The Growth of English Industry and Commerce During the Early and Middle Ages, Količina 2

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At the University Press, 1892 - 626 strani
 

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BOOK VI
14
POLITICAL SURVEY
15
RURAL ECONOMY PAGE 180 Tillage and grazing
51
Corn laws
54
Dairy farming
56
Draining schemes
57
Compulsory rates
58
Vagrants and work
59
The recoinage
62
The revenue
66
ECONOMIC OPINION 188 The force of selfinterest Hales
67
The usury laws
74
Capital and changed circumstances
76
Puritanism and commercial morality
79
Politicians and practical men
83
Competition and wellordered trade
87
Freedom for internal trade
89
Bankruptcy
92
Insurance
93
Money and the foreign exchanges
95
THE STUARTS CHAPTER I POLITICAL RIVALRIES AND CHANGES 198 Continued pursuit of power and conscious imitation of the Dutch
101
Constitutional changes Finance
104
Political doctrine
105
The influence of Puritanism
106
Navigation Acts
110
The pirates of Barbary
113
Fisheries
115
Commissions on trade
116
Regulated companies
124
Ulster and other parts of Ireland
132
The Cromwellian settlement and the Restoration
137
Virginia
143
New England
146
The West Indies 148 V
153
INDUSTRY 214 The regulation of industry and its objects
156
Different methods of regulation
159
Grievances of consumers and traders
162
Discordant elements in the formation of nationalities 168 The importation of silver
165
Political objects under Charles I
166
The Elizabethan system
169
Our nearest DependencyIreland
170
Restraints on the growth of London
171
Industrial policy further illustrated
176
15
179
Enclosure and improvements
180
New products and better farming
182
The fens and Hatfield Chase
187
The corn trade
190
Rural employment
192
The assessment of wages
195
Vagrancy and want of employment
200
Squatters on the commons
204
The Act of Settlement
206
Bankruptcy and insolvent debtors
208
Bullionists and the balance of trade
210
The currency
213
Taxation under James
215
Expedients adopted by Charles I
217
Parliamentary resources
218
Restoration finance
220
The Goldsmiths
222
Fire insurance
226
General character of pamphlet literature
227
Political philosophy and economics
233
Criteria of prosperity
234
Political arithmetic
248
17
250
The rate of interest
251
The circulating medium and forms of credit
254
THE STRUGGLE WITH FRANCE CHAPTER I THE FALL OF THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM PAGE 246 Rivalry with France
256
The Mercantilists and the industrial interest
258
SHIPPING
259
Adam Smith
260
Political Economy
261
16891776
263
The Peace of Utrecht
264
The East India Company
267
The contest renewed in 1730
272
The African Company
278
The Hudsons Bay Company
281
Navigation Acts 172 Fisheries and subsidiary employment 173 Merchant Companies
284
24
286
Marine insurance
289
The Navigation Act
292
Ireland after the Revolution
297
Linen manufacture
300
General condition of the country
304
Political ambitions of English in India
308
Rivalry in the West Indies
311
The slave trade
314
Missionary efforts
318
French missions in North America
319
The attitude of the English
320
Selfdependence of Colonists
325
Economic policy of England towards these colonies
328
English and Dutch policies contrasted
330
Protection and progress
333
Providing raw materials
334
Prohibiting imported goods and encouraging consumption
337
The clothing and the iron trades
339
The coal trade
342
New materials and new inventions
344
THE POOR 287 The increase of rates and the workhouses
379
Alleged causes of pauperism
381
The peasantry and the soil
383
Day labourers and husbandmen
386
FINANCE 291 Public Borrowing
390
The Bank of England
394
The Goldsmiths and the Land Bank
396
Credit and speculation
398
The currency
401
The National Debt and taxation
403
The incidence of taxation
405
The Darien scheme and the Union
410
Walpole and Grenville
413
Economic DOCTRINE 300 Unique position of Adam Smith
416
Character of the study at the Revolution
418
Current discussions
419
Change in the standpoint usually taken
422
Historical studies
423
305 Sir James Steuart
429
Adam Smith and the isolation of wealth
431
Importance of his work
434
17761815
436
GENERAL SURVEY 310 Rapid changes in every direction
442
Industrial changes and social life
443
Order of treatment
446
Cotton spinning machinery
447
The powerloom in the cotton trade
448
The woollen and worsted trades
449
Insufficient supply of wool
458
Blast furnaces and the iron trade
461
The coal trade and the Vend
462
Economic effects of these inventions
465
Social effects
467
The price of corn and the agricultural revolution
475
Decay of byemployments
480
Enclosure
485
Progress of improvement
488
Corn laws and tithes
489
THE POOR 326 The allowance system
491
Agricultural distress
496
Allotments
502
The growth of population
506
SHIPPING AND COMMERCE 330 War and commerce
507
The War of Independence
509
Pitts commercial treaty with France
510
The Revolutionary War
512
Rapid expansion during the peace
513
The Napoleonic War
514
The Berlin Decrees and Orders in Council
518
DEPENDENCIES AND COLONIES 337 Restraints on Irish development
522
Bounties and encouragement to trade
526
The Act of Union
530
The government of India
532
Australia and sheep farming
537
Canada and Newfoundland
541
The West Indian trade
543
The slave trade
544
FINANCE AND TAXATION 345 The increase of the debt
545
The influence of the Wealth of Nations
547
Pitt and the incidence of taxation
549
BANKING AND CURRENCY 348 Position of the Bank of England
551
Commercial crises
552
Pitts demands on the Bank
553
The suspension of cash payments and the bullion committee
555
Economic DOCTRINE 352 The doctrine of population in the eighteenth century
557
Malthus Essay
562
Anderson and the doctrine of rent
571
Ricardos method
575
PRACTICAL INFLUENCE OF THE NEW IDEAS 357 Doctrinaire reaction
579
Selfsufficiency and the Corn Laws
582
Current political opinions
583
Social and moral influences
587
COMMERCE 361 The removal of restrictions
591
The opening of trade with China
593
The West Indies and the slave trade
597
The West Indies and the slaves
599
Canada and the Hudsons Bay Company
600
Wakefield and systematic colonisation
603
INDUSTRY 367 Repeal of the Combination Laws
607
Artisan aims
611
The Bradford strike
614
Reckless competition in framework knitting
616
The Factory Commission
621
The factory population
628
Parents and employers
631
Handloom weavers
635
Domestic and factory systems
642
Coal Mines
643
Trades Unions and Cooperation
644
THE POOR
659
Civic economy of large towns
665
CURRENCY AND CAPITAL
672
CONCLUSION
679
APPENDIX I
687
Increase of Commerce and Shipping
694
APPENDIX II
701
North America
717
INDEX
739
Wages and combinations 359
745
Ireland 29 31 CHAPTER IV INDUSTRY 176 Industrial policy
750
The Statute of Apprentices 178 The influence of this enactment 179 The quality of wares 33 38
753
42
755

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Stran 666 - The school-boy whips his taxed top — the beardless youth manages his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle on a taxed road ; — and the dying Englishman pouring his medicine, which has paid seven per cent. into a spoon that has paid fifteen per cent.
Stran 581 - THAT THERE CAN BE NO TRADE UNPROFITABLE TO THE PUBLIC ; FOR IF ANY PROVE SO, MEN LEAVE IT OFF; AND WHEREVER THE TRADERS THRIVE, THE PUBLIC, OF WHICH THEY ARE A PART, THRIVE ALSO.
Stran 235 - To which let me add, that he, who appropriates land to himself by his labour, does not lessen, but increase the common stock of mankind...
Stran 558 - Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as for instance with fennel; and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only, as for instance with Englishmen.
Stran 666 - His whole property is then immediately taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides the probate, large fees are demanded for burying him in the chancel ; his virtues are handed down to posterity on taxed marble; and he is then gathered to his fathers, — to be taxed no more.
Stran 434 - The wealth of a neighbouring nation, however, though dangerous in war and politics, is certainly advantageous in trade. In a state of hostility it may enable our enemies to maintain fleets and armies superior to our own ; but in a state of peace and commerce it must likewise enable them to exchange with us to a greater value, and to afford a better market, either for the immediate produce of our own industry, or for whatever is purchased with that produce.
Stran 325 - I have been told by Englishmen, and not only by such as were born in America, but even by such as came from Europe, that the English colonies in North- America, in the space of thirty or fifty years, would be able to form a state by themselves, entirely independent of Old England.
Stran 559 - ... have more industry and frugality than the natives, and then they will provide more subsistence, and increase in the country ; but they will gradually eat the natives out.
Stran 376 - The carriage of grain, coals, merchandize, etc., is in general conducted with little more than half the number of horses with which it formerly was. Journies of business are performed with more than double expedition. Improvements in agriculture keep pace with those of trade. Everything wears the face of dispatch ; every article of our produce becomes more valuable ; and the hinge which has guided all these movements, and upon which they turn, is the reformation which has been made in our public...
Stran 566 - It is not, however, the rent of the land that determines the price of its produce, but it is the price of that produce which determines the rent of the land, although the price of that produce is often highest in those countries where the rent of land is lowest This seems to be a paradox that deserves to be explained. " In every country there is a variety of soils, differing considerably from one another in point of fertility.

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