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there has been great improvement. The average term of service in Rhode Island is now twelve years, and since 1908 eighty-two teachers have retired on a state pension after a service of thirtyfive or more years. Permanency, as well as efficiency in teaching, is a condition of high recognition.
Other explanations may be given of causes that have operated against a higher recognition of teaching as a profession. The high character and reputation of college teachers have not been generally credited to the whole fraternity of teachers, because largely in public opinion and in their own view they have been separated from public school teachers as a distinct class, worthy of its peculiar and traditional recognition, which is not applicable to teachers in general. This Association and this meeting indicates changing conditions in this particular. Also many teachers in public service have sought higher recognition from college for high scholarship rather than from the public for more efficient service. Such purpose is of course laudable, but a higher recognition from the general public is that which teachers seem to want. Again, teachers often seek personal honor in other directions than in their own service. This, too, may be praiseworthy, for citizenship is broader than vocation; but the personal merits and achievements of teachers are not always credited to the profession. Again, teachers, like men in other vocations, seek their own and have little regard for the reputation of their calling. That many teachers themselves do not respect teaching as a life work is a chief cause of the low recognition of the teacher.
When we remember that teaching is a profession in the making, and consider all the causes that have combined to keep it in low esteem, we may wonder that its members have already won for their calling so high a recognition as is accorded it. A fair and practical test of teaching as a profession is an appraisal of its compensations. Recognition for the teacher includes economic and social compensations, salary and social position and honor. Besides these are the wages of personal culture and service, not listed in salary schedules or society columns, but distinguishing the peculiar advantages of the teacher's calling.
High culture and efficient service have economic and social values and should command high recognition in salary and social position. But, besides serving as a basis for just recognition, per
sonal culture and service are also rewarding compensations of the teacher. To the traditional culture of school and college is added the finer culture and power of service in a world of ever-living youth. There is a consciousness of self-honor.
A reasonable observation on the economic compensations of teachers is that they are comparatively low and adequate only for modest living but that they are reasonably secure. Teachers' salaries are not adequate for generous living in keeping with the needs of personal culture and social requirements of the times. A remark of one of our teachers, made recently in my office, is significant: "I'm going abroad next summer; but I never dared to think of such a thing till the state provided pensions for us teachers. I can depend on that after five years more."
To demand just economic recognition is the duty of teachers, not only as their own right, but for the efficiency of their common service. To earn a livelihood is a prime duty of citizenship. The strong man will do more than that and be able to contribute something to the relief of the weak. Said a well-known editorial writer in the latest number of the Outlook: "A man must first care for his own household before he can be of use to the state. But no matter how well he cares for his household, he is not a good citizen unless he also takes thought of the state." The teacher's very service is for the welfare of the state, and he is entitled to an economic recognition that will enable him to care for his household. Fasting and pinching economy are out of fashion. Even in the ministry the world demands well-fed and well-clad men.
Salaries for service in teaching are likely to remain lower than in other vocations requiring corresponding preparation and native ability. In other professions, except the ministry, their members have greater freedom and power in determining their economic compensations. Fortunes are made in commerce and industry. More and more the determination of the teachers' salaries comes under laws that govern the economic recognition of civil officers and of officers in the army and navy. When the service of school is compared with that of courts, army, or navy, for civic considerations, the economic reward of teaching should rank high. Though Chaucer says of the clerke of Oxenford: "And gladly walde he learn and gladly teache."
He also tells us:
"Yet hadde he but litel golde in cofre."
Rhode Island teachers fare better than the clerke of Oxenforde. Their average annual salary is now more than $650, it having increased $125 in ten years. In thirty years the school population of the state has increased from 52,273 to 103,071; and in the same time the expenditures for teachers salaries has grown from $390,558.34 to $1,397,513.37.
Men seek social position and honor as prizes of life with hardly less zeal than they seek wealth. Teachers do not differ from others in this common human trait. Perhaps more discontent arises from the want of higher social recognition than from any other cause. Here also wealth seems to determine social status. True, it is, we repeat the maxim, "Dress does not make the man," and are shamed by the shabby coat of a friend. We say manhood is more than wealth and give precedence to men of wealth. But do teachers honor wealth more than manhood? I believe that our respect for mere wealth is artificial and that in our hearts we honor manhood above all else. In school we never celebrate the birthdays of men for their riches but for their service to the race. Teachers should think reasonably of proper standards of social position and not be misled by the glitter of a false recognition. In their loyal service are higher grounds for social esteem and position. Manhood and service will win due social recognition. To the teacher alone, is rendered the high and peculiar honor of pupils, which becomes later a rich and enduring compensation.
There are some conditions essential to a higher recognition of the teacher, for which teachers themselves are chiefly responsible. (1) Teachers must keep the public school true to American democratic ideals. It must meet economic and social needs of the public. It must not be beyond the public will. In it equal opportunity and justice must be supreme. (2) The elimination of poor teaching must continue. Our fraternity must be protected against unskilful teachers. (3) Higher standards of preparation, including more post-graduate training for teachers, are urgent needs. (4) Teachers should recognize more clearly the integrity of their service and the honor of their profession, and observe professional conduct more faithfully. (5) There is need of better fellowship and unity of purpose and endeavor among
teachers. They should regard the rights of all teachers and maintain standards of professional duty with greater care.
In conclusion, I will attempt to summarize some of the reasons why teachers are entitled to higher recognition. (1) School education is the most important public interest. It is making civilization. It demands high teaching service. (2) The state sets the standards of professional qualifications and thereby establishes a public education service. Recognition should equal those standards. (3) Teachers are in the service of the public and have special claim for just consideration, like officers in army, navy, or the civil service. (4) Higher recognition is necessary to secure the best men and women. Economic and social rewards at present are inadequate for this end. (5) The services of the superintendent especially, demand higher recognition in this state. (6) Public needs tend to demand higher service and higher service demands higher recognition.
Finally, a trio of needs are recognized for greater permanency and higher efficiency in teaching,—just economic reward, tenure of position and provision for old age. In meeting these needs more fully the public will provide not only for the more efficient school education of its children, but at the same time for the higher recognition of the teacher.
Examination Questions for Shakespeare's "Henry V."
MAUD E. KINGSLEY, EAST MACHIAS, ME.
1. Enumerate the chief characteristics of Shakespeare's historical plays. What place do they occupy in literature? Of what especial historical value are they? What picture do these historical plays present as regards the temper of the English people and the nature of the times in which their scenes are laid?
2. In HENRY V, Shakespeare has depicted his ideal king. Mention the striking characteristics of this ideal king. During what period in English history did he reign?
3. Describe the relations between France and England at this period. On what was the King of England's claim to the French crown based? Upon what pretext did Henry V decide to invade France? What battle, famous in English history, forms the nucleus of this drama?
4. What purpose do the Prologue of the drama and the choruses introducing each act of the play serve? In the Prologue, what is meant by "within this wooden O?" How is King Henry characterized in the Prologue? What is meant by the criticism, "The choruses are splendidly phrased?"
5. Describe the construction of Shakespeare's historical plays as regards plot, treatment, method of developing the central situation, dramatic unity, and character delineation.
6. How does Shakespeare free his ideal king from all responsibility for the right or wrong of the invasion of France? What connection has the "bill" to which reference is made in scene 1 of act I with the above question? Quote the lines which state the provisions of the bill.
7. How does it happen that the king's character comes up for discussion in scene 1? What tribute do the actors in the scene pay to the character of the king? What is the point and object of this discussion?
8. From scene 2, act I, quote the two lines (question and answer) in which Shakespeare justifies Henry V. for consenting to an unjust war. Describe in full the incident of the tennis balls and state its significance. What is the meaning of the expression, "God before," used by the king in this scene and repeated often as the drama unfolds itself?
9. Enumerate three facts revealed by the chorus of act II. How does the chorus characterize the king? What are the meaning and significance of the line, "They sell the pasture now to buy the horse?"
10. Scene 1 of act II carries the reader back to what earlier drama? What familiar personages reappear? How is the reader prepared for the death of the famous character, Falstaff?