be compelled to join in a crusade against the slave trade; which would soon cease to exist, were England and France to permit the world to remain at peace. At every difference of opinion as to rights, they are menaced with the destruction of their towns and cities, and the seizure of their ships. At every quarrel, whether to maintain the trade in opium, or to put down that in slaves, their trade is interrupted. The two nations are every where seen meddling with everybody's business and neglecting their own.

They are the great bullies of the world. Italy would now be strong to help herself, but for the wars of France and England. So would Spain and Germany. Wars made for private ends are afterwards carried on for “the public good,” and in defence of the liberties of Europe,” which will take care of themselves whenever the armies and fleets of England and France shall disappear, and not until then. Both countries should be placed under bonds to keep the peace; and the peace-loving portions of the earth can take those bonds when they will. Both should be made to turn their attention homeward : to raise their own food: to feed their starving artisans: to improve their own morals : to free their own people from the thousand restrictions under which they labour: and thus would they set to the world an example far more worthy to be followed than when they are seen preaching liberty and practising oppression: paying for slaves in the West Indies, and making slaves in the East by means of taxes on salt for the payment of dividends on Iudia stock. Nations that pursue the natural system of concentration, will find that the first of all rules is the simple one : "Let every man mind his own business.” The people of the United States possess the power of compelling both nations to follow this rule: for if they determine on the course that is essential to their prosperity, it will be followed throughout Europe: and then fleets and armies must be abandoned, and colonies must be left to exercise the right of self-government.

The "true grandeur of nations" consists in the perfectoin of the selfdefensive power: and that is now possessed by the United States in a degree greater than any other nation of the world. They have laid the foundation of a pyramid whose base is a million of square miles, occupied by twenty-one millions of people; and filled with little communities, each with its little school-house, its church, and its newspaper. Each of those little communities occupies space sufficient for a large one, with its academy, or its college, its numerous churches, its newspapers, its bookstores, and its libraries, all aiding to give to the structure a height proportioned to its base: and that height may be obtained whenever the planters and farmers of the Union shall determine to exercise the right peaceably to defend themselves. Until they shall do so, concentration cannot take place. Until they shall do so, their people must continue to waste their labour upon poor soils, yeilding bushels, while neglecting rich ones that would yield tons. Whenever they shall do so, they will at once take the place to which they are entitled by two centuries of peaceful action, in which it is difficult to discover a single important error until the occasion of the present war: and we cannot but hope that they will speedily exhibit to the world a specimen of real greatness, in abandoning a contest for land that they do not want, with an enemy incapable of self-defence.



are strong, and they can afford to be generous. With England and witli France lies the great contest, and it is for the exercise of power over their own actions: for the exercise of the right to stay at home and become rich by the cultivation of rich soils, in preference to flying from hou e to remain poor while cultivating poor ones: and every dollar spent in 11.e present contest tends to lessen the power vigorously to maintain that one which is to result in the emancipation of the world from the tyranny of fleets and armies, and the establishment of perfect peace. The trucst grandeur consists in the most perfect power over ourselves, our thoughts, and actions; and in conceding to all men the exercise of the same powers that we desire for ourselves. The people of the United States do not exercise that power : but they may do so, and we trust they will. Their position is one of surpassing strength. They are twentyone millions, among whom there is universal activity and intelligence. Of these, seven hundred and fifty thousand are the product of the present year, and soon the addition of a year will reach a million. They have micie school-houses and more scholars in them, more churches and more hearers in them, more public libraries and more books in them, than any other nation of the world. They have more and better printing presses, and they consume more paper; and their authors are better paid.* They have a mercantile marine that can perform more service in a given time than any other. Their machinery of manufacture now takes precedence of that of England. They have railroads, canals, and magnetic telegraphs, over a surface of five hundred millions of acres. They have twenty millions of sheep, five millions of horses and mules, fifteen millions of cattle, an. I thirty millions of hogs. They raise a thousand millions of bushels of food for man, and almost a thousand millions of pounds of cotton, and this vast product can be doubled by the application of the same quantity of labour, whenever they shall determine that they will make their own cloth, and their own iron, and by thus placing the consumer by the side of the producer, enable the latter to cultivate rich soils instead of poor onus. So soon as they shall have thus determined, thousands of tons of the surplus machinery of England, and tens of thousands of her artisans, will be seen leaving her shores to place themselves where food and cotton together grow: and where liberal and constant wages will be the rewurd of moderate but steady labour.

England presents to view a pyrannid, but an inverted one, the apex of which rests upon a vast population, a portion of which is uninstructed to a segree almost incredible, while another large portion is instructed in a very small degree; and the whole are wanting in the activity which in the United States results from perfect self-government. Piled on these is a rast poor-house establishment with its host of officers. On this again stands Manchester: and on this rests a large mass of great merchants and

*We except from this the authors of such trash as “Le Juif Errani,” and of histories wlose object is to teach that "glory' is the great object of life, and that it is to be sought at any sacrifice of honour or honesty. Such writers are better paid in France.

(Great Britain and Ireland, with a population of twenty-eight millions, have forty millions of sheep, two millions of horses, and five millions of cattle. France, with a population of thirty-five millions, hits thirty millions of sheep, three millions of horses, soven millions of cattle, and five millions of hogs.

bankers, trading largely on credit and but little on capital. On the top of this rest numerous great corporations making large dividends out of Irish rents, and taxes on the coal consumed by the artisans of London: or the salt eaten by the unfortunate people of India : or the proceeds of high interest charged to unhappy traders and railroad speculators seduced, by liberal offers of loans at low interest, to risk their fortunes and their happiness upon the chance of an approach towards steadiness in the action of a great bank, that is governed by no principle but that of momentary ex pediency.* On top of this, we see a great Church collecting millions to be divided among archbishops, bishops, prebends and rectors, while curates do the work and starve on servants wages. Next, we see a great aristocracy, with vast possessions cultivated by men who live in mud hovels. and earn nine shillings a week; and mortgages so heavy that record offices are held in small esteem and deemed to be undesirable. Piled on this, Pelion upon Ossa, we have a fleet and army, and colonies, requiring a hundred millions of dollars annually for their support. Over all

, stand the ministers and great officers of state, surrounded by hosts of chancellors and ex-chancellors, pensioners, sinecurists, and recipients of the public moneys, of all grades and conditions of life; from the great Duke himself down to the tide-waiter and letter-sorter.

The machine is top-heavy. It rests on the shoulders of the very poor: apon those of the little children and poor women of Manchester : and at the slightest disturbance there, it will topple over.t Such will be the case when the people of the United States shall determine that they will place the consumer of food by the side of the producer of food and cotton. "That done, of all this vast mass little will remain but the land and the mortgages: and then machinery will become, as it has already somewhat done, superabundant, and much of it will find its way to America and Ireland, India and Germany. Mechanics and coal miners will become superabundant, and many will find their way to the United States. Capital, no longer needed in manufactures, will go upon the land; and food will become more abundant: and labour in agriculture will be more and more needed, and better paid : because land-owners will find that they must offer bounties to men to stay, instead of granting premiums to those who will carry them into slavery in Van Diemen's land and Norfolk Island. Systematic colonization will be forgotton. Landlords will dispense with great farmers, and manage their affairs themselves: and the return to capital will rise, because its employment will be directed by mind. Great farms will be broken into little farms, and little farms will require cottages: and land will be better cultivated, and pay more rent. Land will pay more taxes, and labour less: and landlords will cease to want fleets, or armies or colonies; because they will dislike taxes. Landlords' sons will have to work, and landlords' properties will have to be divided. Tithes will disappear. The price of perpetual annuities will fall, and the government will be unable to make loans.* Great bankers will break and little ones will take their place. The great will become less, and the little will become greater and stronger; and all will become happier. Wealth will grow more rapidly, and wages will advance. Great corporations will die, and little unions will start into existence. Ireland and India and Germany will be permitted to eat their own food, and make their own cloth; and England will sell them steam-engines and power-looms, while for a time she will send the people of the United States the finer articles that they will want in vast abundance when they shall have acquired power to make the commoner ones for themselves.

*Five weeks ago, when money was selling in the market at 6 per cent., the managers of the Bank of England, having a great mass of that commodity accumulating on their hands belonging to the public, notwithstanding that their published weekly returns proclaimed that the value of money was steadily increasing, commenced un. derselling their rivals in the market, and offered their commodity at five per cent. The immediate effect of this extra issue was what is called “relief;''money was easier, traders obtained discounts rather more freely, and at a lower rale than before, property moved, and persons were tempted to accept contracts which they would otherwise have rejected. In the meanwhile, the weekly bank returns went on announcing that the stock of gold was diminishing, and that the natural value of money was enhancing, and such bystanders as ourselves awaited in breathless expectation the inevitable result of this terrific proceeding on the part of the managers of the bank. It came—those managers met one morning last week, and found that they had got no more money than they should want for paying the public dividends. They turned round in an instant upon the unfortunates whom they had been pampering with treacherous nourishment (as they had often done before and whom they had led and lulled into a fatal security, and, by a contraction and denial of loans more sudden, more perfidious, and more remorseless than we ever before heard of, (but indespensably necessary to save themselves from the consequences of the criminal act of which they had been previously guilty,) plunged thousands into distress and hundreds into rum-Eraminer, October, 1847.

fThe extreme unsoundness of the system je proved by the apprehensions felt by the government on every occasion of stoppage of work. The Brilunnia, of October 23, says, "The state of the manufacturing districts is so alarming that government, though it refuses all measures of relief, is providing a strong military force to keep the peace. Al Carlisle the local authorities have received warrants from Sir George Grey, the Honie Seeretary, authorizing them to call and enroll the pensioners of the district; and a strong force of cavalry is now stationed at Newridge. No one supposes that the winter can be got. ihrough, should the distress not be mitigated, without some desperate rioting.”

The people of England are the friends of the people of the United States. "They are part and parcel of themselves. To the aristocracy, landed, or moneyed, the latter owe nothing. They sent slaves, and because the people of the United States fed and clothed them well, and caused their numbers to increase, they branded them as “slave breeders.” They seized the vessels of the United States by thousands, ruining their owners, and then reproached them as “ bankrupts.” They forced the people to scatter to the west, and thus forced loans upon them to make roads: then ruined them, and reproached them with "repudiation” Time after time they have filled the western world with ruin, and ruin has invariably been foldowed by invective. To them, there is no friendship due. Their system is unsound, unsteady, and ruinous to the world, and to themselves; and so will it continue until the many shall have acquired more power, and the few shall exercise less. Their power hangs on fleets, and armies, and colonies: and when these shall have passed away, order will succeed disorder, and the world may hope for peace.

*This operation is now going on in Germany as well as in England. The Austrian government has just prohibited the sale of railroad shares, in hopes of compelling capitalists to make investments in the worthless stock of a government by which repudiation has been repeatedly resorted to, to the ruin of all who have trusted it. “The day of Austrian loans and power is over.


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With each step in this progress, England will acquire the power of seliprotection, which now has no existence. Her policy is dependent upon

, that of foreign nations, and hence the endless waste upon diplomacy. Foreign tariffs affright her merchants, and compel the repeal of her coin laws. The fear of losing her supplies of cotton compels the abandoniment of the right of search, and the settlement of boundary questions. She has no fixed system, and she can have none: she can exercise in ro degree the power of self-government, while she relies on poor soils abrond in preference to rich ones at home. At this moment her whole policy is dependent on the action of the United States. If they determine that they will eat their own food, and work up their own cotton, and smelt their own iron ore, the downfall of the system of ships, commerce, and colonius is as certain to take place as it is now certain that the navigation and coin laws have been repealed. In confirmation of this view we take tl e fellowing passage from an English journal:

“ It is a great mistake to date trading on reciprocity principles at the treaties of 1824; a still greater to suppose that the accession to these ireitties by Great Britain was voluntary, and that she had it in her power to resist them. The most indisputable fact is, that these treaties have each in their turn been as much forced upon us- -that we were as much driven into them—as if they had been dictated at the triumphant cannon's mouth. In 1815, after the long, exhausting, desolating war with Bonaparte, Europe was only too eager to obtain any peace; nations and governments fo, ha: le longer destruction, bloodshed, and misery; and then in the peace conclıdled between Great Britain and America, the United States, by the auicles which placed British and American shipping on terms of equality wi:h each other, exacted such a recognition and establishment of the principles of reciprocity, that, whether they demanded it sooner or later, the concession of them could no longer be refused to other nations. In fact, the United States, by thus setting the example in this instance, as much abrogated our general navigation laws, as, by resisting the search on the high seas, they have dealt the death-blow to that vexatious and prseumpe tuous claim. For it was, and still is, becoming every day more and more apparent, that Great Britain, as a commercial nation, cannot wagen war of custom-houses. To her, international retaliation of duties would be more fatal than defeat at Trafalgar and Waterloo. Wherefore, the ihriat of custom-house hostility repealed our navigation laws--though our leyislature went through the form of doing so, and though Mr. Huskiss in affected to originate it in 1824 in the House of Commons, as a necessary and prudential measure, when he announced the orders in council thie tariff on which the government had decided."*

France presents to view another great inverted pyramid, resting on the shoulders of the miserable people of Paris, one-half of whom receive alnis, in the form of bread tickets, when crops are short: and the equally miserable owners of millions of acres and half acres, cultivated by men wlio scarcely obtain the means of subsistence: and the more miserable operatives of Lyons and Sedan. The part which stands high in air, and which should be the bottom, is broad; and there we see the King busily emplo y

'New Quarterly Review, p. 146, vol. 6, 1845.

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