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one thousand fèven hundred and ninety-five, between the United States, and the nations or tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chippewas, Putawatimies
, Miamis, Eel River, Weeas, Kickapoos, Piankathaws, and Kalkalkias, it was stipulated that no person should be permitted to relide at any of the towns or hunting camps of the said Indian tribes as a trader, who is not furnished with a license for that purpose, under the authority of the United States ; which latter Tipulation has excited doubts whether in its operation it may not interfere with the due execution of the said third article of the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation : and it being the fincere delite of his Britannic Majesty, and of the United States, that this point should be so explained as to remove all doubts, and promote mutual satisfaction and friendthip: and for this purpose his Britannic Majelty having named for his commissioner, Phineas Bond, Esq. lis Majesty's consul general for the middle and fouthern itates of America (and now his Majesty's charge d'affaires to the United States); and the prelident of the United States having named for their commillioner Timothy Pickering, Erg. secretary of state of the United States, to whom, agreeable to the laws of the United States, he has entrusted this negotiation : they, the said commillioners, having communicated to each other their full powers, have, in virtue of the fame, and conformably to the spirit of the last article of the said treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, entered into this explanatory article, and do by these presents explicitly agree and declare, That no ftipulations in any treaty subsequently concluded by either of the contracting parties with any other state or nation, or with any Indian tribe, can be understood to derogate in any manner from the rights of free intercourse and commerce secured by the aforesaid third article of treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, to the subjects of his Majesty, and to the citizens of the United States, and to the Indians dwelling on either side of the boundary line aforelaid; but that all the said persons shall remain at full liberty freely to pafs and repass, by land or inland naviga. tion, into the respective territories and countries of the contracting parties, on either tide of the said boundary line, and freely to carry on trade and commerce with each other, according to the Ripulations of the said third article of the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation.
This explanatory article, when the same shall have been ratified by his Majesty and by the president of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of their senate, and the refpective ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be added to and make a part of the said treaty of amity, commerce, and naviga
tion, and shall be permanently binding upon his Majesty and the United States.
In witness whereof we, the said commissioners of his Majesty
the King of Great Britain and the United States of America, have signed this explanatory article, and thereto affixed our seals. Done at Philadelphia, this fourth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand feven hundred and ninety-fix.
P. BOND, (L. S.) TIMOTHY PICKERING, L. S.)
And whereas the said explanatory article has by me, by and with the advice and consent of the fenate of the United States on the one part, and by his Britannic Majesty on the other, been duly approved and ratified, and the ratifications have fince, to wit, on the sixth day of October last, been duly exchanged: now, therefore, to the end that the said explanatory article may be executed and observed with punctuality and the most sincere regard to good faith on the part of the United States, I hereby make known the premises; and enjoin and require all persons bearing office, civil or military, within the United States, and all others, citizens or inhabitants thereof, or being within the same, to execute and observe the said explanatory article accordingly.
In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the United
States to be affixed to these presents, and signed the same
with my hand.
ber, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hun-
GEORGE WASHINGTON. By the President,
Secretary of State.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1796. THIS day, at twelve o'clock, the President of the United
States met both houses of Congress in the representatives chamber, and delivered to them the following address :
Fellow Citizens of the Senate, and of the House of Represen
tatiais, IN recurring to the internal situation of our country, since I had the pleasure to address you, I find ample reason for a renewed expression of that gratitude to the Ruler of the Universe, which a continued series of prosperity has so often and fo justly called forth.
The acts of the last feflion, which required special arrangements, have been, as far as circumstances would admit, carried into operation.
The meeting of the deputies from the Creek nation at Dolerain, in the state of Georgia, which had for a principal objea the purchase of a parcel of their land by that state, broke up without its being accomplished: the nation having, previous to their departure, instructed them against making any fale; the occasion, however, has been improved, to confirm, by a new treaty with the Creeks, their pre-existing engagements with the Uniied States, and to obtain their consent to the establishment of trading houses and inilitary posts within their boundary, by means of which their friendthip, and the general peace, may be more effe&ually fecured.
As soon as the governor-general of Canada could be addreffed with propriety on this subject, arrangements were cordially and promptly concluded for their evacuation, and the United States took posieition of the principal of them, comprehending Oswego, Niagara, Detroit, Michaliminac, and Fort Miami, where such repairs and additions have been ordered to be made as appeared indispensable.
The commillioners appointed on the part of the United States, agreeably to the seventh article of the treaty with Great Britain, relative to captures and condemnation of vessels and other pro. perty, met the commissioners of his Britannic Majesty in London, in Auguít lait, when John Tumball, Esq. was chosen by lot for the fifth commissioner. In October following the board were to proceed to business. As yet there has been no communication of comunissioners on the part of Great Britain, to unite with those who have been appointed on the part of the United States, for carrying into effect the sixth article of the treaty.
The treaty with Spain required that the commissioners for running the boundary line, between the territory of the United States and his Catholic Majesty's provinces of East and West Florida, should meet at the Natches, before the expiration of lix months after the exchange of the ratifications, which was effected ät Aranjuez, on the 25th of April, and the troops of his Catholic Majesty, occupying any posts within the limiis of the United States, were within the same period to be withdrawn. The commissioner of the United States, therefore, commenced his journey from the Natches in September, and troops were ordered to occupy the posts from which the Spanish garrisons should be withdrawn. Information has been recently received of the appointment of a commillioner on the part of his Catholic Majesty for running the boundary line, but none of any appointment for the adjustment of the claims of our citizens, whose vessels were captured by the armed vefrels of Spain.
In pursuance of the act of Congress, palled in the last fellion, for the protection and relief of American seamen, agents were appointed, one to refide in Great Britain, and the other in the West Indies. The effects of the agency in the West Indies are not yet fully ascertained; but those which have been cominunicated afford grounds to believe the measure will be beneficial, The agent destined to reside in Great Britain declining to accept the appointment, the business has consequently devolved on the minister of the United States in London ; and will command his attention, until a new agent shall be appointed.
After many delays and disappointments, arising out of the European war, the final arrangements for fulfilling the engagements made to the Dey and regency of Algiers will, in all prefent appearance, be crowned with success; but under great, though inevitable disadvantages, in the pecuniary transactions, occalioned by that war; which will render a further provilion necessary. The actual liberation of all our citizens who were prisoners in Algiers, while it gratifies every feeling heart, is itself an earnest of a satisfactory termination of the whole negotiation.
Measures are in operation for effe&ing treaties with the Regencies of Tunis and Tripoli.
To an active external commerce the protection of a naval force is indispensable. This is manifest with regard to wars in which a state is itself a party; but besides this, it is onr own experience, that the most sincere neutrality is not a sufficient guard against the depredations of nations at war. To secure respect to a neutral fag requires a naval force, organized, and ready to vindicate it from insult or aggression. This may even prevent the neceflity of going to war, by discouraging belligerent powers from committing Q q2
such violations of the rights of the neutral party as may, first of last, receive no other option. From the best information I have been able to obtain, it would seem as if our trade to the Mediterranean, without a protecting force, will always be insecure ; and our citizens exposed to the calamities from which numbers of them have but just been relieved. These confiderations invite the United States to look to the means, and to set about the gradual creation of a navy. The increasing progress of their navigation promises them, at no distant period, the requisite supply of feamen; and their means, in other respects, favour the undertaking. It is an encouragement, likewise, that their particular fituation will give weight and influence to a moderate naval force in their hands. Will it not then be adviseable to begin, without delay, to provide, and lay up the materials for the building and equipping of ships of war; and to proceed in the work by degrees, in proportion as our resources shall render it practicable, without inconvenience ; so that a future war of Europe may not find our commerce in the same unprotected state in which it was found by the present?
Congress have repeatedly, and not without success, directed their attention to the encouragement of manufactures. The object is of too much confequence not to ensure a continuation of their efforts, in every way which will appear eligible. As a general rule, manufactures on a public account are inexpedient; but where the state of things in a country leave little hope that certain branches of manufacture will, for a great length of time, obtain; when these are of a nature essential to the furnishing and equipping of the public force in the time of war, are not establithients for procuring them on public account, to the extent of the ordinary demand for the public service, recommended by strong con. siderations of national policy, as an exception to the general rule? Ought our country to remain in such cases dependent on foreign supply, precarious, because liable to be interrupted ? If the necessary articles should in this mode cost more in time of peace, will not the security and independence thence arising form an ample compensation? Establishments of this fort, commensurate only with the calls of the public service in the time of peace, will, in time of war, easily be extended in proportion to the exigencies of the government, and even perhaps to be made to yield a furplus, for the supply of our citizens at large; so as to mitigate the priyateers from the interruption of their trade. If adopted, the plan ought to exclude all those branches, which are already, or likely foon to be established in the country, in order that there may be po danger of interference with pursuits of individual industry.
It will not be doubted that, with reference either to individual or national welfare, agriculture is of primary importance, 14