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founded the secondary schools as the immediate importance in the education of the young for the ministry, and, up to very recent times, the high school had for its object the training of the boys and girls so that they might enter college to fit them for one of the learned professions, ministry, law or medicine. The result has been an over-supply in these vocations. In this age, when every branch of industry is calling for trained men and women, it is not enough for the public schools to give pupils an ornamental education, which fits them for nothing in particular; but they must have a practical education, which will enable them to step into useful and profitable employment on graduation.

"Has your school instruction fitted you for any particular line of work?" was asked of two thousand boys and young men who applied at the Massachusetts state employment bureau for work. Only thirty-six answered "yes."

"Would you have continued in school if the school could have taught you a trade?" was then asked. Eight hundred and eightyfive answered in the affirmative. (Boston Herald)

The high school gets only a small fraction of the public school children; the number it holds to the end is still smaller. The reason is that they are attracted by the real things of life which appeal to them; therefore, they break away from the pursuit of studies in which they have comparatively little interest. What shall we do to keep these children in school that they may finish courses which will prepare them to perform their part in life well?

In this connection we may learn a valuable lesson from Germany. She has made education compulsory and established all manner of trade schools, and educated her children with reference to local needs and conditions. Continuation schools are created for those who have to go to work. Even waiters, chambermaids, hotel managers and confectioners are trained in special insituations. She has today nine technical universities, thirty-six secondary technical schools and trade schools which accommodate four hundred thousand pupils. Nine-tenths of the foremen in the shops of New York are foreigners, and the foremen in the jewelry factories at Attleboro, Massachusetts, come from the industrial schools of Paris and Geneva.

A business course and manual training should be found in every high school. We must have manual training in some form

as an integral part of the course of study in the elementary schools, either as a required or optional study. There should be a well equipped workshop connected with the high school. A broad course in manual training should precede instruction in specific trades and form the basis of such instruction. We shall have to establish trade schools and continuation schools, and, in the rural communities, the study of agriculture will have to be pursued. The expense to do this will be considerable; but, if we are to reach the ends of education,-social security and social efficiency-it is inevitable. When we provide means for the child of the average citizen,—of the salaried man, or wage-worker -to acquire an education that will be of practical use to himto enable him to do the things that the world wants done-it will be easier to raise money for school purposes.

Briefly stated, the plans I have outlined for holding pupils in school are these:

1. Individual work combined with the Batavia system.

2. The adaptation of the schools to the actual needs of the pupils.

Examination Questions for "A Midsummer Night's Dream.


1. What place among Shakespeare's dramas does "A Midsummer Night's Dream" occupy? Name the different stories used in its composition and state the source from which Shakespeare obtained this material.

2. Relate briefly the story of the drama. Where is the scene of the chief action of the story laid? State the circumstances which bring each actor into the fairy-haunted wood.

3. What connection has Theseus with the love affairs of Helena and Hermia? Why does Helena reveal Hermia's plans to Demetrius ? 4. Identify Oberon, Titania, and Puck as they appear in stories other than "A Midsummer Night's Dream." What part does each play here in furthering the plans of the Athenian lovers?

5. Describe the Athenian artisans and their preparations for presenting a play. Tell the story of Pyramus and Thisbe. Why did the artisans plan to rehearse in the wood?

6. Give the legend of the magic flower which is used with such effect in "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Describe the effect of the magic flower-juice.

7. Name the four groups of figures which appear in the wood on Midsummer Night. Describe the manner in which Shakespeare harmonizes these incongruous elements. With which group does the plot of the drama concern itself?

8. In Act II., scene II. occur two celebrated passages : (1) a tribute paid by the poet to Mary Queen of Scots; (2) a tribute to Queen Elizabeth. Point these passages out and give the accepted interpretation of each.

9. What other allusions to events or phenomena well understood by the readers of the Elizabethan era do we find in this drama?

10. Describe the situation among the Athenian lovers as the result of Puck's blunders and his efforts to retrieve his mistake.


Which of the characters in the drama remains forever under the spell of the magic flower?

12. Enumerate all the actors in the drama. State the circumstances under which each first appears, state the circumstances under which each makes his appearance at the close of the play.

13. Explain the following words and expressions and give the exact context for each:-In Ercles' vein, Gossips' bowl, patches, bottle of hay, O's and eyes of light, a part to tear a cat in, cut thread and thrum.

14. State the meaning and significance of the title of the drama In view of the title, describe the character of the play and the treatment of the subject.

15. Give a character sketch of Bottom, the Weaver; state the significance of his name; what has Bottom to do with the developing of the plot?

16. What are some of the characteristics of the fairy actors in "A Midsummer Night's Dream ?"

17. Point out the most noteworthy passages in "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and describe the setting of each. Quote five familiar passages from the drama and give the context for each.

18. Put into your own words the Quarrel Scene between Hermia and Helena; between Titania and Oberon.

19. Describe in detail the play as it was presented by the Athenian artisans at the wedding feast. Why should a lantern and thornbush stand for Moon?

20. What differences do you find between this play and others that you have read? In your estimation, where does its chief charm lie? Do the human characters in the play interest you greatly? If not, why?

21. Does it seem to you that "A Midsummer Night's Dream " would be a good acting play? If not, why?

22. Do you think Shakespeare means that the events connected with the magic flower-juice took place only in the dreams of the several sleepers, or do you think he intends to convey the idea that these are events such as might happen on Midsummer Night?

23. Quote three criticisms of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and give your authority for each criticism.

24. If you were to draw ten illustrations for "A Midsummer Night's Dream," which scenes would you choose to illustrate?

25. Tell the story of Theseus and Hypolita and of Pyramus and Thisbe as you find them in the Classical Dictionary. Tell the story of Robin Goodfellow or Puck as you find it in fairy mythology.


American Notes-Editorial


WO new and interesting educational movements begin to loom large in Boston. In the end they will undoubtedly prove to be of more than local significance. One is known as "The World in Boston" and the other as "The Boston-1915" movement. The former is to be a living exposition of world-wide Christian Missions -a great series of striking scenes such as an Indian Zenana, a Chinese opium den, a Japanese house, an African witch doctor, a Turkish Mosque, an American Indian Tepee, a Negro Mission School, an Arab Compound; moving pictures, making real the life of the Orient; Courts of all nations filled with photographs and objects illustrating various phases of life; Hall of religions, showing the forms and ceremonies of all the principal religions; Tableaux, such as Chinese weddings, Zenana scenes etc; and a brilliant musical drama, participated in by several thousand volunteers, showing great events in missionary history. This musical drama, known as "The Pageant of Darkness and Light", is a masque oratorio with four scenes, representing the North, the South, the East and the West, with a final procession of the various nations of the world gathering around the cross of Christ. This pageant was produced in London two years ago and was witnessed by more than 150,000 people. It will be produced every week-day afternoon and evening from April 24 to May 20 in the Grand Hall of Mechanics Building, in connection with the Boston Missionary Exposition. Mr. George Pickett and Mr. and Mrs. Annesley of London will take leading parts. From the churches of greater Boston 10,000 volunteers mostly young people are in training to take various parts in this great exposition of world missions, the first of its kind ever attempted in America. Since actually seeing with one's own eyes is always far more educative and convincing than merely hearing or reading about a thing, it is expected that vast numbers of people will get an entirely new conception of what has been and is being accomplished for the uplift of humanity by the great company of workers who have gone out into all lands in the name of Christ, to minister to the physical, mental and spiritual needs of heathen nations.

Already inquiries are being made by other cities in reference to the holding of similar expositions in different parts of the country. At the close of the Exposition thousands of young people who have been engaged in the work of impersonating, singing, interpreting etc. at the Exposition and who have thus been doing real work for Christ will go back to their churches with new interest, new knowl

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