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No. 1.-Correspondence of Mr. Corwin, United States minister, Mexico. Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin....

Nov. 26, 1862. Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward, (with two enclosures).

Oct. 27, 1862. Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.

.Nov. 19, 1862. Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin..

.Jan. 2, 1863. Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.

.Jan. 8, 1863. Same to same.

.Jan. 27, 1863. Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin.

Feb. 25, 1863. Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward, (with ten enclosures).

March 11, 1863. Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin..

April 18, 1863. Same to same...

May 22, 1863. Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.

April 16, 1863. Same to same...

. May 1, 1863. Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin.

.June 8, 1863. Same to same...

. August 8, 1863. Same to same, (with one enclosure).

.Dec. 23, 1863.


Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin.

No. 61.)


Washington, November 26, 1862. Sir: Your despatch of October 27 (No. 34) has been received. It presents, in a very brief yet a very comprehensive way, the political and military situation of Mexico.

Under date of the 24th instant I addressed you a despatch, (No. 61,) which was forwarded by the mail of yesterday, and for which you will please consider the present a substitute, the first of this number having been cancelled. I am, sir, your obedient servant,


Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.

[Extract.] No. 34.]

LEGATION of the United States,

Mexico, October 27, 1862. SIR: Since my last despatch, Buitron, a celebrated robber-chief, sent in his adhesion to the government, and has placed himself and about 600 men under the command of the proper military officers of the republic. General Comonfort is now here with 5,000 men, on his march to the main army at Puebla. General Doblado, late secretary of state, is in Guanajuato with about the same number of men, preparing to move to Puebla in time to meet the advance of the French troops upon that place.

On the 20th of this month congress was opened. The reply to the President's speech pledges the hearty co-operation of congress and its constituents

in all measures necessary to repel the invasion of the French. I see no indi cation of a party in this country favorable to intervention or invasion by the French, or any other foreign power.

The French troops ‘are now moving from Vera Cruz to this city, by way of Jalapa. When all the troops now here, and those daily expected, are united, they can present an army of 25,000 men. Arrivals of either detachments are spoken of. . If the invaders choose to attack Puebla, where the Mexican army is strongly fortified, about seventy miles from this city, the battle there will, if favorable to the French, enable them to take this city without any doubt. In the latter event, the government officials will leave with the archives and take up a position in some of the states where it will be most difficult for a military force to march and capture them. This state of things, it is believed, will only begin a war of two or three years' duration.








Your obedient servant,



Secretary of State, &c.

Exhibit B-Despatch No. 34.

MEXICO, October 3, 1862. Mr. MINISTER: The undersigned, members of the diplomatic corps, present in the city of Mexico, bave learned with regret of the arrest of several foreigners, to whom the Mexican authorities had given notice of the order to depart from the capital within forty-eight hours, with the view of betaking themselves out of the territory of the republic.

The undersigned would be pleased to believe that the government will not carry out a measure so severe without having evident proofs that these foreigners have committed hostile acts against the state, and that their presence in Mexico offers a real danger.

They hope, therefore, that the government of the republic will be pleased to communicate to them its final determination, reserving to themselves the making to it of ulterior and essential communications with respect to the same measure.

The undersigned have the honor to renew to his excellency the minister of foreign relations the assurance of their high consideration,


E. E. & M. P. of the U. S. A.


Minister of Foreign Relations, &c., &c.

Exhibit B 2-Despatch No. 34.



Mexico, October 3, 1862. The undersigued, minister of foreign relations of the Mexican republic, has received the joint note which their excellencies the members of the diplomatic corps present in the city of Mexico have done him the honor to address to him on this day, in reference to the order issued by the government of the president to arrest some foreigners, to make them depart from the capital within forty-eight hours, and to compel them to quit the Mexican territory. Their excellencies add, that they are pleased to believe that the general government will not carry out this determination without having evident proofs that these foreigners have committed hostile acts against the state, and that their presence in Mexico was really dangerous. Finally, their excellencies manifest the desire that the government of the republic may communicate to them its resolution upon this question, reserving to themselves the transmission to it of their ulterior communications, essentially connected with the measure in question.

The undersigned, after having received the instructions from the president, hastens to reply to the points which he has just stated in the same terms employed by the honorable members of the diplomatic corps.

In truth, if the government hesitated for a moment in the full conviction, which it has, of having decreed upon good grounds this expulsion, it would avoid, indeed, the carrying of it into effect; in this respect the joint note does it justice; but the undersigned regrets very much that the presumption of uprightness in the general government should not extend to the time when it thought proper to adopt the measure which is referred to, but that it should only include the interval which may elapse between its adoption and its execution. And, nevertheless, that presumption prima facie would have been reasonable, because the opinion of justification is so in the resolutions which a legitimate authority takes in exercising its powers, until it is proved otherwise. But the undersigned would persuade bimself that the omission, to which he has just referred, was not a deliberate one.

Recurring to the essential point of this affair, the undersigned must repeat in this note what he has already had the honor of saying verbally to some of the messieurs thð ministers who have conferred with him privately and confidentially upon this affair, to wit, that the federal government, with good data examined with mature and calm deliberation, has entirely Satisfied itself that the foreigners in question were violating, by their conduct, the neutrality to which they were subject, and that, for this reason, their residence in the country conpromitted seriously the public tranquillity, and even with some danger to their own persons.

By the constitution and laws of Mexico, the federal government is invested, at all times, with the authority of issuing a passport to, and to cause to leave the national territory, any foreigner not naturalized, whose continued residence it may deem prejudiciul to the public order. This right of the government was of itself a duty in the present very critical situation. The action of the government had to be as prompt as the circumstances in which the republic finds itself are threatening, and repressing these excesses with measures proper even of the normal times, the government of the president has desired to show once more, as on so many others, that it exercises with moderation the right of the national defence, although there is being waged against Mexico a war equally unjust in its causes, as in its means and ends.

Thus, therefore, the definitive resolution of the government is, to carry into operation the measure to which the honorable members of the diplomatic corps refer.

The undersigued takes pleasure in reiterating to their excellencies the assurances of his high consideration.

JUAN ANTONIO DE LA FUENTE, His Excellency Mr. THOMAS CORWIN, Endoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

of the U. S. of America, Dean of the Diplomatic Corps.

Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.


No. 36.)

Mexico, November 19, 1862. Sir:

There are now about 42,000 French troops in Mexico. These are on their march from the Gulf coast to Puebla by two routes—one division by Jalapa, the other by Orizaba. It is, doubtless, their intention to concentrate their main army at the siege of Puebla. This latter is a strongly fortified city, about seventy miles from this city, and on the direct route from this to Vera Cruz. Military men suppose that the superior guns and engineering skill of the French will enable them to take Puebla. " If this opinion shall be verified, then it is, I think, quite certain that this city will be quickly and easily captured, thoug! every effort possible to a government so much in want of means as Mexico in now making to defend this capital. When the French army shall be in posses

sion of this city, and command the entire road to Vera Cruz, I see no possibility of ending the war for one or two years, unless the French choose to treat with the present government. Mexico will obstinately adhere to her present position.

Within the last two weeks all intercourse between the Gulf and this city is forbidden by a decree of the supreme government, so that this despatch will go to Acapulco, on the Pacific, and from thence to New York by way of Panama.

I must beg the department hereafter (and until this decree shall be revoked, or the route to Vera Cruz opened by the French) to send duplicate despatchesone by way of Havana and Vera Cruz, and the other by way of Panama and Acapulco to this city.

Your obedient servant,



Secretary of State, fc., fr.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin.

No. 64.)


Washington, January 2, 1863. Sir: Your despatch of November 19 (No. 36) has been received. The information which it gives, concerning the military situation in Mexico, agrees with the intelligence we obtain through the press, and, as I think, with the understanding of that subject that is now accepted in Europe.

Affairs have remained unchanged, but not without prospect of change and improvement. For the moment, two opposing armies seem to be fixed on the banks of the Rappahannock. There will be, before long, a change there. Our iron-clad fleet is at last afloat, and it will, I think, be heard from soon. Our two western armies, as well as that of General Banks, at New Orleans, are becoming active.

The proclamation of the President adds a new and important element to the war. Its probable results are donbtless exaggerated by one portion of the people, but not more than they are underestimated by another. Assuming, as I believe, its policy to be an unchangeable one, it is not at all to be doubted that, sooner or later, it will find and reach a weakness in every nook and corner of the insurrectionary region. The very violence with which it will probably be met will, after a little, increase its efficiency.

I refrain from giving you information concerning the changing aspect of our foreign relations, because there is no certainty that, in the present condition of communication between this capital and the one in which you reside, my communications would be safe from visitation.' I must be content, therefore, with saying that there is a manifest improvement of temper in Europe in regard to our unhappy controversy, and that with success of our armies, which may be reasonably expected, we shall probably encounter no foreign disturbance. I am, sir, your obedient servant,


Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.


Mexico, January 8, 1863. Sir: No act of the French government or troops has been known here, since my last despatch, whereby it can be certainly known what the ultimate designs of the Emperor are towards Mexico.

The French forces are moving towards Puebla, on the two lines of Jalapa and Orizaba. It is now quite certain that they will attack Puebla before they march upon the capital. The Mexican officers here express the opinion that Puebla cannot be taken by the present force moving against it, while it is certain that the tried and experienced commander of the French army, being well informed as to the defences of the place, has little, if any, doubt of success.


Secretary of State, Sc.

Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seward.

No. 38.]


Mexico, January 27, 1863. Sir: Since the date of my last despatch the French forces have made, a forward movement. It is said they have a large train of siege guns for the purpose of bombarding Puebla. They are now within about thirty miles of the latter city. Puebla is said to be strongly fortified, and is defended by about 20,000 men. We are led to suppose that General Forey is, in his own opinion, quite sure of success, since he proceeds with great caution, and so slowly, that some have supposed he wishes to reach this city without a decisive conflict with the Mexican troops.

I have been told that the government here have received information, official or otherwise, to the effect that our government has permitted the French to purchase mules and wagons for the use of their campaign here, and has denied to Mexico a like privilege. I have made no inquiry of the government here touching this rumor, nor has anything been said about it by the secretary of foreign affairs to me. It would be very necessary, if anything of this kind has been agitated at Washington, that I should have a copy of any letter to Mr. Romero on that subject. The Mexican cabinet are very suspicious of our partiality to the French. I wish to have in my possession, therefore, official information, which may give the true state of our dealings with both belligerents. Your obedient servant,


Secretary of State, &c.


Mr. Seward to Mr. Corwin.

No. 68.]


Washington, February 25, 1863. Sir: Your despatch of the 27th ultimo (No. 38) has been received.

The printed document herewith enclosed, Senate Executive No. 24, of the present session, contains correpondence upon the subject of the purchase in the

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