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vice is, “Go to college !" but they add these suggestions to that positive statement: "Be sure that you are well prepared to do the classroom work. Earn enough before going, to meet the necessary expenses of the first year, the time usually required to get hold of things. Use your vacation well. While at college get into some good line of work and aim to become proficient in it. Above all things, never say fail.” The earnestness

; and spirit of these young men and women appear in the following quotations from their letters:

A man can work his way through almost any college if he has the right stuff in him."

“The best advice a new man could have in such a case is, hustle!

“If a fellow is thoroughly in earnest he is bound to make a go of his college course even under unfavorable conditions."

"If a man has a good preparation, if he is made of the stuff that never quits, and if he attends to business here, there is no reason why he should not be able to complete a college course almost entirely on his own resources.”

“I would advise him to come to college, and if he is a willing worker he will succeed.

“Get on the ground early." "Do all of the earning first and the studying afterwards." "If possible, do the work in the summer.”

If any young man really wants to go to college and makes up his mind, he will find a way to go."

"If one really wants work and wants to work his way through, he can do it."

"I would advise that he keep a stiff upper lip, not lose his nerve, and stifle any false ideas of pride he may have cultivated,

, knowing that no labor is degrading.”

The attitude of the faculties of these same institutions to the idea of self-help appears in their actions on the subject. In many instances faculty committees have this work in charge, while in others it is seen to by the chaplain, or by the Young Men's or Young Women's Christian Association, and considerable literature is available to guide the new student about to enter college but in need of a way of earning his expenses. The president of a great university in one of the southern states, has this to say of such efforts on the part of poor students in his institution: “All this shows an encouraging situation. It shows that many young men are still willing to toil for learning... It shows that the spirit of practical academic democracy is on the increase.”

But the strongest word on the subject has been spoken by President Hadley of Yale in his inaugural address, and very fitly quoted on the cover of the pamphlet on "Self-Help at Yale." “We need,” says Dr. Hadley, "not so much an increase in beneficiary funds as an increase of the opportunities for students to earn their living. Aid in education, if given without exacting a corresponding retum, becomes demoralizing. If it is earned by the student as he goes, it has just the opposite effect.”

But is a college education worth such continued struggle ? This is how Dr. Hyde sums up what a college has to offer, “To be at home in all lands and all ages; to count Nature a familiar acquaintance, and Art an intimate friend; to gain a standard for the appreciation of other men's work and the criticism of your own; to carry the keys of the world's library in your pocket and feel its resources behind you in whatever task you undertake; to make hosts of friends among men of your own age who are to be leaders in all walks of life; to lose yourself in generous enthusiasm and co-operate with others for common ends ; to learn manners from students who are gentlemen, and form character under professors who are Christians—this is the offer of the college for the best four years of your life.”

life.” To onyone who has caught the spirit of that sentence there can be but one answer to the question: Is it worth while ?—the one given by the Senior presidents.

Oral Composition

BY EMMA MILLER BOLENIUS, PITTSBURG ACADEMY

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zum temammamunt DUCATION should prepare boys and girls to cope

successfully with life. Is it good judgment to concentrate on a foreign tongue or a dead language, and yet allow the boy to leave school at graduation with a slovenly use of English—his mother tongue

the medium that he will use all his life in social relations and in business? If Saumonmurage teachers worked along more practical lines in English Composition, the school boy would stop complaining, "What's the use of writing this stuff! I'm never going to write - I'm going in for engineering,” and say "I mean to learn to talk clearly, briefly, effectively, so that when I handle men I can be a power!”

Why do many English teachers fail to cure the weak spots in a pupil's speech? The reason is obvious. Bad grammar is heard in the homes, in the playgrounds, in the streets; the lower grades do not root out the mistakes; many students, there fore, go through the four years of high school making the same

Most teachers recognize the need of more systematic work in oral composition, but many are at a loss how to manage it in connection with the text-book. The object of this paper is to show how much oral composition is used in one school with astonishingly good results.

The need for this system of oral composition was emphasized by the New York State Association of English Teachers, meeting at Columbia University recently, when they revised the college entrance requirements as follows:

(1.)

( Test of written composition by a theme based on personal experience.

(2) Test of range of reading and literary appreciation by questions based on general reading.

(3.) Test of the candidate's power of oral expression by reading aloud and by conversing.

errors.

It is also significant that the High School Teachers' Association of New York city in revising the course of study for secondary schools gives more prominence to oral composition and to reading aloud.

The wise teacher tries to catch the boy's style so that it retains an original flavor. In oral composition he is off-guard and has not time to think out the stilted expression of his written theme. Here is her chance to show him that dry rules of grammar, prosy suggestions about unity, clearness, coherence, force, and variety, are of use in improving conversation.

This conversation she wisely shows him consists largely of the statement of facts, reasons, telling of incidents and anecdotes, and giving of summaries and dialogues, described in the rhetoric. She helps him acquire assurance and a pleasing address—two things of in- calculable aid to him in later life by demanding correct position in speaking, natural gesture, strength of voice, pleasant modulation, clear enunciation and standard pronounciation. We know that the average American's speech from an orthoëpical standpoint is deplorable. She therefore points out his localisms, loose expressions, solecisms, circumlocution, and slang; she makes him see the inconvenience of a meagre vocabulary. Systematically used, oral composotion can do even more; by going back of the words, it trains the student's thinking powers for it teaches the boy to unify or outline a subject quickly and give results clearly and coherently, thus making the English classroom what it should be a mental gymnasium.

One-minute talks have brought excellent results in a school of which I write, a great body of American boys and girls, with many eager Greeks, Russian Jews, and a Chinese boy. Let us note its use with a country boy or a foreigner, whose speech is ungrammatical and manner timid.

“Stand in front of the class in an easy but dignified position," directs the teacher kindly. “Hold the interest by looking your audience in the eye. Emphasize by any gesture that is natural, speak out, pronounce your words slowly and carefully. Watch the way you make your sentences. Learn to think ahead -have an outline in mind when speaking-stick to the subject, arrange facts in the most sensible order, don't waste words and when you are through, stop!"

During the first week there are no interruptions for correction for the teacher has to be very resourceful to induce the timid or painfully sensitive pupils to stand in front of the class. To give an instance, one morbidly backward girl burst into tears when first asked to come forward. For a week the teacher allowed her to talk from her seat, then one day called her up to the desk to talk. When she began she had her back to the class, but the teacher, while the girl continued speaking, rose leisurely and walked to a front desk. The speaker unconsciously turned to face her teacher and, when the latter sat down with the class, found herself doing what she "would rather die than do.” That was a red-letter day in the girl's life, for it was a signal conquest

over self.

By the second week, from her desk in the front of the room, the teacher calls a halt at each mistake and makes the speaker repeat the sentence. It is not long until even the timid are able to apply the correction and go on with the talk. One boy cured himself in several months, of such slips as "you was” and “them there,” acquired power to balance constructions, and found he had the making of an orator.

Besides the verbal correction the teacher files on a card the student's strong and weak points, as follows: Eng. 1.

Thos. Parker. Nov. 20—Bad position, nervous, "you was,” enthusiasm, not clear

thinker, tries hard, rambles, athaletic.” Nov. 22—Position better, still embarrassed, double negative, bet

ter thought out, subject uninteresting. Nov. 24More at ease, fine subject, done justice to, no grammati

cal mistake, more ease, voice trailed off at end, tendency to

omit "g" at end of word. Class criticism is often called for, then the students put down the name of the speaker, and remarks which are called for at the end of each talk.

It pays to persuade pupils to coöperate in wiping out errors of speech. One corner of the blackboard is reserved for the students to write down all faulty expressions they hear. Even in class they are allowed to register such slips. When these are taken up

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