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CHIVA'SSO, a small city of Piedmont, Northern | they are held in the utmost contempt and detestItaly, situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of ation by their peasant neighbours, who are often the Po, about 15 miles north-east of Turin. It was indolent and destitute. They are looked upon as formerly a place of considerable military importance, covetous and malicious, and scarcely would the but its fortifications were destroyed in 1804 by the daughter of a small farmer, or well-to-do dayFrertch. The lampreys of C. are celebrated through-labourer, become the wife of one of them, so that out Piedmont. It has manufactures of bricks, they mostly marry among themselves. From time earthenware, soap, &c., and a trade in the agricul- immemorial, the C. and B. have been field-labourers, tural produce of the district. Pop. 4800.

cattle-dealers, butchers, &c. Many of them are very CHIVE, or CIVE (AUium schænd prasum), a good-looking. The young women are handsome, plant of the same genus with the leek and onion clear-complexioned, with large black eyes. Seo (see ALLIUM), a perennial, 1 foot in height, Michel, Histoire des Races Maudites de la France with very small, flat, clustered bulbs, increasing by et de l'Espagne (2 vols. Par. 1847). its bulbs so as to form a sort of turf. The leaves CHLADNI, ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH, founder are tubular, cylindrical-tapering, radical, nearly as of the science of acoustics, was born at Wittenberg, long as the almost leafless flowering-stem, which is November 30, 1756. He studied law in his native terminated by a hemispherical, many flowered, not place, and also in Leipsic, where, in 1782, he bulbiferous umbel of bluish red, or, more rarely, was made Doctor of Laws. Ć. ultimately abandoned flesh-coloured flowers. The stamens are included juridical studies altogether, devoted his mind to within the perianth. This rather pretty little plant natural science, and, being acquainted with music, grows wild on the banks of rivers, and in marshy or was led to observe that the laws of sound were by occasionally flooded places in the middle latitudes no means so well established as those of other of Europe and Asia. It is a rare native of Britain. branches of physics. He therefore began to apply In some of the mountainous districts of Europe a his knowledge of mathematics and physics to variety is found, larger and stronger in all its parts, acoustics, and travelled for ten years (after 1802) and with flowering-stems more leafy. Chives—the through Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Russia, name is generally used in the plural—are commonly and Denmark, giving lectures on the subject, which cultivated in kitchen-gardens, often as an edging were very successful. He died in Breslau, April 3, for plots, and are used for flavouring soups and 1827.-c.'s writings include, Discoveries concerning dishes. Their properties are very similar to those the Theory of Sound (1787), Acoustics (1802), New of the onion. The part used is the young leaves, Contributions to Acoustics (1817), and Contributions which bear repeated cuttings in the season.

to Practical Acoustics, with Remarks on the making CHIZEROTS AND BURINS form one of those of Instruments (1822). C. also wrote several essays peculiar races in France that live isolated in the on meteoric stones. midst of the rest of the population, and are despised CHLAMY'PHORUS (Gr. chlamys-bearing; and hated by their neighbours. They live in the chlamys, a soldier's cloak), a very remarkable genus arrondissement of Bourg-en-Bresse, in the depart of mammalia of the order dentata, ranked by ment of Ain; and the communes of Sermoyer, naturalists in the same family with the armadillos, Arbigny, Boz, and Ozan belong to them. Accord but differing in important respects from them, and ing to tradition, they are descended from the from all other known quadrupeds. Only one species Saracens, Although industrious and prosperous, I is known, C. truncatus, five or six inches long, a



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