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which full liberty and solid union may be reconciled with unbounded territorial expansion ?” The first steps were taken towards this object by the Jubilee Conferences of the Colonial Premiers with our Premier and Secretaries for the Colonies in 1887 and 1897. The movement is going on: we are by safe and steady progression advancing towards the still grander ideal of Imperial Federation. Why should there not be an Imperial Council, meeting annually in London, in which India and every colony and federation should be fully represented ? Already in the burning question of the re-settlement, on a firm and just basis, of South Africa, the voice of a United Canada and a United Australia reaches Downing Street with a clearness and decisiveness which isolated colonies could not give. Those of our children who have sealed a covenant of blood with us on the South African veldt have a right to a voice in the making of peace, and the future settlement of the country. “ What we did,” said the Canadian Premier in a recent speech at Ottawa, justifying the despatch to the war of Canada's large contingent, we did of our own free will, and as to future wars, I have only this to say, that if it should be the will of the people of Canada to take part in any war of England, the people of Canada will have their way. Of course, if our future military contribution were to be considered compulsory—a condition which does not exist--I would say to Great Britain, 'If you want us to help you, call us to your councils.'”

By such an Imperial Council, a family bond of union between the mother and her scattered family, Britannia will avoid the fate of Imperial Rome, where only the military power kept many alien nationalities together in a mechanical union. What we aspire to is a union of hearts. And as long as our beloved Queen-Empress lives, she will be the uniting bond of love. As to the future, I am an optimist. The character of my fellow-countrymen, formed during many centuries by rational liberty, strenuous labour, manly self-reliance, and earnest religion, has not deteriorated. The successful quieting down and repopulation of unhappy South Africa must depend upon the character of the men and women who settle there, rather than upon schemes of government, however wise and just.

For

.

What constitutes a State ?
Not high-raised battlement, or laboured mound,

Thick wall, or moated gate ;
Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned,

No; men, high-minded men
Men who their duties know,
But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain;

Prevent the long-aimed blow
And crush the tyrant, while they rend the chain-

These constitute a State. With assured peace, the racial animosities in South Africa will disappear in time, and its industrial progress will advance apace. We shall all, I am sure, whatever our views, echo the noble wish of our beloved Sovereign, expressed in her last prorogation speech. Speaking of the annexation of the Orange Free State, now the Orange River Colony, Her Majesty said :-“I trust that this will be the first step towards the union of races, under institutions which, while establishing from the outset good and just government for all, may be, in time, developed so as to secure equal rights and privileges in my South African dominions."

It seems to me that both the Constitutions which I have described will afford useful suggestions for a future " UNITED BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA."

I must now bring this lengthy address to a close, with a word on a subject nearer home.

If our excitable neighbours across the Channel were to carry out their threat of invasion, a danger which at least the Spectator thinks impending, I make no doubt whatever that the Anglo-Saxon race throughout the world would assert its solidarity by helping the mother country. Even in the United States, with its hostile Irish party and its keen commercial rivalry, there is a strong feeling in the heart of the true American of love to the land whence his ancestors sprung. I am certain, from an intimate knowledge of the best classes of educated Americans, that these stirring lines of H. L. G., a Californian poet, express a real sentiment which would inspire prompt action were our dear old country violated by a foreign host :Mother England ! Mother England! down the ages blood will tell, From the spears that baffled Cæsar to the field where Symons fell. Down through rugged Gael and Saxon, brawny Norsk and stalwart

Danes, Still the blood of Bruce and Cromwell tingles in our Yankee veins.

Mother England! Mother England ! if all Europe rise and roar, We will meet them, we will beat them, on the sea and on the

shore; Then our stalwart Anglo-Saxons, side by side, on land and sea, Shall march on and sail together to one world-wide destiny.

And this “world-wide destiny" of Anglo-Saxondom is not to promote war, but to teach the dark races peaceful arts, and the white races friendly commerce; and by spreading a liring Christianity to prepare all the world for the coming Era of Millennial Peace.

27

CHARLES LAMB.

By Rev. W. E. SIMS.

NEARLY seventy years have passed away since the “Gentle Elia” was laid in Edmonton Churchyard, where, amid grass-covered mouldering heaps, a stone with inscription still legible, indicates to the pensive disciple of Hervey indulging in Meditations Among the Tombs his quiet resting place.

But while in the busy years that have since elapsed many literary lights have kindled and faded into darkness, the reputation of Charles Lamb shines with undiminished lustre, a planet in the firmament of letters. His essays take rank among English classics. His poems, criticisms, and letters are edited and re-edited. His ephemeral squibs, sayings, jokes, and anecdotes are collected with eager relish. The very "dust of his writings" is treasured as fine gold. Amateur collectors and lovers of rarities pore over catalogues at book sales in search of first editions. And Elia has taken his place among the "masters of laughter and tears."

Many authors of excellent repute do not awaken in us any personal interest. We read their works without desire to penetrate the mystery of the writer's personality. We do not wish to know where they lived, nor what their appearance, nor wherewithal they were clothed. They are mere abstractions, the title-pages of their books acquaint us with their names, and from the same source we gather the names of their publishers; both facts are on the same

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