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the day. Therefore it will not be fuitable to the Americans, so long as that class of men, which furnishes these workmen, shall be able to employ themselves more usefully for the States, and more nobly ufus in the clearing of lands, and in cultivation in general.

A manufacture of woollen stuffs, proper for the cloathing of the country proprietor, his family and servants, may, without doubt, be associated into the labours of the field; but these kind of manu. factures, although very important in themselves, can only be applied to coarse and unfinished stuffs. The interrupted leisure of the peasant permits him to do nothing which is complicated. Card, spin, weave and bleach, is all that he can do.* If it be

7. It would without doubt, be more proper to say republicanly; but this word (republicainement) does not exist in our language. What of that? It must be created. These words, noble, nobility, nobly, can only give false ideas when applied to faệts which concern a Republic, because they are always presented with the bad envelope which the prejudices of monarchies give them, and recall the idea of men or orders superior to others, which would make it believed that such a distinction existed in a Republic that is founded only upon equality. This reflection confirms what has been said in another place, upon the necessity of making a new political and moral vocabulary for the American Republics.

* As long as there are lands to be cleared, the leisure which agriculture affords will be very short, because every season is proper fot this employ, except when too great a quantity of snow stops the work. The intervals of leisure become regularly established, when the system of cultivation is fixed, and the soil entirely disposed ihereto. Then undertakings are calculated upon their duration but in general, simple work which requires no work fop, no confi. Cerable apparatus, is that only which agrees with agriculture.



necessary for him to go beyond these, he will find a greater advantage in selling his raw materials, or even with their first preparations, if they be fimple, and to draw from the manufactures, properly so called, the articles of which he is in need.

Therefore the United States have not only need of strangers for the cloths which they use, but the more their first steps shall be wife, reasonable, and calculated according to the state of things, the more the want of foreign cloths will be continued.

Now why should not France hope to furnish cloths to the Americans? Our first efforts, badly combined, and the species of discredit in which our cloths are, ought not to discourage her.

We owe little gratitude to those of our fpeculators, who first, and at the beginning of the revolution, dispersed our cloths in the United States, If one spark of public spirit had animated them, they would have perceived the precious and honourable service which they were able to render to their country in these first adventures, by giving to the Americans a great idea of the state of our manufactures. These people were well disposed by the fuccour France gave them, to cherish its inhabitants, to esteem their character and receive their productions. They were well disposed to abjure the cone mt and aversion with which the English had inspired them for their rivals and their productions, and to give them the preference in every thing. Why has avarice, by a miserable calcula

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tion, rendered these good dispositions of no effect ? Men were willing to gain, to gain geatly; to make what is called a good stroke, in taking advantage of the distress of the Americans, and forcing them to take those commodities, which were unfit for every other market. *

This dishonesty has counterbalanced the service rendered them; for the imprudent and wretched young man, whose throat is cut by an usurer, owes him no acknowledgement. A greater evil to France has been the consequence-her cloths have loft their reputation in the United States. But let the Americans undeceive themselves; let them not attribute to the nation, the fault of a few individuals ; let them not have a bad opinion of our cloths, because some bąd ones have been sent to them. The same accident would have happened to English cloths, if in a like case, there had been English merchants avaricious enough and so far strangers to the public good, as to send their refuse to the United States. S


* I do not accuse any body; but I can certify, upon the autho. : rity of the most respectable eye witnesses, that some of these outcast cloths fell at the end of six months wear into shreds.

The Americans were so struck by this, that Mr. Laurens, after having received two millions, which France lent to the United States, employed a part of that sum to buy English cloths. Complaints were made, he answered that it was his duty to buy better and cheaper cloths. Without doubt he thereby fulfilled the generous intentions of France. See the observations of Lord Sheffield.

§ English merchants love as well as others to get money, and there are among them those who, for the love of gain would tram


The Americans who come among us, study the nature of the intercourse which we shall one day have with the United States; they know that our manufacturers possess all the means which give to English cloths their reputation; that they make them in the same manner, and that the superfines are superior to those of England; that in general dying is better understood with us and carried to a greater perfection : in short, that it depends but on some circumstances easy to be got over, to make the cheapness of our workmanship assure us the preference to the English with respect to cloths.

Why do our manufactures of cloths contend with so great a disadvantage against those of England ? It is here necessary to develope the cause; it is the surest means of encouraging government to take every measure, which will, without extraordi

ple under foot every patriotic consideration. But 'the public spirit of the generality of them puts, in England more than elsewhere, a check upon the shameful enterprizes of avarice; consequently the greater part of the merchants never abandon the national interests in their speculations, neither the honor of English commerce, nor the reputation of their manufactures. It is thus they are become the principle agents for furnishing every species of manufacturę to the whole world. When it happens that any of them sacrifice naljonal reputation to views of private interest, honest patriots generally prefer accusations against them before a public tribunal, and then the culprit is not suffered to answer by clandestine memoirs to public and substantiated accusations; this obscure and cowardly refource is held in too great contempt to be made use of. There remmins nothing to the culprit but silence or falfhood ; in both cases be is difhonoured in the opinion of the public, which affects and masks every individual, without respect to rank, power or riches.


nary or forced expedients that are of short dura: tion, restore us to all the advantages we have received from nature. Confidence will be restored to the Americans when they see the few obstacles we have to surmount.

Lord Sheffield, in avowing the superiority of our fine cloths, and of their cheapness, obferves, that the greatest consumption of the Americans is of common cloths, with respect to which France čannot enter into a competition with England. And he draws from it the judicious consequence, that the inconvenience of dividing the demands to compofę assortments, and the consideration of the

mail quantity of fine cloth necessary to form them, will cause these to be ordered in England, notwithstanding the advantage there would be in getting them from France.

But why should we not furnish common cloths to the United States; we, whose workmanship is at a lower price than that of the English? It is because in common cloths, cheapness of the raw material is more essential than that of workmanship, and that the English have wools not only better but cheaper than we have.* And for why? Because they gather their own wool, and that except the wools of Spain indispensable to superfine cloths, far from standing in need of foreign wools, they

* English wool is worth from 14 to 16 fols a pound, and the finest is worth 17 or 18. Note. The author certarnly means from 28 10 30 sols.



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