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the culture of the rich productions of the colony you inhabit! Many of you have been to France; they will tell you, that the people are there constantly occupied at useful labours, and agriculture in particular. Imitate that active people, who adopts you as brethren, and you will establish by that means, a trade of exchange with them, which will cement and strengthen your brotherly relations.
Instruction is as useful to you as labour; by it you will transmit your rights to your children ; by it you will learn how to fulfil the duty of good citizens : finally, by instruction you will attain that degree of morality, which distinguishes the civilized from the fa. vage man, the honest from the perverse citizen.
The government will omit nothing to attain an object fo intcresting, and so worthy of its solicitude. Public schools will be established throughout all the colonies; your children shall there receive instruction; imbibe a taste for labour and morals, which are to accomplish their full regeneration. The Republic willextend farther her cares for your children, for the wiihes that a certain number of those who shall have produced a greater disposition and zeal for instruction to be sent to France, with the consent of their parents, there to study in a more perfect degree these sciences or arts, to which they may have shown a more decided in. clination.
The same resources are likewise offered to the children of the whites, and of the coloured people; for the primary schools, which will be established, will be open to all individuals, born in the colonies, of whatever colour they may be. ALL MEN ARE EQUAL IN RIGHTS,
To you, Citizen's, whom a barbarous custom had made formerly proprietors of slaves, we shall observe, that in consequence only of the most strange subversion of what is known under the naine of justice and humanity, the most sacred' rights of man had been forsaken in the former order of things, which allowed them to be reduced to the most insufferable and abject slavery ; we shall tell you, that a state so contrary to nature, though apparently favourable to your interests, was of too violent a nature to last long. How could the master shake off the thought of the dangers with which he was incessantly threatened? Does not the experience of ages and nations, transmitted by history, inform us, that tyranny has always fallen a victim to its own crimes ? Undoubtedly, fix hundred thousand flaves, unjustly and cruelly tortured, in almost every instant of their lives, could not afford a great degree of secu. rity to the small number of their masters. They were most afsuredly disturbed by the most cruel enormitics.
Initead of the violent state in which lingered the late proprietors of llaves, liberty and equality, which flow from the conititu. tion, offer to them nothing but true enjoyments, and perfe& fecu. rity to their lives and fortunes.
In addressing those formerly distinguished as whites, and people of colour, without poffeffions, we would say 10 then, that in a free state, all hands ought to he employed ; ihat every one ought to make a choice of a kind of labour which, in concurring to the general welfare, would procure to the labourer not only exiltence, but the conveniencies of life; that the colonial system being altered, they must no more establish their hopes of fortune on SLAVERY, for it is FOREVER ABOLIS11ED on the whole territory of France. Let every one, therefore, make the best of his induitry, devote himself to agriculture. Let not any ill founded shame keep him in inactivity, which is as dangerous to himself, as it is ruin. qus to the common weal. Let himn be convinced, that no occipation debases man ; let him know, that with the wisest people of antiquity, agriculture was considered as the first of all occupations. Let them, therefore renounce that state of vagrancy
which the laws of the Republic will punish.
In fine, we would repeat to them, that as all the inhabitants of the colony from this instant will form but one class, every citizen will have the same rights, and enjoy the same advantages; and that the Republic establishes no other distinction among them, than those of virtue and vice, of talents and ignorance.
In the name of the Republic, in the name of humanity, in the name of the sacred love of our country, we invite all citizens to concur with us in the restoration of order and agriculture; we invite them to forget their respective wrongs and quarrels, to make it now their fole business to expel the enemies of the Republic from the territory they have invaded, and soon to repair the evils and devastations which have been occafioned by hatred, pallion, and civil war.
Done at the Cape, the 25th Floreal (May 15) the fourılı
Declaration of the Empress of Ruffia. M. de Struvè, Chargé d'Affaires from Rufia to the Imperial Diet,
made verbally, in May 1796, the Declaration following: HER Majesty, Empress of all the Ruflias, has surveyed with
the greatest attention the sad events of a war so decisive of the fate of Germany. In applauding the unrelaxed zcal and patriotism displayed by several states of the empire, in defence of the common cause, she cannot conceal the pain the feels from the languor of many others, and the want of unity every where manifested.
Being bound, and recently by new engagements, molt inti. mately with the head of the empire, the thinks herself called upon in virtue of these relations, to suinmon the princes and States of the empire, to unite with their chief, and not abandon a coalition, which can alone secure, by an honourable peace, the prefervation of the Germanic conftitution, the maintenance of, which will always be an object of the most lively folicitude to her Majesty.
This note was the result of the solicitations of the court of Vienna, to which her Majesty replied:
That her troops were, in fact, ready to march, but her Majesty thought the ihould render a more effential service by making a declaration.
Declaration of his Prusian Majesty.
having, at the desire of the cabinet of Vienna, rr.ade repro sentations upon the assembling of the combined army, which marched for the banks of the Weser the 16th of May, 1790.-his Prullian Majesty replied:
That this ariny, having no other object than the safety of the north of Germany, the measure, purely defensive, could not give umbrage to any one, more particularly, as it was done with the most perfect consent of his Britannic Majesty, in his quality of Elector of Hanover.
Of the Queen of Portugal for making Lisbon a free Porta Dona Maria, by the Grace of God, Queen of Portugal and the
Algarves, &c. &c. BE E it known to all to whom this law fhall come, that taking into
my royal consideration the inany and very important advan i tages which would necessarily result to the commerce of the subjects of these kingdoms and their dominions, by the establishment of a free port; and well aware, that the port of Lisbon, from its situation, security, and facility of navigation with the ocean, is preferable to those of other nations which have adopted similar
establishments; conforming myself to the opinion of my royal board of commerce, agriculture, manufactures, and naviga:ion, of those kingdoms and their dominions, and of others of my council, very learned and zealous for the good of my royal service, and of the public utility-It is my will, and I am pleased to create and establish, at Junquiera, joining to the city of Lisbon, a free port, to take entire and due effc&t from the first day of January, in the year next ensuing of 1797, having destined for its exercise and ihe deposit, the houses and warehouses of Fort St. John, with the ground adjoining, whereon to build the further necessary accommodations, there to receive and deposit all goods and merchandize, of whatever quali'y or kind they may be, as well for foreign countries, (except for the present sugar and tobacco) as from national ports situate beyond the Cape of Good Hope, for the purpose, at the option of the proprietors of said goods, of disposing of them for the internal consumption of the kingdom, provided they are entitled to lawful entry, and on paying the customary duties, at the respective custom-houses; or to be exported to foreign ports;' or national ones beyond the said Cape of Good Hope, on paying only towards the benefit of my royal revenue, for protection and deposit, the duty of i per cent. on the amount of their value, calculated on the invoice to be produced by the captains of the vefsels, or their consignees, by them signed and certified on oath; the liberty of franquin still, however, to remain as heretofore, for all vessels that shall require it, according to the rules as established by the custom-house of this city ; suppressing all other duties, and revoking all and whatever difpofitions that may oppose or infringe on the liberty and freedom, which are to constitute the advantages of the establishment.
Further to animate and promote in this capital, a concurrence and abundance of articles of the first necessity, I am pleased to declare, that all qualities of grain, meat, and food, which are free from paying duties inward, shall not only enjoy the free liberty of exportation, but shall be also free from payment of the aforesaid contribution imposed on other goods, and continue to be received and dispatched through the fame departments as heretofore,
In case it should happen that the crown of Portugal should enter into war (which God forbid) with any power whose subjects might be interested in goods in the free port, in which condition it is to be understood the aforesaid grain, meat, and food, are included, no arrest, embargo, sequestration, or reprisal, shall on that account be made thereon ; but, on the contrary, they shall remain in the utmost freedom and security, as if each individual had them placed in his own house, to dispose of them as he may judge most suited to his interest.
The administration of the aforesaid free port shall be constituted under the superintendance of a general comptroller, with the neVol. V.
cessary officers under him that I may be pleased to appoint; and it is my will to order, that he shall be independent of all and every jurisdiction, and only subordinate to the tribunal of the royal board of commerce, through which will be forwarded the necefsary orders to meet occurring circumstances, and bring up to my royal presence all representations tending to maintain, and preserve inviolate, the good faith of this establishment, in due conformity to the particular regulations which I have ordered to be formed for the government of the aforesaid administration, and officers employed in conducting it; and also to serve as a guidance to all capiains of tips and their consignees, for their conduct on the entry and shipping of all goods claiming the benefit of this institution.
Dated at the palace of Queliez, May 13, 1796.
Tenor of the Letters of Convocation addressed by the King of Prussia, as
Duke of Magdebourg, and of the Duke of Brunswick, as Co-Director of the Circle of Lower Saxony, to the different States destined to enjoy
the sdvantages of the Neutrality. We, by the Grace of God, Frederic William, King of Prussia, &c.
Charles William, Duke of Brunswick, &c. THE apprehension of a f;cedy opening of a new campaign
with France, and the new dangers to which Germany will be exposed by the chance of a war that has already been so fatal to her, have determined us, the King, in consequence of our solici-tude and patriotic attachment, and in consequence of the pacific relations which we maintain with France, to distribute as much as possible to our co-estates of the north, the inestimable blessings of repose and security from the troubles and misfortunes of war; that is to say, as far as these states will on their part accord with our intentions, which are of general utility. To this end negotiaiions have already been entered into with the French government, relative to a new line of neutrality; and in order to be able with the more efficacy to assure that neutrality, and to afford protection and safety to the states comprised within it, we, the King, are ready to march a confiderable army; and we, the Duke, have
also taken a resolution to reinforce that army with our troops, the · Electoral Court of Brunswick Lunenburg having also manifested
the same intentions. These combined troops being therefore to protect the neutrality of the north of Germany, it is as just as it is absolutely indispensable, that they should be provided and provisioned by the Itates which shall enjoy this advantage, and that each, individually, thould haften in proportion to its means, to