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By the time the pupil reaches the high school department, he will have become familiar with the essentials of both the Old and the New Testaments, and, in an elementary way, with the history and geography of Palestine. He would not have studied all of the Bible, first, because there would not have been sufficient time, and, second, because he is not yet sufficiently mature for the comprehension of some parts.

The high school department should outrank all the other departments combined in the amount of biblical and religious knowledge that is imparted. The student is now taking on the adult point of view; he is in the prime of his ability to acquire and organize knowledge, and there is nothing, except maturity of experience, that he cannot be taught.

In the high school period a number of classes should be organized. The various books of the Bible should now all be systematically studied, and their history and significance investigated, and there should be courses in the history of Christianity, in comparative religion, and in the fundamental concepts of the Christian religion. The history of Christianity is now touched here and there in the course of general secular history, but plenty of room is left for a systematic course in the Sunday school. Students from seventeen or eighteen to twenty-five years of age are greatly interested in the content and significance of our religious concepts, and they like to study and discuss them. They need the assistance of mature and trained minds in their zeal to understand them.

A phase of religious and philosophical inquiry that is too much neglected for students in general is the study of other religions. This study would be desirable for a number of reasons. It has been said with much truth that a person who knows only his own language does not know even that, and that a person can understand his own time and country only by contrasting his knowledge with that of other times and countries. This contrast brings home to him the characteristic features of his original knowledge, and without this contrast these features would pass quite unnoticed by him. What holds true of knowledge in general, holds true also of religious knowledge. The exalted nature of Christianity can be fully appreciated only when it is contrasted with Brahminism, Confucianism, Taoism, Mohammedism and the rest. Then, too, for cultural purposes, it is well worth while to know something of these different religions.

It is quite likely that the curriculum here outlined is too extensive to be taught in a one-hour session on Sunday, approximately half of which time is devoted to general devotional exercises. The problem of getting more time is a difficult one, but it should be met. There should be time for both study and recitation in the school, especially for the older students. This would require that at the very least another half hour should be added to the session. Still more time could, of course, be used to advantage, and the suggestion has been made that two or three hours should be taken and that this time should extend through, or into, the church service.* This would require that the members of the Sunday school be excused from the morning preaching service, but as the gain would accrue to religious education, this would be justifiable. Examination Questions for Macaulay's Lays of

* Collins; Educational Review, 37:280.

Ancient Rome


1. What is the meaning of the word "lay" as sed in the title of these poems ? What period of Roman History is indicated by the word “ancient''?

2. Give a sketch of the life of the author of these poems. To what different departments of literature has he contributed ?

3. To what class of poetry do these LAYS OF ANCIENT Rome belong? What are the characteristics of this class of poetry? Show that these poems are excellent examples of this class.

4. Are these poems to be regarded as genuine examples of this form of poetical composition or as mere imitations ? Give an example of a genuine poem of this type.

5. From what source did Macaulay derive the characters and incidents introduced in the “lays''? What Latin author in particular does he follow? In what form of composition does this author relate the stories?

6. What is evidently the relation between the stories which are the foundation of the “lays” and real history?

7. For what audience is the class of poetry represented by the LAYS OF ANCIENT ROME primarily designed? What limitations are imposed on the poet by the character of his audience?

8. What was “Rome,” the scene of the action of these poems? Where was it situated? What was the extent of its territory? What relations existed, as a rule, between Rome and its neighbors ?

9. Locate with reference to Rome the Tiber, Janiculum, Etruria, Latium, Umbria, the Apennines.

10. Tell the story of “Horatius at the Bridge,” quoting in the narration at least fifty lines of the poem.

11. What do you understand by patricians and plebeians? What was the senate? What was the office of consul? of dictator? of tribune?

12. Explain the following expressions in the lay of “Horatius”: she wolf's litter, pale augurs, on Palatinus, in the Comitium.

13. Tell the story of "The Battle of Lake Regillus."

14. From what foreign people did the Romans borrow the legend of the “Twin Brethren"? Where were Lacedaemon, Samothracia, , Cyrene and Tarentum? What is meant by “Adria's foam”? by "Great Asylum”? by “Vesta's fane''?

15. Tell the story of "The Prophecy of Capys." Under what circumstances is this "lay” supposed to have been first recited ?

16. Under what circumstances, as related in the story, was the prophecy originally uttered?

17. Tell the story of Virginia.” Give a word picture of the opening scene of the story. What effect is produced by giving the names and occupations of the group around Virginia? 1, 18. Paraphrase the speech of Icilius. What effect did it produce upon the people?

19. In “The Prophecy of Capys,” give the word picture of stanzas 6-9. Explain stanzas 12-14.

20. What particular emotions, in your opinion, are these several “lays” intended to arouse? Which one of them do you consider most effective in its way?

21. From information derived from the “Lays," write a short sketch of Roman character and civilization.

22. Assign to its place in the four “lays” studied, each of the following lines :The gods who live forever have fought for Rome to-day.” “ God send Rome one such other sight, and send me there to see.And how can man die better than facing fearful odds,

For the ashes of his fathers and the temples of his gods?" Hail! foster child of the wondrous nurse ! Hail! son of the wondrous sire !

23. Describe the metrical and rhyming scheme of the four LAYS OF ANCIENT ROME, considered in these questions.

24. What have you learned of the Roman gods from the study of these “lays''?

25. A critic has said, “The LAYS OF ANCIENT Rome are characterized by ringing stanzas and impetuous movement and action; the diction is in accordance with the theme, varying from the simplicity of pure narrative to the stately and sonorous strains of patriotic appeal.” Quote passages illustrating each point in this criticism.


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OYS of grammar and high school age are surcharged with sur

plus energy of which they are prodigal. Many problems arise from this fact, which teachers must face whether they will or no. The problem of discipline centers here. But a great deal more than the mere questions of order is also involved. The atmosphere of the school, the school spirit, the standard of work, the right use of time, the popularity or unpopularity of principal and teachers, and most important of all the temper and character of the pupils, is more or less closely related to this surplus energy and the method of its direction and expenditure. It is as necessary for a wise teacher to take this force into consideration in planning the work of the school year as it is for the mariner to consider the forces of wind and tide in planning the voyage he is beginning. Neglect in either case is sure to be followed by delays and losses, if not by actual shipwreck.

There are schools where the effort is constantly made to repress this energy. Such schools are loaded down with rules, regulations and penalties for their infraction. Much time is wasted in lecturing and scolding, and more in spying and worrying. The results of this plan are deplorable alike from the standpoint of the school authorities and the pupils. Some of the worst vices and meanest qualities of human nature flourish under this system. There could hardly be a worse preparation for citizenship than this.

On the other hand there are schools where the matter is left largely to take care of itself. The principal takes the position that “boys will be boys,” and he winks at all sorts of demonstrations and exhibitions of hoodlumism. Recess is a continuous performance of rough and tumble. The boys go back to their homes at the close of the day with their clothes torn, their books soiled and defaced, . and their persons scratched and lame and disfigured. They are experts in the art of “rough-house.' We know schools of this kind, whose principals defend their method on the ground that it discourages mollycoddlism and creates strength and manliness. But we believe they are in the wrong. Gentlemanliness includes all the good grand elements of manliness, and leaves out rowdyism. To be a gentleman does not involve the least little bit of mollycoddlism.

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