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servants, high or low. Duties not to the master only, but to God also, who has appointed them to that station.

“A servant with this clause

Makes drudgery divine;
Who sweeps a room, as for Thy laws,

Makes that and the action fine." In this spirit is the exhortation of St. Paul : “ Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh ; not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God.

And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men. Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance, for ye serve the Lord Christ.” Did St. Paul regard those whom he thus addressed as chattels personal,” as beings rightfully doomed, according to Southern law, as announced by Judge Taney and Judge Ruffin, “ to live without knowledge,” and the end of whose existence is “ the profit of the master”? But if a servant has duties, so also has the master.

66 Masters,” continues the Apostle, “give unto your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that ye too have a Master in heaven,” — “neither is there respect of persons with him.” (Coloss. iii. and iv. ; Eph. vi.) Now, what sort of equality is here meant ? Not surely that which is inconsistent with the human relation of master to servant; but as surely an equality which is inconsistent with the relation of man to property, - one, too, that is inconsistent with any system of slavery or servitude which authorizes or permits injustice or oppression, and which regards exclusively the interest of the master. In these words is declared the true equality of men, as spiritual beings, as creatures of God, as members of the brotherhood of Christ. Far different is the law of Virginia, according to the decision of Judge Field, quoted above, which sanctions any degree of punishment by the master, even though it be “ malicious, cruel, and excessive.”

The words of St. Paul are a proof of his " deep spiritual hostility” to the slavery of Rome, which aocompanied his “political submission " to that system. These simple words struck slavery in its vital point. They went at once to its fountain source. “Give unto your servants that which is just and equal." Persuade all masters to do that, and slavery would vanish. Persuade all governments to enforce that command, and slavery would be destroyed. In this manner Roman slavery was destroyed; so was mediæval vassalage ; so Russian serfdom; so negro slavery in the British, French, and Danish colonies ; and so, we trust, will emancipation triumph in our Southern States.

But, it is said, St. Paul sent back a fugitive slave to his master, giving thus, by active interference, his sanction to the Roman law. It is true that St. Paul did send Onesimus, who, under his teaching, had become a Christian, to Philemon, his master, also a Christian, and thus submitted to that law. But with him he sent a letter, exhorting Philemon to receive him, “not now as a servant, but above a servant, a brother beloved."

The Southern people tell us, that, under their training, the African has become a Christian. When they receive their runaway negroes, who are sent back to them in obedience to the law, as fellow-Christians, “not as servants, but as brothers beloved,” the mission of St. Paul and his Master to both will be accomplished.

ART. III. — Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854,

1855, and 1856. By COLONEL R. DELAFIELD, U. S. A. and Major of the Corps of Engineers, from his Notes and Observations made as a Member of a Military Commission to the Theatre of War in Europe," under the Orders of the HON. JEFFERSON DAVIS, Secretary of War. Washington : George W. Bowman, Printer. 1861.:

It is not our purpose in this article to express any opinion upon the merits of this great compilation of the results of an accomplished soldier's observation. We propose to make some remarks upon the Ambulance System established in the armies of the United States, and we find in Colonel Delafield's Report important illustrations of our subject in his account of the experience of the Allied armies in the Crimea, in regard to the Ambulance System in use during the Crimean war.

The Report also contains descriptions and drawings of the most approved ambulances, stretchers, and other appurtenances of the train, adopted by the French, English, Russian, and other European armies at the time when it was prepared. We quote two paragraphs, from which a satisfactory notion may be gathered of the general scope of an Ambulance System.

Many arrangements were made by the Allies during this campaign about Sebastopol for moving the wounded from the field of battle to the ambulances, stationed near the columns of attack, thence to the camp or field hospitals, and finally, as health permitted, to the general hospitals near Constantinople.

“ The important elements in effecting this were, first, the earliest possible attention to the wounded on or nearest to the field of battle. Next, the most expeditious means of transport, with least number of animals, wagons, attendants, combining the greatest comfort to the wounded soldier ; and then such means of transport as could be used on any battle-field, whether in the bottom of a ditch, or a steep descent of a ravine, over ploughed, stony, or other rough ground, still securing ease and greatest comfort to the wounded.” — p. 68.

To give the earliest possible attention to the wounded on the field, to move them thence to the ambulances, and so to the field hospitals, and from them, as health permits, to the general hospitals near our military centres, and all with the greatest possible comfort to the sufferer, - these are duties of the American people to the American soldier.

It is close upon fifty years since the world last witnessed war upon a continental scale, and the land in which we live has not been the theatre of war for about the same period. When the Rebellion broke out; we were a people accustomed to peace, but not without some knowledge of war. Our military system was good, but all our military habits and traditions were those which attach to a small army. The necessity of calling to arms large bodies of men was felt at once, and at once acceded to. The work we had taken in hand proved too hard for our original levies, and we have sent forward great and frequent reinforcements. The newspapers have lately published a state

ment of the number of corps d'armée in the field. There can, therefore, be no objection to saying that we have on foot twenty corps, composed of infantry and artillery, besides cavalry, and it is probably within bounds to say that these twenty corps number three hundred thousand men, while the number of men enlisted in the military service of the United States, since the war began, is estimated by some calculators at more than a million. It is true that these great masses of men have known long periods of inactivity. It is no less true that, at other periods, battle has followed battle with almost unexampled rapidity. In the year 1862, the Army of the Potomac alone was engaged in seventeen battles and two sieges, and this number does not include the affairs and skirmishes which were so frequent, especially before Yorktown and before Richmond, nor the lesser battles of the Seven Days. It is difficult to make so much as an approximation to the number of Northern soldiers wounded in a single year, or in a single army; still more difficult, if we extend the estimate to all our armies, and to the time since the war began. It is matter of only too general knowledge that our wounded have been counted, not by thousands, but by tens of thousands. In the battles of Gettysburg alone, General Meade officially reports that near fourteen thousand of our men were wounded. The names of other great battles, fought in the East and the West, with their fearful lists of wounded, are familiar to the memories of a sorrowing people. And these almost countless sufferers are not all who need the services of the ambulance train. In the cold of winter and the heat of summer, on plains which the abundant Southern rains convert to sloughs, in fever-stricken swamps, amid the rank vegetation that springs around poisonous bayous and lagoons, our soldiers have sickened in numbers that we are not likely to over-estimate, and they, as well as the wounded, require to be moved “ to the camp or field hospitals, and finally, as health permits, to the general hospitals,” in a manner“ securing ease and greatest comfort” to them.

In such circumstances as these, it is evident that it is the duty of the government and its officials, civil, military, and medical, to do everything in their power to insure the faithful observance of the duties incident to the Ambulance System as established in the armies of the United States. But this is not all. The government ought not to content itself with a mere amplification of the old system, or with one made by the gradual adoption of such improvements as suggest themselves to individuals from time to time. The people will not be satisfied with any system other than the best one attainable. If the present system be radically bad, it ought to be given up. If good upon the whole, but defective in parts, those defects ought to be remedied. On the other hand, if it be the best attainable, then it ought to be approved by competent authority, so as to commend it to the confidence of thousands of patriotic hearts, which are now distressed by honest doubts of its fitness for the ends it has in view.

It is not likely that any one will be disposed to deny that the American people can have a system as perfect as man can devise, if it make up its mind to have such a one. Its ingenuity and general aptness are acknowledged. In carrying on one of the greatest wars of modern times, we have proved ourselves capable of teaching the Old World many lessons. We must not content ourselves with displaying to Europe our capacity of destroying. While our long lines of men are advancing through country that swamp and mountain combine to make almost impassable, and while our mailed monitors by sea and our great guns by land are bearing and doing such things that the records read like tales of magic, we may well be proud to show that the God of destruction does not absorb the worship of our warring people. Let us show that, while our Northern blood still flows warmly in the veins of a brave and manly race, we have learned to turn a ready ear to the voice of humanity, calling to us to save and to heal. Let us assure the soldier in the field, and his anxious family at home, that everything that ingenuity and liberality can do is done to secure to him, when wounded or ill, the speediest and most efficient aid that it is in the power of his fellow-men to afford.

And while we recognize the justice of the claim of the soldier, there are circumstances which make it less than usually difficult, and therefore especially incumbent upon us, to attend to it, and see that it is granted. The vast war we are waging,

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