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Introduction.-General view of the progress of Naval Science in the world.

-Christopher Columbus—his early career-his schemes for discovery-ne.
gociations for patronage --His voyages and their results-effect of his dis.
coveries in England. --State of Naval Science in England. - The expedition
of Cabot.—The discovery of the continent of North America.-Expeditions
to settle America during the reign of Elizabeth.-Division of the Continent
by James into North and South Virginia.-South Virginia Company-its
charter provisions of government.--Its first expedition to America.-Settle-
ment of Jamestown-condition of the Colonists-progress of the settlement
under Capt. Smith.-Decline of the Colony on his return to England.--Ar.
rival of Lord De La War and resettlement of Jamestown.-Publication of a
New Charter to the Company.-Further arrivals from the mother coun.
try.-Permament settlement of the Colony.-Changes in the condition

ettlement.-Their effect upon its growth an prosperity.--Government

of the Colony under Sir George Yeardley.--Administration of Capt. Argal.

-Argal removed and Yeardley reappointed Governor.–First representative

assembly in America.- New Charter issued.--Reformations in policy and

forms of government, in the administration of justice - Inferior courts es.

tablished. Interference of the Crown. The company in England dissol.

ved, and the affairs of the Colonies temporarily in the hands of a council of

commissioners.-Death of James 1.-Changes in the government of the

Colony, and its progress after the succession of Charles I. ............




The Plymouth Company empowered to settle this division of the Continent.
-Its operations.-Capt. Smith visits North Virginia.-His return to England.
-The Country named New Engla -History of its

first settlement.--The

Reformation of Luther.--Its progress in Europe.-In England.-Persecution

of Protestants compels them to leave England.--They return on the acces-

sion of Elizabeth.-Her hostility to their political sentiments.- The Brown-

ists.-Some of them take refuge in Holland.-Come thence to New England.

Settlement of New Plymouth.-Their position, character, and condition.-

Their progress.-Origin of the sect called Puritans - Progress of Puritanni.

cal sentiments, and persecutions in England, the sole cause of planting New

England. -Settlement of Massachusetts Bay.-Its charter of government.-

New Charter incorporating with New Plymouth - First representative as.

sembly in New England. --Its proceedings.-Interference of the Crown.-

Further history of this Colony.-The Colonies of New Haven and Connec-

ticut.—The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.-Conclu-

sion of this Part......

...Page 60




Subdivisions of the Southern Colony of Virginia.-General characteristics of
the Colonial Governments.—Their differences. Their similarity.--Their re.
lations with each other. — Their relations to the mother country at the
peace of 1763.-Proceedings in Parliament.-The Revenue Acts. Causes

of discontent thereby originated in the Colonies.- The Stamp Act.-Its re.
ception in America.--Resolutions in the Colony of Virginia. - In the other
Colonies.-Proceedings in Plymouth, Mass.--The first Colonial Congress
meets in New York. Its proceedings.--Declaration of Rights.-Its adjourn.
inent.--State of feeling throughout the Colonies.--Proceedings in England.
-Repeal of the Stamp Act.-How viewed in America. The reasons given
for its repeal revive discontent.-Further proceedings in Parliament.- In the
Colonies.- Circular Letter of Massachusetts to the other Colonies.--Associ-
ations for non-importation in America.- Their effect in England.-Partial
repeal of the Revenue Act.-Act licensing the importation of Tea direct
to America by the East India Company.- Proceedings in Boston on their
arrival.---Parliament enacts the Boston Port Bill.---Its reception in the Colo-
pies.---Further Acts of Parliament.--Congress of the Colonies meets at
Philadelphia.-Its proceedings, resolutions.-Letter to General Gage at Bos-
ton.-Declaration of Rights. - Articles of association for non-importation,
&c.-Address to the King. - To the People of Great Britain.--To the People
of the Colonies.- To Canada. -Adjournment.--Proceedings in England. -
Affairs in the Colonies.-Commencement of hostilities.-Battles of Lexington
and Concord.—The Congress meets again at Philadelphia.-Its proceedings.
-Manifesto on taking up arms.-Congress of 1775-6.--Declaration of Inde-

........Page 102



Position of the Colonies after the declaration of their Independence.--The

General Government of the Revolution.--Definitive treaty of Peace between
Great Britain and the United States.-Union of the States under the Confed.
eracy.--Circumstances under which it took place.-Importance, necessity,
and nature of the Union.-The early Confederation of the Colonies of New
England. -Articles for a General Union of the Colonies proposed and adopt.
ed by the Convention at New York in 1754.-Defects of the present Articles
of Confederation.-Resolutions respecting them in the Legislature of New
York.--In Congress.-In Washington's address on resigning his command
of the armies of America.--Appeal of Congress to the States touching the
Confederacy.- Convention of Delegates at Annapolis in 1786.-Its proceed.
ings --Resolutions of Congress recommending a Convention to revise the
Articles of Confederation. ---Meeting of the Convention. Their position.-
Their report to Congress of the present Constitution.-Proceedings of Con.
gress thereupon.-The Constitution.--Its adoption.-Government goes into
operation under it.--Election of Washington to the Presidency.-His pro-
gress to New York, and his Inauguration.-His inaugural address to both
Houses of Congress.--Reply by the House of Representatives.--Amend.
ments to the Constitution.-Its final adoption by all of the States.-Conclu.


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There is, perhaps, no one of the sciences which, in its progress, has contributed more towards promoting the general welfare of mankind, or whose developements have tended so much to establish the amicable relations now existing among civilized nations, as the science of navigation. Through its agency people who were once not only alien, but whose very existence was unknown to each other, have been brought together and united by ties which were never felt or understood in the experience of ancient nations. An almost daily intercourse has taken place between the inhabitants of the most remote portions of the world. Commerce has been established between the barbarous and the civilized, for the supply of wants, which, by the one, were never before experienced, in exchange for commodities which by the other were till now regarded as without value or useless. This general intercourse of nations has almost

our race.

everywhere introduced a change of manners, habits, customs, opinions, and laws, which has revolutionized the face of society in every country, and by the gradual introduction and spread of more genial principles and influences is progressively ameliorating the condition of

The proud position which the Republic of The United States of America now occupies in the scale of nations, and the powerful influences which are emanating from them, make the history of our government and institutions a subject of great interest and importance to mankind, but more especially to those who may hereafter be entrusted with their guidance and control. In tracing these annals, the obligations which we owe to the science of navigation, make it necessary that we should give some account of its progress in the world.

The testimony of sacred as well as profane writers authorizes us to believe that the science of navigation was understood, although they leave us in doubt as to what extent it was practiced, in the earlier periods of the world's history. The multiplication of human families upon the earth, and their consequent dispersion over its wide territories must have suggested beneficial discoveries, and led to a reciprocal though limited intercourse. Europe, Asia and Africa were probably not unknown to each other as inhabited countries, though little perhaps was understood of their internal history. The relative position of the migratory tribes of men who inhabited those regions, and the nature of their correspondence with each other, were not such as to demonstrate to them either the utility or importance of the science of navigation, or greatly to encourage its cultivation.

We are told by the writers of antiquity that as far back as the seven hundreth year before the Christian æra successful voyages of discovery were made by the Carthagenians and Phenicians; but search has been made in vain for many of the records to which these authors refer, and of those which have been found many are inaccurate and mutilated, while the most interesting and important of these seem rather the exaggerated and romantic incidents of fiction, than faithful records of historical facts. Yet allowing all that is said of the extent to which this science was cultivated among these nations, there is much reason to believe that all traces of it had long faded from the recollections of men, inasmuch as the Greeks, who are said to have been their pupils in all the important arts and sciences, seem to have had hardly any acquaintance with the art of navigation. Some voyages were indeed performed by them, which their own historians accounted wonderful, but these were made merely for the purposes of conquest or of plunder, to islands not very remote, and creeping along the coast of the sea. Few, if any, had dared to launch out upon the broad bosom of the ocean for the purposes of discovery. And even these limited voyages were always attended with great hazard, and oftentimes with loss, the vessels employed being poorly constructed and unskilfully conducted. As the Greeks advanced, however, in civilization and refinement, learning increased, the arts and sciences were more liberally cultivated, and the encouragement and growth of commerce produced a parallel improvement in the progress of naval science and architecture. Still theirs was always a commerce of limited extent, and its enterprizes were for the most part confined to the Mediterranean sea. All other parts of the world were but little known to them, while they were wholly unacquainted with those rudiments of science upon which

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