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lature shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor. If he approve it, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the House in which it originated, which shall enter such objections upon the Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, it again pass both Houses, hy yeas and pays, two thirds of the members elected to each House voting therefor, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objections. If any bill shall not be returned within ten days after it shall have been presented to him (Sundays excepted), the same shall become a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Legislature, by adjournment, prevents such return, in which case it shall not become a law, unless the Governor, within ten days after such adjournment (Sundays excepted), shall sign and deposit the same in the office of the Secretary of State, in which case it shall become a law in like manner as if it had been signed by him before adjournment. If any bill presented to the Governor contains several items of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more items, while approving other portions of the bill. In such case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, and the reasons therefor, and the appropriation so objected to shall not tako effect, unless passed over the Governor's veto, as hereinbefore provided. If the Legislature be in session, the Governor shall transmit to the House in which the bill originated a copy of such statement, and the items so objected to shall be separately reconsidered in the same manner as bills which have been disapproved by the Governor.

SEC. 17. The Assembly shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members elected.

Sec. 18. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer, Attorney-General, Surveyor-General, Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and Judges of the Superior Courts, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall nevertheless be liable to indictment; trial, and punishment according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanor in office in such manner as the Legislature may provide.

Sec. 19. No Senator or Member of Assembly shall, during the term for which he shall have been

elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term, except such offices as may be filled by election by the people.

Sec. 20. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or any other power, shall be eligible to any civil office of profit under this State; provided, that officers of the militia, who receive no annual salary, local officers, or Postmasters whose compensation does not exceed five hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed to hold lucrative offices.

SEC. 21. No person convicted of the embezzlement or defalcation of the pablic funds of the United States, or of any State, or of any county or municipality therein, shall ever be eligible to any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State, avd the Legislature shall provide, by law, for the punishment of embezzlement or defalcation as a felony.

Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law, and upon warrants duly drawn thereon by the Controller; and no money shall ever be appropriated or drawn from the State treasury for the use or benefit of any corporation, association, asylum, hospital, or any other institution not under the exclusive management and control of the State as a State institution, nor shall any grant or donation of property ever be made thereto by the State; provided, that, notwithstanding anything contained in this or any other section of this Constitution, the Legislature shall have the power to grant aid to institutions conducted for the support and maintenance of minor orphans, or half orphans, or abandoned children, or aged persons in indigent circumstances; such aid to be granted by a uniform rule, and proportioned to the number of inmates of such respective institutions; provided further, that the State shall have, at any time, the right to inquire into the management of such institutions; provided further, that whenever any county, or city and county, or city, or town, shall provide for the support of minor orphans, or half orphans, or abandoned children, or aged persons in indigent circumstances, such county, city and county, city, or town, shall be entitled to receive the same pro rata appropriations as may be granted to such institutions under church or other control. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of public moneys shall be attached to and published with the laws at every regular session of the Legislature.

SEC. 23. The members of the Legislature shall receive for their services a per diem and mileage, to be fixed by law, and paid out of the public treasury; such per diem shall not exceed eight dollars, and such mileage shall not exceed ten cents per mile, and for contingent expenses not exceeding twenty-five dollars for each session. No increase in compensation or mileage shall take effect during the term for which the members of either House shall have been elected, and the pay of no attaché shall be increased after he is elected or appointed.

SEC. 24. Every Act shall embrace but one subject, which subject shall be expressed in its title. But if any subject shall be embraced in an Act which shall not be expressed in its title, such Act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be expressed in its title. No law shall be revised or amended by reference to its title, but in such case the Act revised or section amended shall be reënacted and published at length as revised or amended; and all laws of the State of California, and all official writings, and the executive, legislative, and judicial proceedings shall be conducted, preserved, and published in no other than the English language.

Sec. 25. The Legislature shall not pass local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases, that is to say:

1. Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of Justices of the Peace, Police Judges, and of Constables.

2. For the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors. 3. Regulating the practice of Courts of justice.

4. Providing for changing the venue in civil or criminal actions.

5. Granting divorces.
6. Changing the names of persons or places.

7. Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or vacating roads, highways, streets, alleys, townplats, parks, cemeteries, grave yards, or public grounds not owned by the State.

8. Summoning and impaneling grand and petit juries, and providing for their compensation.

9. Regulating county and township business, or the election of county and township officers.

10. For the assessment or collection of taxes.

11. Providing for conducting elections, or designating the places of voting, except on the organization of new counties.

12. Affecting estates of deceased persons, minors, or other persons under legal disabilities.

13. Extending the time for the collection of taxes. 14. Giving effect to invalid deeds, wills, or other in


15. Refunding money paid into the State treasury.

16. Releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, the indebtedness, liability, or obligation of any corporation or person to this State, or to any municipal corporation therein.

17. Declaring any person of age, or authorizing any minor to sell, lease, or encumber his or her property.

18. Legalizing, except as against the State, the unauthorized or invalid act of any officer.

19. Granting to any corporation, association, or individual special or exclusive right, privilege or immunity.

20. Exempting property from taxation. 21. Changing county seats.

22. Restoring to citizenship persons convicted of infamous crimes.

23. Regulating the rate of interest on money.

24. Authorizing the creation, extension, or impairing of liens.

25. Chartering or licensing ferries, bridges, or roads. 26. Remitting fines, penalties, or forfeitures. 27. Providing for the management of common schools. 28. Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties, cities, cities and counties, townships, election or school districts.

29. Affecting the fees or salary of any officer. 30. Changing the law of descent or succession. 31. Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children. 32. For limitation of civil or criminal actions.

33. In all other cases where a general law can be made applicable.

SEC. 26. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale in this State of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the nature of a lottery. The Legislature shall pass laws to regulate or prohibit the buying and selling of the shares of the capital stock of corporations in any stock board, stock exchange, or stock market, under the control of any association. All contracts for the sale of shares of the capital stock of any corporation or association, on margin, or to be delivered at a future day, shall be void, and any money paid on such contracts may be recovered by the party paying it, by suit in any Court of competent jurisdiction.

Sec. 27. When a congressional district shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be separated by any county belonging to another district. No county, or city and county, shall be divided in forming a congressional district, so as to attach one portion of a county, or city and county, to another county, or city and county, except in cases where one county, or city and county, has more population than the ratio required for one or more Congressmen; but the Legislature may divide any county, or city and county, into as many congressional districts as it may be entitled to by law. Any county, or city and county, containing a population greater than the number required for one congressional district, shall be formed into one or more congressional districts, according to the population thereof, and any residue, after forming such district or districts, shall be attached by compact adjoining assembly districts, to a contiguous county or counties, and form a congressional district. In dividing a county, or city and county, into congressional districts, no assembly district shall be divided so as to form a part of more than one congressional district, and every such congressional district shall be composed of compact contiguous assembly districts.

Sec. 28. In all elections by the Legislature the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the Journal,

Sec. 29. The general appropriation bill shall contain no item or items of appropriation, other than such as are required to pay the salaries of the State officers, the expenses of the government, and of the institutions under the exclusive control and management of the State.

Sec. 30. Neither the Legislature, nor any county, city and county, township, school district, or other municipal corporation, shall ever make an appropriation, or pay from any public fund whatever, or grant anything to or in aid of any religious sect, church, creed, or sectarian purpose, or help to support or sustain any school, college, university, hospital, or other institution controlled by any religious creed, church, or sectarian denomination whatever; nor shall any grant or donation of personal property or real estate ever be inade by the State, or any city, city and county, town or other municipal corporation for any religious creed, church, or sectarian purpose whatever; provided, that nothing in this section shall prevent the Legislature granting aid pursuant to section twenty-two of this article.

Sec. 31. The Legislature shall have no power to give or to lend, or to authorize the giving or lending, of the credit of the State, or of any county, city and county, city, township, or other political corporation or subdivision of the State now existing, or that may be hereafter established, in aid of or to any person, association or corporation, whether municipal or otherwise, or to pledge the credit thereof in any manner whatever, for the payment of the liabilities of any individual, association, municipal or other corporation whatever; nor shall it have power to make any gift, or anthorize the making of any gift, of any public money or thing of value, to any individual, municipal or other corporation wbatever; provided, that nothing in this section shall prevent the Legislature granting aid pursuant to sec

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