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to substitute alkaline liquor for the acid used for diluting the Indian ink, but with no better success, as, on being tried in one of the government offices, neither of these were found to possess any advantages over ordinary ink. Thus, in consequence of the change in the mode of manufacturing paper, the use of indelible ink was abandoned.
It now remained to discover the means of security required by the public and by government itself, in the use of an exterior delible device, which appears to have been hitherto the only practicable plan. Such was, in fact, the object proposed at a meeting convened by M. Lacave Laplagne, when Minister of Finance, who has invariably made a point of endeavoring, as far as in him lay, to meet the views of the Assembly. On this occasion, the results obtained by MM. Zuber, Knecht, and De Bourges, were very well received; but the Commission decided that the desired end was not fully attained, at least as far as they could judge, by the papers presented at the appointed time of meeting.
During the interval, however, which elapsed between the despatc sent by the Minister of Finance to the Academy, and the work of MM. Colmont and Cordier, a considerable and important modification of one of the propositions of the Academy had been attempted by M. Grimpé, who did not think it necessary to present himself ai the abovementioned meeting. This clever artist, taking up the idea of the Academy, sought to obtain the desired end (viz. the prevention of forgery, either by altering the writing or effacing it altogether,) by means of a delible device, which, extending all over the surface of the paper, and composed of lines too fine to be reproduced by hand, and which being printed with delible ink, should be open to attack by all the agents which affected writing, and when once effaced, could not be restorable by the most skilful hand, or by any printing process.
M. Grimpe's first experiments obtained the entire approbation of the Commission; and this was shown to be founded upon sound judgment by the failure of all subsequent attempts.
We do not mean to say ihat no improvement has been made upon M. Grimpé's plan, as it was first proposed by him. On the contrary, taking advantage of all the observations and advice offered him, he has successively improved upon, and sometimes even entirely altered, the details or means of execution; but although by these means a product has been obtained more in accordance with the exigencies of the public and the government, together with the conditions of regular and economical manufacture, the principle of the system remains the same.
The principle consists in covering the paper with a microscopic device, printed on both sides with delible ink, by means of a cylinder. The nature of a device, the mode of engraving the cylinder, the nature of the ink and of the paper, have, during the last eleven years, been the object of incessant discussion and study on the part of some of the members of the Commission, the importance of which will be easily understood.
Fine lines, capable of being reprinted upon paper, may be traced upon a plane or cylindrical surface, either by an engine-turning lathe, or other suitable means, such as a steel roller having the device upon in relief, and which by strong pressure may be reproduced in intaglio
upon a copper cylinder. The latter process is the one adopted by M. Grimpé. From an experience of eleven years your Commission is confirmed in its previous opinion.
After having successively tried various geometric figures as suitable for composing the device, such as concentric circles, hexagons, &c., all opinions were in favor of the microscopic stars, which are upon the papers submitted to the Academy. This device has been found to present insurmountable obstacles to its reproduction by hand. With regard to the absolute identity of these stars to one another, we will merely observe that they are produced by a single steel punch or die, upon which a single star is engraved. This punch, which is very highly tempered, is caused to stamp the stars all over a soft steel cylinder, which is then tempered, and by being made to act with great pressure, upon other untempered cylinders, the device may be produced upon any number of them; these cylinders may then also be tempered, and may be made to reproduce the device upon copper cylinders, from which they may be printed on the paper.
In M. Grimpé's first experiments the cylinders intended for printing from were engraved in intaglio, but they are now engraved in relief. This difference, although slight in appearance, is deserving of special notice, as the results produced thereby are very important.
Your Commission has always endeavored to maintain as a principle, that a device for a safety-paper must be of such a nature as to be incapable of being imitated, and traced by hand with ordinary ink; so that on any attempt being made to alter the writing, the device must also be altered, which would be apparent from the impossibility of restoring that part of the device which had been destroyed. Now the numerous experiments which have been made upon safety-paper, have established as a favorable condition the following principle, which will no doubt be very important in its applications, viz. that a very fine device cannot be printed with aqueous or ordinary ink unless from an engraving in relief. If a very fine device is required to be printed from intaglio engravings, printing or lithographic ink must be used. Judging from the above experiments, however, and some specimens printed by M. Didot, it is evident that ordinary ink may be used for printing from engravings in relief.
As long as M. Grimpé made use of cylinders engraved in intaglio, he found it necessary to employ indelible ink thickened by varnish, and consequently differing, at least in that respect, from common writing ink. Since he has made use of an engraving in relief, he has been able to print with ordinary ink with the greatest facility. The conditions established by the Commission have therefore been complied with.
Some members of your Commission, after mature deliberation, thought proper to advise the stamp department to persevere in the employment of paper made by hand, a sheet at a time, and sized with gelatine, and which is always rather uneven on account of the waterlines and there being no division of the pulp. For a long time M. Grimpé raised such formidable objections to this, that our convictions on the subject might have been shaken if they had rested upon a less solid basis. The point has, however, been satisfactorily settled by ex
perience, as M. Grimpé has found that he is able to print upon this paper as well as upon machine-made paper. Its uneven surface is not found to be any disadvantage; and, if placing the paper under the cylinder causes any expense which might be avoided by the use of continuous paper, the advantage of continuing the consumption of paper which has stood the test of four centuries, is worthy of some consideration.
Thus has the plan been carried out which we had unceasingly and perseveringly advocated. To state it simply, it consisted in covering the two surfaces of the paper (without changing its nature) with a device which could not be imitated by hand or iransferred on to sione, and which might be printed with ordinary writing ink. It is the plan proposed by M. Grimpe, and improved upon, in some respects, by the suggestion of others, which has been alone found to possess all these advantages.
Lithography had, however, been proposed amongst other improvements, and has contributed very considerably to overcome the difficulties which presented themselves. Three very skilful artists, MM. Knecht, Quinet, and Lemercier, have successively submitted to the government and the Commission some products both very curious and worthy of encouragement. If lithography be employed in the ordinary manner, lithographic ink must be used; but by printing from stones engraved in relief, ordinary ink may be employed, and by this means proofs of a very fine device may be produced upon any kind of paper. But lithography possesses this disadvantage, viz. that there is no mechanical process known by which a device may be reproduced upon any number of stones. This must be ellected by engraving or tracing with a dry point upon the reserve with which the stone is covered; and the difficulty of reproducing identically the same design by this means will be apparent.' Lithography may, however, be made available for covering, at a very low price, commercial documents, such as checks, railway scrip, &c. with artistic devices of great beauty, and of so complicated a nature as to render their reproduction by hand extremely difficult. Merchants and companies who are in the habit of employing indelible devices, would find great advantage, both in a pecuniary point of view and as regards security, in the employment of lithographic devices printed in indelible ink.
The Academy will find no difficulty in appreciating the reserve which prevents our laying before them the numerous experiments by means of which our opinion has been formed. It was, no doubt, our duty to try all the known methods of forgery, and to improve upon them, if possible. This we have done, and have by that means obtained undeniable proof that any stamp or device hitherto known may be initated. But it is also our duty to keep these dangerous experiments as secret as possible from the public, and make them known only to the government.
Such is the motive which prevents us from laying before the Academy the results of our experiments, and which oblige us to confine ourselves to a plain statement of facts, consisting merely of ex parte stalements and opinions.- London Repertory of Arts, Sciences and Manufactures, January, 1819.
Banks of the State and Cily of New York, 9 December, 1818.
Total. Loans and disct's to directors and brokers, $37,532,352 $32,201,539 $ 69,733,891 do. directors,
2,986,229 2,275,512 5,265,041 Due from brokers,
1,474,872 617,364 2,092,236 Real estate, :
2,056,272 1,418,316 3,475,038 Bonds and mortgages,
127,194 2,527,361 2,654,553 Stocks,
4,350,797 8,095,961 12,476,758 Promissory notes other than for loans & dis. 78,072 76,583 154,660 Loss and expense account,
305,914 326,159 632,103 Overdrafts,
35,474 130,633 166,107 Specie,
5,850,424 967,390 6,817,514 Cash items,
5,294,395 661,077 5,955,472 Bills of solvent banks on hand,
660,824 1,799,440 2,460,264 Bills of suspended banks on hand,
46,592 Due from solvent banks on demand,
2,941,324 5,320,934 8,762,255 Do. do. on credit,
406,352 406,352 Due from suspended banks on demand, . 29,595 233,930 313,525 Due froin suspended banks on credit,
4,418 Total Resources,
$63,753,733 $57,663,339 $121,417,127
$24,149,910 $20,180,643 $44,330,553 Protits,
3,261,060 3,374,389 6,635,449 Notes in circulation not registered,
307,671 377,266 634,937 Do. do. registered, .
5,475,727 17,045,625 22,521,352 Due Treasurer State of New York,
106,675 1,980,630 2,037,305 Due Commissioners of Canal Fund,
120,123 885,532 1,005,655 Due depositors on demand,
21,442,148 7,763,154 29,205,333 Due indiv's & corp's other than b’ks & dep's, 69,124 449,426 513,550 Due banks on demand,
8,470,271 4,059,479 12,525,750 Due banks on credit,
782,337 702,337 Due to others not included in either of the above heads,
352,092 629,637 981,729 Total Liabilities,
$63,754,801 $57,527,143 $121,251,950 The above statement includes the returns of all the Banks in the State of New York, excepting the “Champlain Bank” and the “New York State Stock Security Bank.” There are now one hundred and seventy-nine Banks and two Branches in operation.
For further information respecting the banks of N. Y., refer to pp. 185, 383, 481,526.
Recapitulation of the New York Banks.
9 December, 1848.
New York City Banks,
$6,817,814 $22,521,353 $29,205,333 525,000 43,700 118,000 14,500 Newark Banking and Ins. Co. 743,000 38,000 166,000 27,300 State Bank, New Brunswick,
NEW JERSEY. Liabilities and Resources of the Banks of New Jersey, January 1, 1849. LIABILITIES.
Capital. Circulation, Deposits. Miscellaneous. Belvidere Bank,
$100,000 $154,000 $23,000 $43,800 Cumberland Bank, Bridgton,
52,050 79,000 31,000 30,350 Mechanics Bank, Burlington,
50,000 60,000 40,000 20,700 State Bank, Camden,
260,000 147,000 192,000 52,000 Union Bank, Dover,
100,000 129,000 40,000 21,800 State Bank, Elizabethtown,
200,000 121,000 69,000 43,500 Burlington County Bank, Medford, 70,000 36,000 36,000 12,700 Farmers Bank, Mt. Holly,
100,000 45,000 48,000 43,000 Farmers and Merchants Bank, . 35,000 54,000 47,000 5,500 Morris County Bank, Morristown, 50,000 78,000 61,000 29,500 State Bank,
100,000 6,000 1,000 4,300 Mechanics Bank, Newark,
500,000 117,000 175,000 63,100 State Bank,
400,000 81,000 145,000 75,500 Newark Banking and Ins. Co. 508,650 146,000 213,000 106,650 State Bank, New Brunswick,
140,000 159,000 112,000 36,000 Sussex Bank, Newton,
67,500 147,000 38,000 39,100 Orange Bank, Orange,
102,500 43,000 10,000 15,700 Commercial Bank, Perth Amboy, . 60,000 109,000 27,000 4,700 People's Bank, Paterson,
75,000 138,000 16,000 13,200 Princeton Bank,
90,000 54,000 57,000 6,300 Farmers and M. Bank, Rahway, 130,000 80,000 36,000 22,800 Salem Banking Company,
75,000 62,000 34,000 9,100 Somerset County Bank, Somerville, 25,000 45,000 15,000 2,000 Trenton Bank, Trenton,
210,000 189,000 118,000 80,300 Mechanics and Manuf., Trenton, 100,000 101,000 51,000 37,300 Total Liabilities,
$3,600,700 $2,410,000 $1,640,000 $819,500 Loans
Bank Balances MisceiRESOURCES.
Specie. and Stocks,
and Bank Notes. laneotes. Belvidere Bank, .
$ 205,000 $ 26,000 $89,900 $4,900 Cumberland Bank, Bridgton,
120,000 29,600 39,300 3,500 Mechanics Bank, Burlington,
113,000 21,600 29,000 7,100 State Bank, Camden,
510,000 49,500 73,800 17,700 Union Bank, Dover,
176,000 30,900 74,600 9,300 State Bank, Elizabethtown,
325,000 25,900 51,100 31,800 Burlington County Bank, Medford, 109,000 15,400 17,400 12,900 Farmers Bank, Mt. Holly,
178,000 22,800 12,200 23,000 Farmers and Merchants Bank, . 101,000 11,100 23,700 6,000 Mori County Bank, Morristown, 137,000 9,300 60,600 11,600 State Bank,
3,000 94,800 Mechanics Bank, Newark,
665,000 41,300 119,700 29,100 State Bank,
316,000 40,500 104,400 16,100 Sussex Bank, Newton, .
156,000 20,000 106,500 9,100 Orange Bank, Orange,
103,000 10,300 28,800 29,100 Commercial Bank, Amboy,
134,000 25,300 35,100 6,300 People's Bank, Paterson,
162,000 13,200 63,000 Princeton Bank,
151,000 10,000 23,000 23,300 Farmers and M. Bank, Rahway, 205,000 15,600 37,000 11,20 Salem Banking Company,
121,000 24,700 13,000 20.400 Somerset County Bank, Somerville, 45,000 8,100 32,200 1,700 Trenton Bank, Trenton,
463,000 51,800 63,200 19,300 Mechanics and Manuf., Trenton, 181,000 30,500 52,400 25,400 Total Resources,
$5,957,000 $615,600 $1,441,900 $ 455,700