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can even fpare a confiderable furplus to other na tions, notwithstanding the prodigious use they make of them in their own manufactures,* whilst we are obliged to import from abroad more than one half of the wool neceffary to ours, which are without comparison, lefs numerous and confiderable than thofe of England.
* In fuppofing 35,000,000 fheep, in England, according to M. la Platiere, which render one with the other, at least fix pounds of wool a year, by putting the 210 millions of wool, at 15 fols only a pound, refults a property upon the spot of 157,500,000 livres a year. What is it afterwards, when, to this property, we add the benefits of ma nufacture, of contraband, &c. &c.
Mr. Roland de la Platiere, author of two volumes of the Encyclopedie Methodique, entitled Manufactures Arts et Metiers, has calculated from observations made upon the spot, that thirty-five mile lions of fheep were fed in the pastures of England, Scotland, and Ireland. This author appears to poffefs the true means of acquiring information; he has difplayed too much understanding in the fervices which he has rendered his country, for people not to have the greatest confidence in what he afferts. A found logic, a courageous patriotism, a juftness of mind characterize his writings. He fees the causes of evil, and what is more rare, has the courage to publifh them. His uncouth, but energic style, discovers a mind too profoundly ftruck with abuses to employ himself about words. These are the precious men who should be encouraged. These are the writings which should be read, day and night, by honeft and zealous administrators; who, not confining themselves to the fterile and weak defire of doing good, dare to undertake the reform of abuses, and perfevere in their undertaking. M. de la Platiere has been looked upon as a man of pretenfions. This title ought not to offend him, it was also given at London, to Dr. Price, when he predicted the lofs of the colonies. The minifterial heads of that country laughed at the prophet, but the event proved he was right.
But is it impoffible to acquire to France the advantage which that Ifle enjoys? No, certainly. France, fays an author which I quote with pleafure, manufactures to the greatest extent woollen ftuffs. «She consumes a great many of "them; exports as many; might export double "the quantity, and more eafily prevent the intro"duction of foreign ones.* She does not grow "half the wools fhe confumes. She might fur“nish all her manufactures with them, and even thofe of other nations; fhe obtains mixed qua
*Let not people be deceived; the author of this article is too well informed, knows men and things too well to have a great con fidence in the little means of prohibition, which only increase smuggling, without preventing the importation of prohibited merchandize. He pretends not to prevent it but by making a judicious and profitable use of all our national advantages. When a nation like France, has every thing, and can do every thing as well and at a cheaper rate than any other nation, all the barriers, guards and gibbets, erected to prevent fmuggling, whose progress is not prevented, do more harm than good to the exterior of nation fources. They are fuccours to idlenefs, to a spirit of monopoly, and by no means to that of industry. This is animated by the prefence of articles manufactured abroad, when it is perceived that no infurmountable obftacle is in the way of that which it manufactures to the fame degree of perfection.
Most merchants or manufacturers fpeak, either through intereft or ignorance, a doctrine quite contrary, Their advice is, in general, very much suspected on this head; ever ready to ask for exclufive privileges; inceffantly catching at thofe fpeculations which are ufeful to the few only, and prejudicial to the many, there are few of them capable of that fpirit of generalization, of those generous principles, which would at once be the caufe of profperity and glory to fuch a nation as France.
"lities only by a bad cultivation; fhe might have "of every fort and quality. However middling "they may be, they come twice as dear as those of England; they might be reduced to the fame rate. Workmanship is much dearer in England; lands are there at a higher price; yet "the English make continual and lucrative fpecu"lations upon the growth and commerce of wools;
as well as upon the fabrication of stuffs; whilft "our farmers are difcouraged from the rearing their "flocks, and our manufacturers in their enterpri"zes." This efcription is not a declamation; the fame hand which has traced it, has left nothing to be defired on the indication of the true means of putting France in a fituation not to fear for her cloths, a competition of foreign manufactures. She can improve her wools, and render them abundant; her foil is proper for producing the different qualities neceffary to the different kind of ftuffs; and with respect to the art of manufacturing, and to that kind of procefs which gives reputation to cloths, &c. I repeat it, that nothing is wanting to us, and we have over and above all nations, cheapnefs of workmanship. Let those who doubt of this, read the articles, Draps,* Laine, Mouton, in the
* We recommend to all adminiftrators, and to every one zealous for his country, the reading and meditating of thefe articles, whose. importance cannot be called in question, and whofe details will prove more and more how greatly provincial administrations would con
Encyclopedie Methodique; their confidence will be fo much the greater, as the author relates what he was charged to fee, and what he has seen ; and that his defcriptions are given with too much exactitude, neatness and intelligence, to put him in the rank of fuperficial obfervers.
He predicts to France, that she will foon be deprived of the greatest part of her foreign wools, whofe void will caufe immediately a great number of trades to fail; and certainly this danger preffes, seeing that there is no European nation which does not perceive the advantage and neceffity of converting them into cloths and stuffs.
This is another reafon for giving to the formation of the commerce with the United States, the greatest encouragements and facilities. The Ame
tribute to the profperity and glory of France. We feel at the same time pain and pleasure, on reading these articles Draps, Laine, Mouton; pain on feeing how far we are behind in the development of our fundamental refources; fatisfaction, when thinking of the immenfe debt which overwhelms us, on the obligation we are under to discharge it. We fee refources of riches and revenues which yet remain to be opened, if we be willing to establish the credit which improves every thing.
I ought not to finish this note, without doing juftice, in part, to that immenfe undertaking of the Encyclopedie. If all the volumes were written with that energy and information, which appears in thofe digefted and reduced to order by M. de la Platiere, nothing but eulogium would be due to them. But all are not alike, and what intrepid mortal will have the courage, in order to discover the truth, to go over forty volumes in quarto? This folid idea must always be recurred to :--write elementary books and not di&ionaries.
ricans will have, as I have already obferved, a much better employ for their time and industry, than to concern themselves about manufactures; yet the multiplication of woolly animals, will be among them a neceffary confequence of their clearing lands, and their existence as husbandmen, which is more preferable to them than any other life. They will therefore have a great deal of wool to export, a great deal to fend into Europe, to be manufactured there. These wools will be perfect, because the English method of rearing flocks is naturalized in the United States, and the foil is there excellent.
The Northern States gathered a great deal of wool before the war; it was as cheap there as in England; it will come to us cheaper when it forms a part of our returns, because it will not be charged with the extraordinary expences and rifques of a prohibited exportation, under the most rigorous pains.
Finally, if British wools be neceffary to us, which ought not to be doubted of, let us expect to fee the exportation of them every day become more difficult. We fee England carry on against smuggling a war the most proper to destroy it. This judicious nation, awakened by the enormity of its debt, which it is its firft duty, as well as its greatest intereft to discharge, confiders attentively the prejudice which fmuggling does to the public revenue; and not being yet able to do without the produc