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It is proved, that having no manufactories, they are forced to recur to European manufactures; that they cannot establish any of their own for a long time to come, because they have but few hands, and that agriculture ought to employ all their care.
It is proved that, according to phyfical, political and moral relations, they ought to persevere in employing themselves exclufively in agriculture, and to renounce even the tranfportation of their own productions into Europe.
It is proved, that this is the only means of preferving their republican manners, and of retarding the progrefs of luxury.
Finally is is proved, that in giving themfelves up to culture, and in neglecting manufactures, they will lefs perceive the fcarcity of money; that they will find the means of supplying its place, and of carrying on a very advantageous exterior commerce of exchange.
Thefe different points being eftablifhed, it is propofed to fhew, that of all the nations of Europe, France is that with which it beft fuits the United States to league themselves by commerce, both having wants and productions which correspond with each other. This truth is made appear in prefenting the double catalogue of reciprocal importations and exportations to be made between France and the United States.
page 65 Of the Importations to be made from France into the United States, or of the Wants of the United States and the Produc tions of France which correfpond thereto.
Three questions are therein difcuffed.
ift. Is it proper for free America to cultivate the vine and to make wine?
The negative is maintained; and it is proved that the vine is an incommodious and a little lucrative property; that wine at two low a price would be a dangerous production in republics, whofe manners form their bafis, &c. That it is better to get wine from abroad.
2d. Ought not free America, in renouncing this culture, to give the preference to French wines?
That this question can fuffer no difficulty; that French wines are, without difpute, the most wholefome and agreeable.
3d. What means ought to be taken to infure them a prefer
In meliorating the cultivation of the vine; in improving the manner of making wine; in inftituting establishments which would render the profits lefs precarious. Different means propofed for this purpofe.
Of the moral and political inconvenience of the low price of brandies.
Of the fuperiority of the brandies of France over those of other countries, and even over rum.
Of the facility of infuring to the first the preference in the
Examination of the queftion; if it be important to the French
The exportation of brandy adds nothing to the revenue, and that of wine brings in a great deal.
The exportation of brandy diminishes the confumption of French wines abroad; this brandy forms the principal ingredient in made wines prepared there.
The diftillation of brandy is for the vineyard proprietor but a laft refource which ruins him.
SECTION III. Oils, Olives, dried Fruits, &'c.
Articles of a fure and advantageous fale from France to the
page 88 People governed by a free conftitution ought to prefer cloth to any other kind of manufacture.
Its different qualities accord better with the different climates of the United States.
The manufacture of cloths being complicated, is not proper for the free Americans in their present state.
Thofe they manufacture ought to be confined to coarfe
For fine cloths they ought to have recourfe to Europe.
That France may please herself in the rank of those nations which pretend to furnish these cloths to free America.
The first effays of this kind made by France, badly received, ought not to difcourage her manufacturers.
Caufes of the difcredit of thefe cloths. That this difcredit cannot continue, because the French manufacture fine cloths, and understand dying, better than any other people.
Examination of the causes which make the competition of French with English cloths difadvantageous to the former.
This advantage does not come from the inferiority of French cloths, but from the want of French wools, and from their high price, whilft wools are cheap and plenty in England.
Caufes of this difference of price.
That the dearnefs of French wools, holding to the scarcity of fheep, may be removed, by taking means to encrease the breed of sheep.
Caufes which are in oppofition to this encrease.
Until this end be obtained, the admiffion of American wools ought to be encouraged.
Two fpecies of linen drapery are diftinguished. The first comprehending linen properly fo called, with which sheets, &c. are made.
The manufacture of these linens being fimple, and fufceptible of being affociated with the labours of the field, the free Americans are right in undertaking this manufacture. There are but certain linens, very fine, for which they will
have recourfe to Europe.
The second species of linen drapery contains tiffues, compofed of thread of different colours; fuch as painted linens, handkerchiefs, &c.
The manufacture of the greatest part of this linen drapery, being complicated, belongs to Europe.
The English having invented machines, which fimplify this manufacture; and manufacturing better and cheaper, may obtain the preference.
If France were left to her natural means, and not restrained by any obftacle, fhe might enter into a competition with England.
Examination of the arret published in 1785, to favour this manufacture of linens, and to entice foreign manufacturers into France.-Motives which ought to prevent them from fettling there.
SECTION VI. Silks, Ribbons, Silk Stockings, Gold and SilverLaces, &c. page 117 For the fupplying of which articles, France will have the preference in the United States.
Her looms and frames are numerous; her filks fine, and lefs dear than elsewhere.
The manufacture of filks is not proper for the United States. Motives which ought to prevent them from ever undertaking it.
Motives which ought to prevent their confuming any filk.If they import any, it ought to be for no other purpose than that of furnishing Spanish America.
page 122 The manufacture of hats belongs to Europe, and France must have the preference for this article.
SECTION VIII. Leather, Shoes, Boots, Saddles, &c. page 123 The Englif have a great fuperiority in all thefe, over the French.
The principal caufes of this fuperiority.-The true fpirit of commerce reigning in England; the trader honouring himfelf by his profeffion, confecrates a great capital to it, and lets his capital remain in trade. The contrary is the cafe in France; commerce being degraded, but fmall capitals are employed, and are quickly withdrawn: leather is overcharged with duties, the tanner has little or no profit.-Duties and impediments to be removed, if it be wifhed to encourage tanneries in France.
page 128 The French Government ought to lofe no time in fuppreffing glafs-houfes. Bottles only, might conftitute an article of exportation but the glafs-houfes are too pernicious, laying the forefts in wafte, which are already too much impaired. It is preferable to encourage the free Americans to build glafs-houfes: they will have in it a double advantage.
Iron and Steel.
page 131 It is neceflary, and for the fame reafon, to fupprefs the French forges. The Americans must one day furnish Europe with iron. In the mean time, France cannot enter into a competition with the North in this article.
Her intereft ought to incline her to get iron from abroad. ́