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General Antonio López de Santa Anna, April 20, 1853, to August 11, 1855.
GOVERNMENTS SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION OF AYUTLA
Acting President....General Martin Carrera, August 14, 1855, to Septem
ber 12, 1855. In charge of Federal District...General Romulo Diaz de la Vega, September 12, 1855,
to October 4, 1855. Acting President....General Juan Alvarez, October 4, 1855, to December
9, 1855. Substitute President. General Ignacio Comonfort, December 11, 1855, to De
cember 1, 1857. President.. .. General Ignacio Comonfort, December 1, 1857, to De.
cember 19, 1857. Provisional
President. .. Benito Juárez, December 19, 1857, to June 15, 1861. President.
.Benito Juárez, June 15, 1861, to November 8, 1865. 1861-1867, period of French Intervention and of Max
imilian. President..... .Benito Juárez, November 8, 1865, to December 25,
1867. President.... ...Benito Juárez, December 25, 1867, to December 1,
1871. President.... .Benito Juárez, December 1, 1871, to July 18, 1872.
(Died in office.) President.
.. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, July 18, 1872, to Decem
ber 1, 1872.
vember 21, 1876.
General Porfirio Diaz, November 28, 1876, to Decem
ber 6, 1876. In charge of the Executive Power.. General Juan N. Mendez, December 6, 1876, to Feb
ruary 16, 1877. Provisional President. ..General Porfirio Diaz, February 16, 1877, to May 5,
1877. President.. ..General Porfirio Diaz, May 5, 1877, to November 30,
1880. President... ...General Manuel González, December 1, 1880, to No
vember 1884. President..
. General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1884, to Novem
ber 30, 1888. President... .General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1888, to Novem
ber 30, 1892. President. ... General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1892, to Novem
ber 30, 1896.
.General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1896, to Novem-
ber 30, 1910.
executive power, though frequently their claims to the
or recognized by other nations. Francisco Leon de la Barra, May 25, 1911, to November 10, 1911. Francisco I. Madero, November 10, 1911, to February 19, 1913. Pedro Lascurain, from 7 p.m. to 7:46 p.m., February 19, 1913. Victoriano Huerta, February 19, 1913, to August 13, 1914. Eulalio Gutierrez, December 13, 1914, to January 25, 1915. Roque González Garza, January 30, 1915, to May, 1915. Francisco Lagos Cházaro, July 31, 1915, to October, 1915. Venustiano Carranza, March 11, 1917; assassinated May 21, 1920. Adolfo de la Huerta, President ad interim, June 1 to November 30, 1920. Alvaro Obregón, December 1, 1920.
THE STATES AND TERRITORIES OF MEXICO
A GENERAL DESCRIPTION
In the Republic of Mexico there are twenty-nine states, two territories, and a federal district. A brief description of each of these is given below.
Location: A central Mexican state bounded on the north, west, and east by Zacatecas and on the south and southeast by Jalisco.
Physical Characteristics: The state, situated on the high central plateau, consists mostly of mountainous or rolling land. Its climate is temperate and the average annual rainfal about eighteen ches. There are no rivers of importance.
Chief Industries: Agriculture, mining, and manufacturing.
Principal Cities: Aguas Calientes, the capital, has a population of about 60,000, and is one of the important cities of the Republic. The shops of the National Railways of Mexico and one of the large smelters of the American Smelting and Refining Co. are located here. The city also supports a number of small manufacturing plants and serves as a distributing center for the surrounding territory.
Towns of minor importance are: Asientos, a mining center (population 2,500); Rincon De Ramos (2,800); and Calvillo (2,500).
Transportation: The state is an important railway center, and has excellent connections by the National Railways of Mexico with the City of Mexico, Tampico, and the American border.
Location: A Gulf state on the Peninsula of Yucatán. To the east it is bounded by Yucatán and Quintana Roo; to the south by Guatemala; and to the west by Tabasco.
Physical Characteristics: The state lies in the hot Gulf lowlands of the Tierra Caliente. The land is level and much of it heavily wooded. The rainfall averages nearly two hundred inches a year in certain sections.
Chief Industries: The state is distinguished for its agricultural and mineral wealth and for its manufactures. Cereals, chick peas, green peppers, beans, sweet potatoes and fruits are grown both for local use and outside markets, and live stock are raised on a large scale.
The mineral production is chiefly made up of gold, silver, copper, lead and tin. The oldest and largest of the mining districts is that of Asientos de Ibarra, 30 miles northeast of the capital.
Chief Industries: Agriculture and the production of logwood are almost the sole industries of the state. Cattle, henequen, sugar-cane, cotton, chicle, and indigo are the chief products.
Principal Cities: Campeche, the capital, ha a population of about 20,000. It is located on the Gulf and serves as the chief port of entry for the state. Carmen, situated on an island not far from the Tabasco boundary, is also a commercial center of some importance.
Transportation: The United Railways of Yucatán connect the city of Campeche with Merida and Progreso. Aside from this one line and the steamship connections through its two ports, the state is very deficient in trans. portation facilities.
27,527 square miles. Population: 456,371 (average density 16.1).
Location: A state lying in the extreme south of Mexico, fronting on the Pacific. On the west and north it is bounded by Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, and Tabasco, and on the east and south by Guatemala.
Physical Characteristics: The state is divided into two distinct regions by the Sierra Madre Mountains. Its soil is extremely fertile and the climate conducive to the production of almost all tropical products. Much of the state is still covered by heavy forests and almost unexplored jungle. The rainfall in many sections is excessive, often running as high as two hundred inches a year. Many rivers flow through the state or along its borders. Chief of these are the Grijalva and Usumacinta.
Chief Industries: Agriculture and the production of mahogany and dye woods are almost the sole industries. Coffee, rubber, cocoa, and tropical fruits are the distinctive agricultural products. From the standpoint of undeveloped agricultural possibilities, Chiapas probably surpasses state in the Republic.
Principal Cities: The cities are neither numerous nor of great importance. The capital and chief city, Tuxtla Gutierrez, has a population of 22,000 and ranks as a fairly important business center. It has no rail connection with the outside world, however, and can be reached only by wagon road from Jalisco, eighty-seven miles distant. San Cristobal, population 13,500, is situated sixty-four miles east of the capital. Soconusco, or San Benito was formerly an important port of entry whose trade has greatly diminished in recent years. Tonala is a town of about 5,000 inhabitants on the Pan American Railway. It lies some twelve miles from Arista, a small port on the Pacific, with which it is connected by rail. Palenque, the lost city of the jungles, enjoys world-wide fame because of its remarkable ruins.
Transportation: Modern transportation facilities throughout the larger part of the state are non-existent. On the west the Pan American Railway runs parallel to the coast from Oaxaca to the Guatemala border. In addi. tion, the Grijalva, Usumacinta, and a number of other rivers furnish highways for water transportation.
Location: One of the northern border states, across the international boundary line from New Mexico and Texas. Bounded on the east by Coahuila, on the south by Durango, and on the southwest and west by Sinaloa and Sonora.
Physical Characteristics: An arid plateau state, much of the surface of which is mountainous or desert. The average annual rainfall is less than twelve inches; and aside from the Rio Grande, which forms its northern boundary, the state has only one river of much importance, the Rio Conchos.
Chief Industries: Chihuahua has long been among the most famous of the mining states of Mexico. Silver, gold, lead and copper are the principal metals. In 1921 the mining claims in the state covered approximately 55,000 hectares—an area only exceeded by the mining properties of Sonora. Cattle raising is another distinctive industry; and of late years the development of irrigation has given a material stimulus to general agriculture. Corn, wheat, beans, and fruits are the most important agricultural products.
In the Sierra Madre Mountains of western Chihuahua are large forests of pine and oak, and here a valuable lumber industry has been established. Important hydroelectric developments have been carried out on the Conchos River; and in the cities there is some manufacturing.
Principal Cities: Chihuahua, the capital, is also the largest city, and has a population of 40.000. It is an important railway, mining, industrial and distributing center. It lies 225 miles south of the American border. Ciudad Juarcz, across the Rio Grande from El Paso, has a population of 10.000, and is one of the most important gateways between the United States and Mexico. Parral, with a population of 15,000, is one of the chief mining centers of Mexico. It lies 174 miles southeast of the city of Chihuahua. Other important mining centers are Santa Eulalia, Batopilas, and Cusihuarichic.
Transportation: The main line of the Mexican Central (National Railways) from Juarez (El Paso) to Mexico City runs the full length of the state of Chihuahua. The Mexico Northwestern, by a circuitous course from Juarez to the city of Chihuahua, taps the rich mineral, lumber, and agricultural sections of western Chihuahua. The Kansas City, Mexico, and Orient Railroad also has a line (eventually designed to connect the Mississippi Valley with the west coast of Mexico) from Marquez, in northeastern Chihuahua, to Tabaloopa, six miles from the capital, and from Minaca to Sánchez, in the southwestern corner of the state.
Location: A state on the northern border opposite the American state of Texas. Bounded on the east by Nuevo León, on the south by San Luis Potosí and Zacatecas; and on the west by Durango and Chihuahua.
Physical Characteristics: For the most part the state is a broken, mountainous plateau, with a warm, though healthful climate, and insufficient rainfall. Near the western boundary lies the arid region known as the Bolson de Mapimi, a vast depression or sunken valley, which constitutes one of the unique geological features of the state. The rivers of Coahuila are of no importance except for irrigation purposes. In the southwestern portion of the state, near the Durango boundry, the Nazas River has formed the famous Laguna de Parras, one of the two chief cotton producing centers of the republic.
Chief Industries: Mining and agriculture, with some manufacturing in the south, constitute the chief industries of the state. The chief mining centers are those of Sierra Mojada in western Coahuila, where large silver-lead deposits exist; Mazapil, an important copper camp near Saltillo in southeastern Coahuila; and the Sabinas Valley, tributary to the Rio Grande. From this last named region comes almost all of the coal mined in Mexico.
(The chief agricultural products of Coahuila are cotton, grains, and fruits. Until the combined misfortunes of drought and flood brought ruin to many of the farmers of the Laguna district in 1919-1920, that region was regarded as the chief cotton center of the Republic. The guayule industry was also at one time a significant feature of the state's economic life; but this industry was virtually wiped out by the years of revolution and the low price of rubber following the Great War.
Principal Cities: Saltillo, the capital, has a population of about 35,000 and is regarded as an important manufacturing center. Torreon, a city of 40,000 inhabitants near the Durango boundary, containing as it does large cotton mills, soap works, smelters, and machine shops, is looked upon as one of the chief industrial centers of northern Mexico. It is also a railroad eenter of the first importance, and carries on a large export and import trade with the United States. Parras, the center of the grape and wine industry in southern Coahuila, Cuidad Porfirio Diaz (Piedras Negras), a port of entry opposite Eagle Pass, and Monclora, the center of a rich agricultural district about midway between Saltillo and Cuidad Porfirio Diaz, are also worthy of mention.
Transportation: Southern and eastern Coahuila possess exceptional rail. way facilities, as Mexican conditions go. The main line of the National