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limited as a foundation of a course in physics, or botany is taught by a visit to a saw-mill or pulp factory.

All educational truths are subject to aversion. The history of education has been largely the accommodation of many half truths to a closely organized whole. They who have sounded the notes of the new education have served as well to stimulate others who have perverted the aphorism "Teach Life" into absurdity. It is so much easier to permit students to follow the paths of the least resistance and the paths of the least resistance are usually those phases of a subject having the least educational value. It is a comparatively easy thing to adopt the superficial form. In the effort to pass beyond the lifeless and pedantic science teachings of a decade or two ago there are some who would introduce the sand pile and colored papers of the kindergarten into the science teaching of the high school.

When all is said the permanent truth remains that biological teaching must go back to certain empirical facts; that morphology within limits is an absolutely necessary basis for the understanding of organic forms, but this is not because the facts of morphology have a permanent value in themselves, but because in the great law of adjustment structural forms have come to express in their own way the fundamental principles of an organic life. They are, therefore, necessary. A course in botany which treats only of those woods which have a commercial value forgets, in its ridiculous effort to make its study practical, that it has turned science into a superficial.

The effort to bring science teaching into closer connection with life values is not so much a change in the subjects or methods of studying science as it is in the point of view of the teacher and the purpose of his teaching. He cannot succeed unless he remembers that any effort to dilute or weaken science teaching is a step backward; that science teaching, however pursued, must require that same care in observation, that same vigor of thought and exactness of interpretation which have always given the sciences their great value in any educational system. When these are lost, no matter how practical or how closely correlating the resulting subject may be, it is not true science teaching, nor would it long continue to justify itself before the highest educational standards.

Examination Questions for Scott's "Lay of the

Last Minstrel.”


1. Give an account of the "minstrel" of the Middle Ages. Describe the minstrel of this poem. Relate the circumstances under which the minstrel is driven to seek the shelter of Branksome Hall.

2. Justify the title of the poem. In each canto, point out those stanzas which seem to you most noteworthy and give reasons for your choice in each case.

3. In the introduction to Canto I, explain the following expressions: Border chivalry, A stranger filled the Stuarts' throne, The bigots of the iron time, Monmouth's bloody tomb, King Charles the Good, Holyrood.

4. What situation of affairs does the minstrel portray as the setting for his story?

5. What is the point of the dialogue between the Spirit of the Mountain and the Spirit of the River? How did it happen that the "Lady" was able to understand this conversation?

6. Describe the journey of William of Deloraine and state its object. Why did the "Lady" want the magic book?

7. Describe the scene in which Deloraine obtains the book. Relate all the events which lead up to this scene.

8. Trace the part played by the magic book throughout the story. 9. What human interest has Canto II for the reader? Trace the story of the lovers through the "Lay" and show that this story is the plot of the narrative.

10. Describe the Dwarf. Relate his adventure with the magic book. State the relation between this adventure and the subsequent fortunes of the family at Branksome Hall.

11. State clearly the charge against William of Deloraine, the proposition of the English force, the "Lady's" answer, and the part played by the boy in this affair.

12. Explain the meaning of the expression, "Trial by Combat". Describe the combat of Canto V. Describe its surprising ending.

13. Enumerate the characters of the story. State the part played by the Monk of St. Mary's Aisle, Wat of Harden, Watt Tinlinn, Dacre, Dame Maudlin.

14. Describe the summoning of the clan. Describe the gathering. What was the "gathering word"? What is meant by a "clan"?

15. What ideas regarding the art of necromancy does this story give you? Give your own views as regards the character of the Lady of Branksome Hall.

16. Describe the personal appearance of the Monk of St. Mary's Aisle, of Margaret, of William of Deloraine.

17. Draw a map of the Border and mark the rivers and towns mentioned in this poem.

18. Tell the story of Michael Scott. What connection has this story with THE LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL?

19. Define, explain, and give the context for neck verse, the bloody heart, lurcher, glamor, litherlie, bale-fire, need-fire, cloth-yard shaft, moss-trooper, march-man.

20. Make a list of subjects for nature pictures with which to illustrate the text, of subjects for delineative pictures.

21. Describe a feudal castle, its occupants and officers. Describe the war customs of the period. Describe the superstitions of the


22. Select from the text twenty Scotch words or phrases. Define or explain each and quote the line or lines in which each occurs.

23. Sketch the plan of THE LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL and comment upon the interpolations in the body of the story. What effect is produced by the songs of the poem?

24. THE LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL is a "metrical romance." Name the features that must enter into the composition of a "metrical romance" and show that this poem possesses all these features.

25. Quote stanzas illustrating the irregular and capricious versification of the poem. Quote from memory the apostrophe to the Teviot.

American Notes-Editorial

STATE AID FOR HIGHER EDUCATION. The question of state aid for higher educational institutions of learning has been reopened in Massachusetts by the Institute of Technology at Boston, which has been receiving a grant of $25,000 annually and now asks for $100,000. Boston University also will ask for $20,000 in view of its steadily increasing deficit. Prominent educators are discussing the arguments, pro and con, of the general question, and there are pronounced views on each side, vigorously advocated by high authorities. The matter will be threshed out no doubt, in legislative halls and finally decided so far as these specific instances are concerned in favor of the side that makes the stronger appeal to the good sense and real patriotism of the miscellaneous group of intelligencies making up the legislature. Let us hope that mere politics will not enter into the discussion of such a subject as this.

The truth is, no general and comprehensive principle can be laid down which will cover this question in all cases. Each case as it comes up must be settled on its own merits. In the east, with its dense population, great wealth and popular appreciation of the value of education, a liberal private support by endowment can be generally counted on for the establishment and maintenance of colleges and professional schools. In newer communities state institutions are a necessity to the highest welfare of the state. The state universities of the western states have fully justified the wisdom and the cost of their establishment. On the other hand the privately endowed colleges, east and west, have given a splendid account of their stewardship. The appeal they have made to local pride and to the benevolent good judgment of founders and benefactors has been in every way wholesome. Few of them have been able to fully realize their ambitions. There are none of them which could not use more money to advantage. But when an appeal is made for state aid, as in the case of the two Massachusetts institutions above named, the circumstances of the individual case must be carefully studied and the question settled accordingly. We would not make an insuperable obstacle even of a denominational connection, for we believe that all the denominations are working for the general good. But we would judge each case by itself, giving only its fair weight to the matter of religion and reaching a decision that should be based on all the facts viewed from all standpoints. To lay down inflexible rules is to violate the spirit that has always dominated American educational affairs, a spirit of spontaneity as well as of liberality, a spirit that prefers to have school questions settled locally, so far and so fast as logical intelligence, pride, wealth and public sentiment are ready and able to settle them rightly.

CHILD WELFARE EXHIBIT. The Child Welfare Exhibit which closed in New York on February 11 was a notable success and marks an epoch in scientific child-culture. Its promoters were far-seeing men and women. They secured the coöperation of educators, philanthropists and social workers in New York City and throughout the country. The exhibit presented in a forceable way what has been, is, and should be done for the welfare of children. The official handbook sets forth its purpose in the following language. "The purpose of this Child-Welfare Exhibit is to lift heavy burdens from childish shoulders, to straighten bent little backs-to see to it, so far as possible, that henceforth no child shall bear the weight of injustice and unhappiness." The committee boldly sets its face toward "a new earth”— a world "into which it will be safe for a child to be born; safe for his body, his mind, his soul". That the exhibit appealed to the public is evidenced by the fact that money in abundance was furnished for the asking, for the purposes of the enterprise. Sixty-five thousand dollars were expended before the opening day. The exhibit touched all phases of child welfare, such as physical health conditions, housing, play and playgrounds, work and the employment of minors, juvenile courts, treatment of defective and backward children, etc. It is hoped that much of what was shown can be transferred to other cities. In any case the exhibit is a paying proposition in every sense. For better cared-for children mean a better nation and a better race.

CHILD CULTURE LEAFLETS. In the "Child Culture Series" of leaflets issued by the State Normal School at Valley City, North Dakota and referred to last month in this department of EDUCATION, we have, as number 3, an interesting and valuable leaflet on "The Child, a Habit-Forming Animal". The age of eighteen is shown to be the average age at which habits become fixed. This is shown alike by experience and by physiological psychology. Professor William James, of Harvard, the eminent psychologist, said that the brain begins to set like a plaster cast at about this age. The leaflet points the moral of the importance of efforts at home, in school, everywhere, of teachers, parents, the state, to root out bad habits and implant good ones before this age is passed. We quote the following suggestive and excellent paragraphs.

"Habits favorable to the growing organism are, regular bathing, a reasonable degree of personal neatness, such as combing the hair, wearing clean linen; pleasant home evenings, instead of pleasant street evenings; erect carriage, clear enunciation and good English, memorizing short selections of literature, attendance at religious services appropriate to the age of the child, outdoor tramps and exercises, handiwork with tools and machines, singing, the practice of kindness, generosity to others, saving.

Habits unfavorable to the growing organism are smoking, drinking

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