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clearness in presentation; the avoidance of difficult exercises; the abridgment of the number of cases of problems that have to be learned; the constant use of axioms in the solution of equations; the presentation of factoring, and the deferring of the harder cases to the latter part of the book. It is published in small, convenient shape for the pocket, with fair size of type page, but small margins.

First Book in Geography.. By Alexis E. Frye. Ginn & Co.

cents.

Price, 50 This is the most elementary geography ever written by Mr. Frye, his aim being to present such subjects as he wished his own little son tó know. It is fitted to be used as a reader for the third grade, and covers two years of study. It treats of the earth as the home of man, the pictures showing how fully the book deals with people. These pictures are the highest type of wood engraving, most of the subjects being photographs, with child life as the central thought. The book lays great stress on the study of location of important places, and to this end the maps have been made very simple and free from detail. The need of just such a book has long existed; Mr. Frye meets the need as few men could, his book being a distinct contribution to child literature as well as a reading-study book of delightful thought and lasting value.

Plane Trigonometry. By Fletcher Durell, Ph.D., Head of the Mathematical Department, The Lawrenceville School. Charles E. Morrill Co. Price, $1.25.

This book gives the work required in preparation for Yale, Harvard, Princeton and elsewhere. It takes special note of the utilities of the subject, and has many examples showing correlation with physics, mensuration, engineering and astronomy. It shortens and simplifies some difficult steps, as in the solution of triangles; under each case in the solution of triangles two groups of examples are given, one with the degree divided sexagesimally, and the other with the degree divided decimally. An entire chapter is devoted to logarithms and their properties, with examples which serve as a review of and a correlation with other branches of mathematics. A distinct improvement in the form of the logarithmic tables is the placing of the number of degrees to the right and left on each page instead of at the top and bottom, thereby preventing errors in the use of the columns of minutes.

College Algebra. By Schuyler C. Davisson, Sc. D., Professor of Mathematics in Indiana University. The Macmillan Company. Price, $1.50. This differs somewhat from the ordinary text-book on algebra in that it is a discussion of those parts of algebra treated in the first year's course in college, and not a book of exercises and problems, the aim being to give the student an idea that algebra consists of something more than problem solving. The author has had a number of years experience in teaching college freshmen classes, and his conviction is deep that it is good for the student to consider the fundamental laws of algebra early in the course, and to learn that algebra is founded upon a few simple principles that correspond to the

axioms in the study of geometry. Hence his book is not a treatise, neither is it for mathematicians, but it is for students in college who expect to continue the study of the higher branches of the subject, and to whom a thorough knowledge of the ground principles is supremely essential.

Text-Book of Physics. By C. E. Linebarger, Lake View High School, Chicago. D. C. Heath & Co.

This is a practical text-book prepared with the aim of dovetailing the fund of information about things physical, already possessed by the student, with results obtained in the laboratory. The mode of treatment of most topics is definite and consistent: appeal to the student's ready-at-hand knowledge of the topic; mention of pertinent historical items of interest; clear-cut enunciation of definitions; careful description of apparatus well illustrated; logical derivation of laws and principles; numerous applications of principles; and exercises and problems requiring for solution some constructive thought. Everywhere special stress is laid upon the practical applications of physical principles. The treatment of subjects is made intensive rather than extensive, what is omitted being rather of the nature of tradition than of actual value in a text-book.

First Course in Algebra. By Herbert E. Hawkes, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Mathematics in Yale University, and William A. Luby and Frank C. Touton, Instructors in Mathematics in Central High School, Kansas City, Mo. Ginn & Co. Price, $1.

This book is intended for the first year's work in algebra, the topics being limited strictly to those that would afford the student ample drill in the elementary technic of algebra, and a commensurate development of his reasoning power. The authors have wisely considered the equipment of the student just entering high school, and have made a book that in essentials and their treatment is logical and progressive. They make constant reference to arithmetic in explaining the various algebraic processes; the difficult problems are omitted or are few in number, and are given at the end of the exercises; only the simpler types of factoring are considered; accent is placed on problem work; close correlation is obtained between algebra and geometry; graphs are freely used, and are embodied in the treatment of the topics they are intended to illustrate; while a novel feature in a text-book in algebra is introduced by the use of portraits, with biographical notes, of celebrated mathematicians. Painstaking consideration has been given to the English of the text, an earnest effort being made to give the definitions accurately, to state the problems clearly, and to formulate the rules with simplicity and precision. It is a fine, strong book, and will make the study of the subject a pleasure.

Physical Measurements. By A. Wilmer Duff and Arthur W. Ewell, Professors of Physics in the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. P. Blakiston's Son & Co. Price, $1.50.

This new edition of a well-known work brings it strictly up to date in exercises in physical measurements suitable for the laboratory work of students who have had a fair course in general college physics. Upwards of seventy illustrations have been added in the revision, also a considerable number of new exercises, and the text has been made clearer by expansion.

Secondary-School Mathematics. By Robert L. Short, Head of the Department of Mathematics, Cleveland Technical High School, and William H. Elson, Superintendent of Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. D. C. Heath & Co. This is Book I of a two-book series wherein the text differs widely from that marked out by custom and tradition. It treats the various branches of mathematics more with reference to their unities and less as isolated entities. In Book I arithmetic, algebra and geometry are treated side by side, the effect of which arrangement is increased interest and power of analysis on the part of the learner, and greater accuracy in results. The scope of the books in the series does not vary much from that covered in algebras and geometries of the usual type, the arrangement and combinations are different, and it is this difference that makes the books deeply interesting and valuable. The aim is distinctly to give pupils usable knowledge of the principles underlying mathematics and ready control of them. The authors claim that the texts have been thoroughly tried out in mimeograph form on hundreds of high school pupils before being put in book form.

High School English Book One. By A. R. Brubacher, Ph.D., Superintendent of Schools, Schenectady, N. Y., formerly Instructor in Greek at Yale University, and Dorothy E. Snyder, B.A., Pd.B., Head of the English Department, High School, Schenectady. Chas. E. Merrill Company, New York. Price, $1.

The purpose of this book is defined by the authors in the preface to be "to unify the teaching of English in the High School." It is pointed out that English as a study is more than grammar, composition and literature. It is a combination of the three. The book works out this idea, beginning with grammar, treating composition as "self-expression in language," and seeking to make the prescribed English literature pleasant and profitable. The pupil in encouraged to speak and write freely on subjects within the realm of his own experience rather than on purely academic subjects. There are some excellent "Conversations about Books." Altogether this volume is novel and interesting, and he must be a dull teacher indeed who cannot find in it much to quicken his mind, and brighten his teaching of this most important subject.

Manual of Moral and Humane Education. By Flora Helm Krause, of the Chicago Anti-Cruelty Society. "The highest education focuses the soul upon the largest loves." R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Chicago.

This book presents the subject of humane education in an attractive light. It shows why it should become a part of the public school curriculum. It gives a graded course of study in the subject for elementary schools. It gives suitable exercises for each and every month of the year; a classified list of the more common birds; topics for written work in humane education for both elementary and high schools; suggestions to teachers; a brief survey of the growth of the movement; a review of the child-saving work, etc. It is packed from cover to cover with material that can be used in every school. The full page illustrations, of which there are many, are of a high order. It is a book that should be found on every teacher's desk.

Handywork in Wood. By William Noyes, M.A., Assistant Professor Department of Industrial Arts, Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York City. The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, Ill. Price, $2.

This is an exceptionally valuable manual, printed on heavy coated paper so as to do justice to the numerous high class and illuminating half tones which present to the eye the various suggestions and teachings of the text. There are chapters on logging, sawmilling, seasoning and measuring wood, wood hand tools, wood fastenings, equipment and care of the shop, the common joints, types of wooden structures, principles of joinery, wood finishing, -besides bibliographies and indexes. Not only teachers of woodworking for whom it is primarily intended, but also amateurs will find it of utmost value. Story Telling. What to Tell and How to Tell It. By Edna Lyman. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. Price, 75 cents net.

This is an excellent exposition of an important subject, sometimes spoken of as "the lost art of story-telling." We do not believe the art is lost, and this faith is helped and confirmed by reading this delightful little volume. We wish every mother and father as well as every teacher could own and read it. Much valuable suggestion is given concerning children's reading. An excellent list of books for the story-teller is suggested.

Century Readings for a Course in English Literature. Edited and annotated by J. W. Cunliffe, D.Lit., J. F. A. Pyre, Ph.D., Karl Young, Ph.D., of the University of Wisconsin. The Century Company, New York. Price, $2.50.

This large volume of almost twelve hundred pages presents a nearly complete course of reading in English Literature. It. is the outgrowth of a course of instruction in this subject in the University of Wisconsin. Plays and novels only are omitted. The selections are intended for college students beyond the freshman year. But the book will be widely useful beyond college walls for those persons, and they are many in number, who wish for some convenient means of self-instruction in literature. The selections are typical, and the texts are authoritative. The volume is sufficiently comprehensive to insure thoroughness. An accompanying volume, Century Outlines for a Course in English Literature (75 cents), is a convenient guide, and reinforces the helpfulness of the larger volume.

Periodical Notes

Two interesting articles in Success for November are "The Story of Wendell Phillips," by Charles Edward Russell and Marriage in America" by Robert Haven Schauffler. The latter considers the professional girl's ideals." The Five and Ten Acre Farm," by Allan L. Benson in the November issue of The Delineator will appeal to a large number of readers. It seeks to prove that by crop rotation and intensive methods a good living for an average family may be made on a small farm.-The second and concluding paper of General Charles King's literary reminis cences is another interesting feature of the magazine. The talented soldier-author has had many unique experiences during his "Thirty Years of Pencraft," and he tells them admirably.— There is a convincing treatment of the question "Vaccination or Small Pox, Which?" in the editorial columns of The Outlook of October 22.-Suburban Life for October is full, rich and interesting. Such articles as "What every Householder should Know about Plumbing,” “Two Aspects of the Lighting Question," and "Heating the House to the best Advantage," are prac tically most important and worth far more than the subscription price of the magazine for a year.

Devoted to the Science, Art, Philosophy and Literature

VOL. XXXI

of Education

DECEMBER, 1910

No. 4

*The Problem of Defective Pupils in the Regular Schools, Public and Private

MILLEDGE L. BONHAM, JR., A.M., Headmaster KOHUT SCHOOL, NEW YORK

UR first impulse is to say that there should be no such problem-these pupils should be in the institutions especially equipped for dealing with their cases. Granted. But the fact remains that there is such a problem. In many communities there are no such schools at all, in others the only ones are private institutions, beyond the means of most parents. Yet in nearly every community will be found children, not idiots, but defective, some of them, merely "subnormal." Many of these defectives will be sent to the regular schools.

Consider first the public school. In most districts, practically in all industrial communities, the poor people desire to send all their children to school, regardless of mentality, until they are old enough to become wage-earners. Usually there is. no one to stay at home with them. When thirty to seventy children present themselves to a teacher for registration, it is impossible for her to ascertain their intelligence. It may be weeks before she discovers that certain pupils are feebleminded. If there be no public provision for them, we shall find that their parents will insist that they are not so stupid as Copyright by N. A. S. E. E. C., 1910.

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