Slike strani

convenience of the race. That another course had to be provided in order to carry out such ideal and worthy aims as these, aims which might well guide the work in every high school in the land, is a sad commentary on what it was felt could be accomplished by deference to the rigid demands of New England College Entrance Requirements.

The present state of science teaching may be no worse absolutely than that of some other subjects. The failure is indeed very great if we measure what has so far been accomplished by what was prophesied. Science teachers must either realize more or claim less. So far as yet appears, no one will arise to take the latter alternative. Science still claims the future as her own. That we have as yet barely grazed the surface in the utilization of educative values in such a subject as biology, for instance, is increasingly apparent. The knowledge of the world of life about us of which indeed we are a part, will not always fail to be sympathetic even though it was acquired in school. We may even now catch glimpses of the time when the teaching of biology shall become powerfully effective in establishing social morality, in preventing the exploiting of natural resources and human health for private gain, in providing for hosts of boys and girls in our public high schools an "inexhaustible source of unselfish pleasure, comfort and mental health and healing."

The very difficulties in which the teaching of science is plunged at this moment are largely due to the fact that science has had but a half-hearted acceptance. As in the world outside so in the school it may be said that "even where science has received its most attentive recognition, it has remained a servant of ends imposed by alien traditions." Science means an attitude of mind, a habit of thinking, a way of working, rather than primarily an accumulation of facts. It must be freed from the classical tradition and allowed to develop its own method before we can hope to see its teaching develop in our high school boys and girls as the obvious and immediate result, "insight into nature, a sympathetic appreciation with a view to a growing adjustment to the physical and social environment."


Examination Questions for Irving's "Sketch Book."


What did Thackeray mean when he said, "Washington Irving was the first ambassador whom the New World of letters sent to the Old"?

2. Describe the plan of the SKETCH BOOK. What are some of the features which give to the SKETCH BOOK its indescribable charm? Select seven of your favorite sketches from the SKETCH BOOK.

3. From information derived from the essays contained in the SKETCH BOOK, prepare a biographical sketch of Washington Irving. Quote Irving's characterization of the SKETCH BOOK given in "The Author's Account of Himself." Point out a paragraph in the essay just mentioned, conspicuous for its beauty of style.

4. What connection with the literary career of the author has the essay entitled "The Voyage"? What are the chief points discussed in this paper? Name those descriptive passages in this essay which impress you most. Give the details entering into the composition of the exquisite word picture of the abandoned wreck. Point out a passage in "The Voyage" which seems to you worth committing to


5. Among the essays contained in the SKETCH BOOK, there is one which is said to be the most finished descriptive essay in American literature. Which is it? Of all the essays contained in the volume which two are the best known? Name those essays which have for their theme, "Rural Life in Old England."

6. Compare the essay entitled "Westminster Abbey" with Addison's essay on the same subject. Show the difference in the point of view of the beholders. Describe in your own words the effect produced upon the beholder by "Poet's Corner." What lesson would Irving draw from the various monuments and mementoes in the chapels of the Abbey? Describe the scene conjured up by the author's imagination as he stands in the chapel of the kings.

7. Which of the characters of Shakespeare's plays is celebrated in the paper whose title is "The Boar's Head Tavern, Eastcheap"? Enumerate some of the devices by which Irving gives so effective an air of reality to this essay.

8. Describe in full from the Christmas Sketches the manner in which Christmas was celebrated in Old England.

9. What effect is produced upon your mind by the author's description of these old holiday customs? Quote some of the Christmas carols to which reference is made in these sketches. Give a topical analysis of the sketch entitled "Christmas."

10. Give a character sketch of the Squire of Bracebridge Hall. Describe the Christmas fare at the Hall. In what does the chief value of these papers lie?

11. What was the author's purpose in writing "The Country

Church"? Point out the humorous situations in this sketch. Discuss the quality of Irving's humor and illustrate your statements by citations from "The Sketch Book."

12. Give a brief sketch of the Irish patriot, Robert Emmet. Which of Irving's essays has this patriot for its theme. Give a brief

outline of the essay.

13. Where is the scene of "Rip Van Winkle" laid? Tell the story in as few words as possible. What is the time of the action of the story?

14. Relate some of the legends which suggested this story to Irving. 15.

Draw the contrast between the village of the opening of the story and the village as it appeared to Rip Van Winkle on his awakening. Draw the contrast between the crowd of Dutchmen at the inn in the first part of the story and the crowd of tavern politicians in Part II.

16. Prepare a character sketch of Rip Van Winkle. Do you think that the author in this character sketch makes idleness, shiftlessness and vice attractive?

17. Where is the scene of "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" laid? During what period of our country's history? Describe in detail Sleepy Hollow and its inhabitants.

18. Tell the story of the "Legend of Sleepy Hollow" making Ichabod Crane the central figure. Tell the story_making Katrina the central figure. Tell the story making Brom Bones the central figure.

19. What was the "legend" of Sleepy Hollow? What part does this legend play in Irving's story?

20. What two types of character are described and contrasted in "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"? Draw the contrast between them. 21. Give a character sketch of Washington Irving as that character is revealed in the essays of THE SKETCH BOOK. Quote in this connection Longfellow's poem, "In the Churchyard at Tarrytown."

22. Describe fully and clearly a picture which might serve as an illustration for some episode in "Christmas Sketches"; another which would illustrate some scene in "Rip Van Winkle"; a third for "Legend of Sleepy Hollow."

23. Enumerate all the essentials of good description. Quote passages from the SKETCH BOOK in illustration of each.

24. What are the qualities most characteristic of the work of Irving? What place does THE SKETCH BOOK occupy in literature? Give some idea of the scope of Irving's literary work.

25. What were the characteristics of early American literature? Name the causes to which these characteristics were due. What service did Irving render to American literature? Why is he frequently called the "Addison of America."

American Notes-Editorial.

The United States Civil Service Commission announce an examination on August 30-31, 1911 for Teacher, Industrial Teacher and Department Assistant for the purpose of securing a list of eligibles from which appointments may be made as vacancies occur in the Philippine teaching service.

Appointments made from this eligible list will, in the ordinary course, be for service beginning with the school year 1912, but there may be need for additional teachers during the coming school year to take charge of special lines of work or engage in regular teaching and supervising as the work of the schools is extended and these appointments will be made from among those who may be ready to sail before the beginning of the school year 1912.

This opportunity for ambitious, resourceful and well-trained young men and women to identify themselves with our Insular possessions and become a part of the great movement in the East, is a most exceptional one. The educational system in the Philippines has grown during the past ten years to such an extent that there are now employed over 9,000 American and Filipino teachers, with an attendance of more than half a million students, representing an expenditure of over three and a quarter million dollars of Philippine revenues.

Detailed information relative to these examinations may be secured by writing to the Bureau of Insular Affairs, Washington, D. C.

The Training School, Vineland, N. J., publishes the following, which sets forth clearly certain facts concerning retarted or feebleminded children, which should be understood by parents and teachers:

In every public school system are found certain children who are temporarily sub-normal or retarded, and also those who are permanently sub-normal or feeble-minded.

The Training School for Mentally Deficient Children at Vineland, N. J., has been for several years investigating these conditions, endeavoring to draw the line between retardation and arrest of development. While this line cannot be accurately drawn, it appears that there is one class who are permanently sub-normal although they are usually supposed to be only temporarily sub-normal.

Temporarily sub-normal children are those whose backwardness is due to sickness, physical impairment or unfavorable environment. When the cause is removed, the child progresses at the normal rate. Permanently sub-normal children, if not at once totally arrested, are at least permanently retarded, so that while not absolutely standing still, they progress but slowly and so become increasingly below

normal children of corresponding age, finally becoming completely arrested. These are the feeble-minded.

It seems to be self-evident that the public school should give some attention to every child who is a year or more behind grade. Often a sufficient reason can be found for the backwardness. If it is defective sight or hearing, we send him to a specialist. If the reason lies in previous sickness or environment, irregular attendance or change from one city to another, the knowledge of the cause is sufficient explanation and the child needs only a little coaching.

If no such cause can be found, we must conclude that the child is defective. Such children will always be behind and will finally stop development completely sometime before they are twelve years of age. The grade of child depends upon the period at which complete arrest of development takes place. If the arrest comes at six, he is an imbecile. If he keeps on and the arrest is between seven and twelve he is a moron or a high grade feeble-minded child who can be trained to do many things, but can never be made normal and competent to take care of himself without direction.

Statistics show from two to three per cent of all school children belong to this type of feeble-minded. We have been slow to realize this fact. Very seldom have we considered that the reason for the child's not progressing normally may be that the child himself has a sub-normal capacity.

In the seventh annual report of the New York State Education Department for the school year ending July 31, 1910 transmitted to the Legislature January 30, 1911, by Dr. Andrew S. Draper, Commissioner of Education, the statistical summaries for the school year as compared with the previous year show a total increase of 25,251 in the attendance at all of the schools of the State, including the higher institutions. The total number of students in attendance during the past year was 1,866,160. There were 52,075 teachers employed during the past year, being an increase of 1287. Of this number 23 were in the trades schools. The number of graduates increased 1188. The net value of property increased $15,475,110. The total expenditures for the year were $74,423,825.14, showing a decrease of $2,272,392.24 over the year preceding. The value of the property of trades schools is given as $1,043,538.

The chief accomplishments which entitle the year to this recognition are the change of date of annual school meetings from August to May, the general revision of the Education Law, the consummation of the plan of unification inaugurated six years ago, the power given to every city and school district in the State to maintain night schools open to persons who are more than twenty-one years of age as well as to those under that age, the broadening of the scope of work in the training of teachers by the development of special courses in the

« PrejšnjaNaprej »