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week. Attendance upon these schools is obligatory in Württemberg, Hungary and Switzerland (thirteen cantons). The law is simply permissive on this point in Prussia, Scotland and four cantons of Switzerland. The chief cities of Prussia have already adopted the compulsory principle. The development of continuation schools appears to be closely related to the growth of compulsory school attendance.

In respect to this requirement the southern countries of Europe present a striking contrast to the northern. In Spain and Portugal the obligation covers only four years, and is seldom enforced for even that period. In Italy, by the law of July 8, 1904, the obligatory period was extended to six years in communes of 4,000 inhabitants, where a higher primary class is maintained. In fact, nine tenths of the communes have less than the stated population, and in all these the obligatory school period is only three years, or for the ages 6-9. In Greece, where the traditions of learning are rapidly reviving, the compulsory period is seven years, ages 5 to 12.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES The struggle between the Spanish government and the Vatican is similar in character to that which agitated France five years ago and which ended with the complete secularization of public schools. Such a result can scarcely be the outcome in Spain since devotion to the Church is there even more intense than loyalty to the Government. It is, however, universally admitted that primary education is in a deplorable state, for which condition the Church is chiefly responsible since it controls the schools. The determination of Premier Canalejas to work reform in this respect deserves universal approval.

The Russian Douma has given singular evidence of its incapacity for radical reform by the vote to destroy the local autonomy of Finland. Among the rights guaranteed to the Grand-duchy by the imperial pledge is that of controlling its schools. In the bill giving the Douma authority over the internal affairs of the province, instruction is specifically named. The action is stopped for the time being, by the opposition of the Imperial council, which is jealous of encroachments upon its own prerogatives.

In Mexico, the month of September has been given up to the celebration of the centenary of the national independence. The inauguration of the National University appointed for the twenty-second day of the month is one of the most important features of the program.

A. T. s.

Page, Esquire and Knight. Compiled and Edited by Marion Florence Lansing. Ginn & Co., Boston. Price, 35 cents.

Delightful stories of knighthood are told in this small volume. Each story is given in simple and attractive language, and only the best tales of chivaľry have been chosen. Many of them were gathered from “old histories and romances which have been heretofore practically inaccessible to children.Sympathetic illustrations help to make up the attractiveness of the book.

An Outline of English History. By Norman Maclaren Trenhohm. Ginn & Co., Boston. Price, 50 cents.

The aim of this Outline is to provide a companion and guide for students studying English history, on the basis of Prof. E. P. Cheyne's History of England." The author has been painstaking throughout in his endeavor to make the subject-matter of English history clearer and more significant to students.

The American Rural School. Its Characteristics, its Future and its Problems. By Harold Waldstein Foght, A.M. The Macmillan Company, New York. Price, $1.25 net.

All who are interested in our American rural school life will be glad to note the suggestions and plans for perfecting the rural schools as given by the author of this book. He would awaken the rural teacher, the superintendent and the school board to the importance of being conversant with educational problems in general. He points out the shortcomings in the present rural school system, and where he sees plainly a practical remedy for any of these defects he gives in detail the course to pursue in its application. The progressive rural teacher will find much in the book that is helpful and stimulating.

Teaching Geography in Elementary Schools. By R. L. Archer, M.A. The Macmillan Company, New York. Price, $1.10 net.

In the last few years there have been many changes in the Higher Teaching of Geography. New ideas as to subject-matter have been evolved, and new methods worked out satisfactorily, but as yet little has been done toward setting forth these advanced ideas for practical use in the elementary schools. In this little book an attempt has been made to show that some of these recent conceptions of geography can be readily employed in teaching it in the elementary schools.

The Mother Goose Primer. By Belle Wiley. Charles E. Merrill Company, New York. Price, 32 cents.

A very attractive, artistically illustrated reader. Twelve familiar rhymes, each with a full page picture to help hold the attention of the child, make up this easy book for beginners in reading. Each rhyme has its prose version, a page of review sentences and a page of action sentences. This is a book that will make children "happy in their work."

Play. By Emmett Dunn Angell. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. Price, $1.50 net.

Organized play is as essential on the playgrounds of our city schools as organized work in the schoolroom. In the volume presented Professor Angell describes a large variety of games suitable for the playground and many more for indoor amusement, as well as some more strenuous sports for the college boy and girl. The book merits the enthusiastic welcome it is bure to receive.

What to do at Recess. By George E. Johnson. Ginn & Co., Boston. Price, 25 cents.

A little book full of delightful suggestions for amusements during recess. The different games to play are fully described, and the directions are easily understood. The sports suggested will aid not only physical development but prove a mental and moral tonic.

The Rescue of Cuba. By Andrew S. Draper, LL.B., LL.D. Silver Burdett & Co., Boston. Price, $1.

A book prepared to show the American youth why America was aroused to rescue Cuba from Spain, and to point out “the horrors as well as the heroisms of war." The story is an accurate history of the late war, and is vividly told, becoming powerfully dramatic at times.

The Apollo Song Book for Male Voices. By Frederick E. Chapman and Charles E. Whiting. Ginn & Co., Boston. Price, $1.

Compiled especially for boys, and intended for use in preparatory schools, colleges and glee clubs, this admirable collection of songs will meet with a ready call. The selections are classified under Miscellaneous Songs, Familiar Songs, Anthems, Hymns and Patriotic Songs. A special feature is the writing of each part on a separate staff in the octave in which it is to be sung.

The Potter's Craft. A Practical Guide for Studio and Workshop. By Charles F. Binns. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. Price, $2.

To those who are desirous of learning the potter's art, but are unable to have personal instruction, this excellent book will prove a boon. The author, with his experience of thirty-six years as an artist potter, knows not only how to produce marvelously beautiful wares but knows how to impart in a clear, understandable manner the methods by which he teaches his students the potter science.

Thomas's Manual of Debate. By Ralph W. Thomas, A.M., Professor of Rhetoric and Public Speaking, Colgate University. American Book Company, New York. Price, 80 cents.

Just the book for a beginner in debate. It is practical, concise and clear in its suggested system of training. It presents the material necessary for the student's use, and instructs him fully and in detail (yet without the overabundance of words that ofttimes make instruction confusing) how to proceed in "working up" the debate. The book has an appendix containing fifty pages of briefs for “head-on” debates, also a list of debatable resolutions.

The Blodgett Fifth Reader. By Frances E. Blodgett and Andrew B. Blodgett, Superintendent of Schools, Syracuse, N. Y. Ginn & Co., Boston, Mass. Price, 75 cents.

The Fifth Reader completes an attractive and successful series of readers. The material for this advanced book has been carefully chosen from the best literature, and many selections will be new to school children. The verse is particularly well chosen for the enjoyment of the pupil, and will stimulate a liking for poetry of a high order.

The Howell Primer. By Logan Douglall Howell. Hinds, Noble & Eldridge, New York. Price, 25 cents postpaid.

This small book has many excellent features to recommend it to the teacher, and more particularly to the parents of the little child being taught to read. We would call direct attention to one or more of these good points of the primer. Calendered or coated paper which, because of its dazzling gloss is injurious to the eye, has not been used. There is a 3 mm. space between the lines which avoids eye strain. The phonic structure, perfect grading and simple outline pictures make in all a very desirable primer.

How Shall the Little Ones Sew? By Florence Kendrick Johnson. The People's University Society, New York. Price, 10 cents.

Every teacher of sewing, and every mother who desires to instruct her little daughters in the art of needlework, should own a copy of this exceedingly sensible, instructive and suggestive guide to the right method of teaching sewing. The book is worth many times its price and we cannot recommend it too highly.

The Making of a Trade School. By Mary Schenck Woolman. Whitcomb & Barrows, Boston. Price, 50 cents net.

The wonderful development and success of the Manhattan Grade School for Girls as outlined in this volume is marvelous enough to be fiction instead of truth. The first school of its kind in America to be opened for girls of fourteen years of age, it has so far proved its purpose to provide the girl, who must go to work the moment she can obtain her working papers, with an enlightened apprenticeship in some productive occupation. It is hoped that this little book will be read with care, and will be the means of stimulating the work of this sort in many cities.

The Story of Paul of Tarsus. A Manual for Teachers. By Louise Warren Atkinson. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Price, $1.10 postpaid.

Through boyhood and manhood the life of Paul teemed with thrilling incidents. Vividly dramatic were many of the situations in which his courage and indomitable determination to stand for the right brought him agony of mind and body, but never discouraged him, never made him falter. As told in this book the life of Paul will appeal to the growing boy and girl, and incite them to emulate his true hero character. Each chapter of the story is ushered in with excellent suggestions for the teacher and the best references for study. The volume is heartily commended for use in the day school as well as the Sunday school.

Elements of United States History. By Edward Channing. The Macmillan Company, New York. Price, 90 cents net.

This book is one of the most attractive presentations of the leading facts of our history that has been placed on the market for many a day. Although succinct, it fully covers the necessary ground. Maps, pictures and footnotes aid in making the history complete.

Open Air Schools. By L. P. Ayres. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. Price, $1.20.

With the ever-increasing interest manifested in educational work as carried on in the open-air schools, this little volume appears most timely. Just the information needed by inquiring teacher and superintendent about the methods of open-air work in the schools in England, Germany and our own country will be found in these pages. The excellent illustrations made from photographs of the pupils at work, at play and resting, in various schools, give the reader opportunity to see for himself how the methods of instruction in these schools are carried out successfully.

Three Hundred Games and Pastimes. What Shall We Do Now? By Edward Verrall Lucas and Elizabeth Lucas. The Macmillan Company, New York. Price, $2 net.

It is hoped that no confusion will arise by presenting the third edition of this book under a new title, but rather that the present title will convey so much more plainly the nature of the volume that it will widen the usefulness of the book. Once in the possession of mother, governess or teacher, Three Hundred Games and Pastimes will become an invaluable aid with its fund of interesting games, and its many happy intimations how to give the children a delightful hour or two.

Questions on Shakespeare: By Albert H. Tolman, Associate Professor of English in Chicago University. Part I, Introductory. Part II, The first histories, poems, comedies. The University of Chicago Press.

Price, 75 cents and $1 respectively.

In his introduction the author of these new, fresh and helpful volumes makes a valiant defense of the right of the pupil in English to such help as will make his work clear, interesting and definite. “There is no proper time in any class room for haphazard questioning. To ask the pupil simply to “take' ten pages, or twenty pages of a play, seems hardly a wise procedure." These volumes will show both teacher and pupil, as well as the general reader, where, how and when to "take" Shakespeare. There is a wealth of suggestion on every page. The author's knowledge of this greatest of English writers, his discernment, his familiarity with Shakespearean literature, his sense of grammatical fitness, and his clear way in framing questions, combine to make these the most helpful of recent books on this much studied theme. They are a new tool with which to work in a

eat mine where gold abounds. They will be a welcome addition to the equipment of the English class room and to every Shakespearean library. A remarkably full bibliography is found at the close of the first volume.

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