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and all forms of nerve deadening, slouchy carriage and dress, avoidance of healthy play and sports, the weekly going to cheap shows and of excitable literature; buying things instead of making things. In the boy's habits lies his destiny, for they will rise up and think for him in the emergencies of life.

Professor Bain lays down two rules for habit forming that have become classic among the psychologists and should be household words in every home; they are:

1. În acquisition of a new habit or the leaving off an old one, launch yourself with as strong and decided a start as possible.

2. Never suffer an exception to occur until the new habit is established."

PAMPHLET ON "IMAGINATION." The State Normal School at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Mr. John G. Thompson, Principal, is a thoroughly wide-awake institution which is giving a great deal of attention to manual and vocational training but not to the neglect of the older forms of intellectual education. Each year the senior class prepares and publishes a pamphlet on some subject which they have worked up themselves, under the direction of the head of the department of psychology. The subject chosen this year for such an inductive study was "Imagination" and related activities. The result is a handsomely printed monograph in which Imagination is considered under the heads

1. Nature and Use. Contrasted with Memory, Reason and Perception; Use and Value; Abuse.

2. Mental Images. Memory and Free Images; Kinds of Images; After Images; Images and Concepts; Hallucination. Images and Concepts; Hallucination.

3. Kinds of Imagination. Reproductive Imagination; Constructive Imagination; Creative Imagination.

4. Development.

5. Association of Ideas.

From the helpful "Introduction" by Professor E. A. Kirkpatrick, we learn about the method pursued by teacher and class. The class was early arranged into groups, each of which had a special division. of the subject. In some cases all members of the group wrote on their whole topic, while in others they further subdivided it, each taking a phase of it. All were advised to study broadly all phases of the subject of imagination and select and arrange only what bore on their own topic. Every pupil was made familiar with the whole subject through class discussions and hearing and criticizing the reports from each group before they were turned over to the general committee, and by hearing and discussing the final paper. The instructor simply suggested points for consideration, asked questions, arranged experiments, and directed discussions, but avoided influencing conclusions by any expression of his own views.

The subject was introduced by having each pupil write an account of what he regarded as the best example of imagination that she could give. This brought out the fact that all regarded imagination as being concerned only with the unreal and the fanciful. Questions and illustrations soon caused this idea to be given up and the real nature and use of imagination to be appreciated.

HUMANE EDUCATION. The American Humane Education Society, 45 Milk St., Boston, issues a "Humane Manual" for the use of teachers in the public schools and others who are engaged in Band of Mercy work. A new Manual is to be issued this spring which will even surpass that of last year, which is full of excellent material. There are short stories, selections for recitations, poems, anecdotes, etc., with attractive and artistic illustrations on nearly every page. The work of the Humane Education Society is most praiseworthy and it has been successful to a degree that can only be realized by persons old enough to remember the conditions that existed before its beneficent work was begun. The sentiments and behaviour of old and young toward the animal creation have been completely changed in a generation. The schools have had a large share in this good work and teachers will be glad to avail themselves of the new materials that will be placed within their reach in the above named Manual.

NEW SUMMER COURSES AT HARVARD. Harvard University offers exceptionally attractive summer courses this year including some distinct innovations. One of these is a Turner course offered by the Fine Arts department. Those who take the course will accompany Professor Pope to London where the study of Turner will be undertaken by means of lectures, conferences and visits to galleries, especially_the Tate Gallery which has a new Turner wing. This course begins July 5 and ends August 15.

The course on the theory and practice of Vocational Guidance, to be given in the Summer School by Mr. Meyer Bloomfield, has called fresh attention to a form of social service which promises ere long to be studied throughout the country. Mr. Bloomfield, Director of the Vocation Bureau of Boston, has for some time been engrossed in the matter of vocational guidance, and is a peculiarly suitable man to give the summer course.

The Vocation Bureau of Boston has established offices where information about the nature and demands of various occupations is collected; it maintains schools in which teachers are trained for the delicate task of advising boys and girls and their parents in making the best possible selection of a vocation. The underlying purpose is to develop in the schools what President-Emeritus Eliot calls the "lifecareer motive."

The Boston School department has enlisted the coöperation of the Vocation Bureau, and more than a dozen cities in the country, following the example of Boston, have taken steps leading to a system of Vocational guidance for school children. Teachers and superintendents from east and west will doubtless be attracted by this opportunity to learn the details of the movement from Mr. Bloomfield. The lectures will attempt to make clear the aims of the new movement, to survey the results already attained in various parts of the world, and to provide the members of the course with the facts and principles essential to effective counsel.

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education has recently issued a little pamphlet setting forth the aims and activities of the Society and outlining its work for 1911. This pamphlet describes the need for industrial education to meet modern conditions of manufacturing and to enable the United States to compete in the markets of the world; to provide that kind of training under conditions of specialization which used to be given by apprenticeship; as well as to open to boys and girls a wide range of employment by giving them a broad familiarity with industrial processes; and to adapt public education to the real needs of American youth, nine-tenths of whom take up, directly or indirectly, industrial

careers.

This Society is now entering the fifth year of its existence. It may safely be said that industrial education has during the past five years passed beyond the stage when it can be regarded as an educational fad. The Board of Managers is such as to awaken feelings of confidence in the sanity and usefulness of the work of the Society. Among them may be mentioned James P. Monroe of Boston, President; Frederick A. Geier, of Cincinnati, Vice-President; Frederic B. Pratt, of Brooklyn, Treasurer; and on the Board of Managers, Frederick P. Fish, A. Lincoln Filene, Howell Cheney, Frank A. Vanderlip, V. Everit Macy, Frank Duffy, John Golden, John Mitchell, Miss Florence M. Marshall and Miss Jane Addams.

The National Society expresses itself as desirous of lending aid to local authorities and organizations in their efforts to introduce and organize adequate industrial training for their states or communities. This prospectus may be had upon application to the secretary, No. 20 West 44th Street, New York City.

AID FOR DEBATERS. The University of Wisconsin through its Extensive Division has issued some helpful Bulletins to aid students and others in discussing and debating. Two of these Bulletins are before. us. They relate to (1) The Restriction of Immigration; and (2) The Consolidation of Rural Schools and The Free Text-Books question. A form of the question for debate is started. Then follows a brief Introduction giving suggestions for the guidance of the debaters. After

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this there is a section of Arguments and Objections, five of each. Then comes a series of general references to printed documents furnishing information on both sides of the question. These Bulletins are well planned and will be a great help to students and others who wish guidance and concise references on these subjects. The full list of Bulletins covers a large range of topics. They are published by the University at Madison at the nominal price of 5 cents.

PRINCELY GIFTS FOR EDUCATION. Nearly twenty million dollars in gifts have been donated to the University of Chicago by its founder, Mr. John D. Rockefeller, during the administration of President Harry Pratt Judson. The gifts are as follows: The last half of fiscal year 1905-6

The fiscal year 1906-7

The fiscal year 1907-8

The fiscal year 1908-9

The fiscal year 1909-10

$1,511,708.93

4,498,889.07

2,276,328.81

1,176,877.50

92,600.00

The first half of the fiscal year 1910-11

10,203,322.22

$19,759,726.53

Ten millions of the last-named sum will be paid in ten annual instalments of $1,000,000 each, beginning January 1, 1911.

THE MONTCLAIR EXPERIMENT. In a recent number of one of our esteemed contemporary educational journals there appeared, on the editorial page a scathing criticism of the city of Montclair (N. J.) for employing a distinguished Harvard professor to investigate its schools in the interests of a more economical administration. In view of the fact that the per capita cost of educating its children is far in excess of that of any other city in the United States, the citizens of Montclair naturally thought something ought to be done. Therefore they proceeded to do the most natural thing in the world, viz.-they consulted an expert,—a man whose life as a student and instructor has been spent in studying educational problems, a man who had been called to a high position in the foremost university of the land and who has been teaching and writing and lecturing for years to the edification of his pupils, his constituents and the educational world in general. But somehow his choice for this particular service does not seem to set well with our editorial brother. He says that "for Montclair to have engaged a Harvard professor to criticise their schools" is "the height of the ridiculous". He says that "this Harvard professor has his notions of what schools should be, and the schools of no city in America have been adjusted to his notions"; and again "for a man who has not been able to impress his notions upon even one city by virtue of his appeal and argument to be set up as authority by which a city is to know whether or not its schools are the best, is the greatest absurdity of which we have ever known."

There is considerable more of the same sort of language in the editorial under review; against all of which we wish to enter a vigorous protest. We will not attempt to analyze the motive of this attack. But we dispute the broad implication that the scientific theorist has no relation to practical education; that the man who "has never successfully administered any phase of public school education" can have no judgment of such things that can be of value. If this position were correct why study education at all-or any other subject for that matter? Why honor and admire the discoverers, the philosophers, the men of science, the men of vision, the Galileos, the Platos, the Darwins, the Luthers and the John Bunyans. Sweep them aside as mere theorists. Why listen to their ideas of the universe? It is the man with practical experience who, only, has the right to be heard.

We regret the position taken by our brother. We still more regret his rushing into print with such a withering blast of scorn for the highly trained, broadly cultured profound student of educational principles. It is discouraging to all earnest students to have one of their number thus ruthlessly set aside because he is not a globe-trotter or because he has not taught "district-school". Let him live and investigate and theorize. We dare say he can teach the Montclair committee some things. We believe he might even write an acceptable editorial for our brother's journal, possibly on the educational implications of some such scriptural text and theme as "judge not that ye be not judged".

"THE COSMOPOLITAN CLUB" movement in the colleges and Universities is one of the most interesting and significant of recent educational movements. It started in the University of Wisconsin and has spread until there are branches in thirty of our colleges and universities, with more than two thousand students enrolled. These clubs are formed to bring together in social and intellectual goodfellowship American and foreign-born students. A condition of membership is that not more than one half of any such club shall be composed of native Americans; one half must be foreign students. There is a Cosmopolitan Club of two hundred members at Harvard. Nearly a hundred are enrolled in the Club in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These Clubs have pleasant quarters where the members assemble for the interchange of ideas, for debates and discussions, and for social fellowship. There is an annual convention and the "Association" publishes a monthly magazine called "The Cosmopolitan Student". Abroad there is a similar movement and the number of such clubs in France, Italy, Holland, Hungary, and Germany is rapidly multiplying. The influence of such organizations can but be helpful in the promotion of ideals of peace, good-will and mutual understanding and sympathy between the nations. It is a part of the great movement of evolution which is to bring in a higher order of humanity.

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